Information

REsults of the war - History


Results of the war

Arlington

The war had ended with a total US victory. 385 Americans died in the battles, but almost another 2,000 died from disease during the war. By end of the war the Spanish navy was decimated. The US had captured Philippines, Puerto Rico and Cuba. The Spanish had no choice but to accept the US terms. The guerillas who had fought the Spanish had expected the United States to give the Philippines independence, but the United States was in no rush. The United States spent years fighting the guerillas. Puerto Rico remains an United States commenwealth to this day.



Results of the War of 1812

The results of the War of 1812, which was fought between the United Kingdom and the United States from 1812 to 1815, included no immediate boundary changes. The main result of the War of 1812 has been two centuries of peace between both countries.

All of the causes for the war had disappeared with the end of the Napoleonic Wars between Britain and France and the destruction of the power of Native Amery opened an "Era of Good Feelings," which reduced partisanship and an exuberant spirit. The British paid little attention to the War of 1812 since they were preoccupied with their final defeat of Napoleon, which occurred in 1815. The Americans failed to gain any territory from British North America, despite many American politicians' hopes and expectations, but still managed to gain land from Spain. [1]

After Napoleon's defeat in 1814, Britain was no longer at war with France, and restrictions on trade ended. The British suspended their policy of impressment of American sailors since there was no need to resume it. Americans believed that they had regained their honor [2] and proclaimed victory in what they called a "Second War of Independence" after the defeat of the British at New Orleans and it was perceived that Britain was not able to regain control of America. However, that had never been plausible or even intended by the British during any of the war. [3]

The threat of secession by New England ended after the failure of the Hartford Convention. In Britain, the importance of the conflict was totally overshadowed by European triumphs since Napoleon returned from exile in March 1815 and was finally defeated at the Battle of Waterloo a few months later.

Upper Canada emerged from the war with a sense of unity and pride as part of the British Empire. Anglophone Canadians claimed the war as a victory for their freedom from American control and credited their militia for the repulse of the American invasions. Francophone Canadians largely ignored the war. The Native Americans' westward revolt was weakened.


Ancient wars Edit

War Death
range
Date Combatants Location Notes
Conquests of Cyrus the Great 100,000+ 549 BC–530 BC Persian Empire vs. various states Middle East Number given is the sum of all deaths in battle recorded by writers during this time period, does not take into account civilian deaths, the actual number may be much greater.
Greco–Persian Wars 300,000+ 499 BC–449 BC Greek City-States vs. Persian Empire Greece
Samnite Wars 33,500+ 343 BC–290 BC Roman Republic vs. Samnites Italy Number given is the sum of all deaths in battle recorded by Roman writers during this time period, does not take into account civilian deaths, the actual number may be much greater.
Wars of Alexander the Great 142,000+ 336 BC–323 BC Macedonian Empire and other Greek City-States vs. various states Middle East / North Africa / Central Asia / India Number given is the sum of all deaths in battle during these wars recorded by Greek writers, does not take into account civilian deaths, the actual number may be much greater.
Punic Wars 1,250,000–1,850,000 264 BC–146 BC Roman Republic vs. Carthaginian Empire Western Europe / North Africa
First Punic War 400,000+ 264 BC–241 BC Roman Republic vs. Carthaginian Empire Southern Europe / North Africa – Part of the Punic Wars
Second Punic War 770,000+ 218 BC–201 BC Roman Republic vs. Carthaginian Empire Western Europe / North Africa [1] – Part of the Punic Wars
Third Punic War 150,000–250,000 149 BC–146 BC Roman Republic vs. Carthaginian Empire Tunisia – Part of the Punic Wars
Kalinga War 150,000–200,000
[ citation needed ]
262 BC–261 BC Maurya Empire vs. State of Kalinga India
Qin's Wars of Unification 700,000+ [ citation needed ] 230 BC–221 BC Qin state vs. Han, Zhao, Yan, Wei, Chu, Qi States China – Part of Warring States Period
Cimbrian War 410,000–650,000 113 BC–101 BC Roman Republic vs. Cimbri and Teutones Western Europe – Part of the Germanic Wars
Gallic Wars 1,000,000+ 58 BC–50 BC Roman Republic vs. Gallic tribes France
Iceni Revolt 150,000+ [2] 60–61 Roman Empire vs. Celtic tribes England Year is uncertain – Part of the Roman Conquest of Britain
Jewish–Roman Wars 1,270,000-2,000,000 [3] 66–136 Roman Empire vs. Jews Middle East/North Africa Deaths caused by Roman attempt to permanently root out Judaism included.
First Jewish–Roman War 250,000–1,100,000 [3] 66–73 Roman Empire vs. Jews Middle East – Part of Jewish–Roman Wars
Kitos War 440,000+ 115–117 Roman Empire vs. Jews Southern Europe / North Africa – Also known as the Second Jewish–Roman War
– Part of Jewish–Roman Wars
Bar Kokhba Revolt 580,000 132–136 Roman Empire vs. Jews Middle East – Also known as the Third Jewish–Roman War
– Part of Jewish–Roman Wars
Gothic War (269) 320,000+ 269 Roman Empire vs. Goths Europe Claudius II defeated the Goths, of whom 320,000 were slain. This number is from the Historia Augusta. – Part of the Germanic Wars
Probus's German War 400,000+ 277 Roman Empire vs. Germans Europe Emperor Probus informed the Senate that he had killed 400,000 Germans. From the Historia Augusta. – Part of the Germanic Wars
Gothic War (376–382) 40,000+ 376–382 Roman Empire vs. Goths Eastern Europe – Part of the Germanic Wars
Three Kingdoms War 36,000,000–40,000,000 184–280 Wei vs. Shu vs. Wu China [4] [5] – Academically, the period of the Three Kingdoms refers to the period between the foundation of the state of Wei in 220 and the conquest of the state of Wu by the Jin dynasty in 280. The earlier, "unofficial" part of the period, from 184 to 220, was marked by chaotic infighting between warlords in various parts of China.

Note 1: The geometric mean is the middle of the quoted range, taken by multiplying together the endpoints and then taking the square root.

Medieval wars Edit

Note: the identity of a single "war" cannot be reliably given in some cases, and some "wars" can be taken to last over more than a human lifetime, e.g. "Reconquista" (711–1492, 781 years) "Muslim conquests in India" (12th to 16th c., 500 years) "Crusades" (ten or more campaigns during the period 1095–1291, 196 years), "Mongol conquests" (1206–1368, 162 years), "early Muslim conquests" (622–750, 128 years), "Hundred Years' War" (1337–1453, 115 years).

Modern wars with greater than 25,000 deaths by death toll Edit

War Death
range
Date Combatants Location Notes
Italian Wars 300,000–400,000 1494–1559 Holy Roman Empire, Spain, and some Italian States vs. France, Ottoman Empire, and some Italian states Southern Europe [22] – Also known as the Great Wars of Italy
Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire 2,300,000+ 1519–1632 Spanish Colonial Empire vs. Aztec Empire Mexico [22] – Part of the European colonization of the Americas, includes the cocoliztli plagues
Spanish conquest of Yucatán 1,460,000+ 1519–1595 Spanish Colonial Empire vs. Mayan States North America [22] – Part of the European colonisation of the Americas, includes deaths due to European disease
Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire 8,400,000+ 1533–1572 Spanish Colonial Empire vs. Inca Empire Peru [22] – Part of the European colonization of the Americas, includes deaths due to European diseases
Campaigns of Suleiman the Magnificent 200,000+ 1521–1566 Ottoman Empire vs. several Balkan, African, and Arabian States Eastern Europe / Middle East / North Africa [23]
German Peasants' War 100,000+ 1524–1525 German Peasants vs. Swabian League Germany [24] – Also known as the Great Peasants War
French Wars of Religion 2,000,000–4,000,000 1562–1598 Protestants vs. France vs. Catholics France [25] – Also known as the Huguenot Wars
Eighty Years' War 600,000–700,000 1568–1648 Dutch Republic, England, Scotland, and France vs. Spanish Empire Worldwide [22] – Also known as the Dutch War of Independence
Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604) 138,285+ 1585–1604 Spanish Empire and allies vs. Kingdom of England and allies Europe / Americas English
88,285 [26]
Scots/Irish
50,000
Japanese invasions of Korea 1,000,000+ 1592–1598 Kingdom of Great Joseon and Ming China vs. Japan Korea [27]
Transition from Ming to Qing 25,000,000+ 1616–1683 Qing China vs. Ming China vs. Shun dynasty China (Li Zicheng) vs. Xi dynasty China (Zhang Xianzhong vs. Kingdom of Shu (She-An Rebellion) vs. Evenk-Daur federation (Bombogor) China [28] – Also known as the Ming–Qing transition
Thirty Years' War 4,000,000–12,000,000 1618–1648 Pro-Habsburg states vs. Anti-Habsburg states Europe [29]
Franco-Spanish War (1635–59) 200,000+ 1635–1659 France and Allies vs. Spain and Allies Western Europe [23] [30]
Wars of the Three Kingdoms 876,000+ 1639–1651 Royalists vs. Covenanters vs.Union of the Irish vs. Scottish Protestants vs. Parliamentarians British Isles [31] [32] [33] – Also known as the British Civil Wars
English Civil War 356,000–735,000 1642–1651 Royalists vs. Parliamentarians England [34] – Part of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms
Mughal–Maratha Wars 5,000,000+ 1658-1707 Maratha empire vs. Mughal Empire India-Bangladesh [35] [36]
Franco-Dutch War 220,000+ 1672–1678 France and allies vs. Dutch Republic and allies Western Europe [23] – Also known as the Dutch War
Great Turkish War 380,000+ 1683–1699 Ottoman Empire vs. European Holy League Eastern Europe [23] – Also known as the War of the Holy League
Great Northern War 350,000+ 1700–1721 Russia and allies vs. Swedish Empire Eastern Europe Sweden, the Swedish Baltic provinces, and Finland, together, with a population of only 2.5 million, lost some 350,000 dead during the war from all causes. [37]
War of the Spanish Succession 400,000–1,250,000 1701–1714 Grand Alliance vs. Bourbon Alliance Europe / Americas [23]
Maratha expeditions in Bengal 400,000+ 1741–1751 Maratha Empire vs. Nawab of Bengal India [38] [39]
Seven Years' War 868,000–1,400,000 1756–1763 Great Britain and allies vs. France and Allies Worldwide [40] [41]
Sino-Burmese War (1765–69) 70,000+ 1765–1769 Burma vs. Qing China Southeast Asia – Also known as the Qing invasions of Burma
Tây Sơn rebellion 1,200,000–2,000,000+ 1771–1802 Tây Sơn rebels then dynasty (British supports) and Chinese pirates vs Nguyễn lords, Trịnh lords, Lê dynasty of Vietnam Siam Qing dynasty of China Kingdom of Vientiane French army. Southeast Asia
American Revolutionary War 37,324+ 1775–1783 United States and allies vs. British Empire and German Mercenaries Worldwide 37,324 battle dead, all sides, all theaters. [23] [42] [43] [44] [45] – Also known as the American War of Independence
French campaign in Egypt and Syria 65,000+ 1798–1801 France vs. Ottoman Empire and Great Britain Middle East / North Africa [23]
Saint-Domingue expedition 135,000+ 1802–1803 France vs. Haiti and UK Haiti [30]
Napoleonic Wars 3,500,000–7,000,000 1803–1815 Coalition powers vs. French empire and allies Worldwide See: Napoleonic Wars casualties
French invasion of Russia 540,000+ 1812 French Empire vs. Russia Russia [23] – Part of the Napoleonic Wars
Spanish American Wars of Independence 600,000+ 1808–1833 Spain and Portugal vs. American Independentists Americas [46]
Venezuelan War of Independence 228,000+ 1810–1823 Spain vs. Venezuelan states Venezuela – Part of Spanish American Wars of Independence
Mfecane 1,500,000–2,000,000 1815–1840 Ethnic communities in south Africa Southern Africa [47]
Carlist Wars 200,000+ 1820–1876 Carlist Insurgents vs. Spain Spain [46]
Greek War of Independence 170,000+ 1821–1831 Greek Revolutionaries vs. Ottoman Empire Greece The war started between Greek Revolutionaries and the Ottoman Empire. The Greeks were later assisted by Russia, Great Britain, and France. The war led to the formation of modern Greece.
French conquest of Algeria 480,000–1,000,000 1830–1903 France vs. Algerian resistance Algeria The war started between France and the Deylik of Algiers, which was an Ottoman vassal, but after the early capitulation of the Deylik, resistance was led by different groups.
Taiping Rebellion 20,000,000–70,000,000 1850–1864 Qing China vs. Taiping Heavenly Kingdom China [48] [49] [50] – Also known as the Taiping Civil War
Crimean War 356,000–410,000 1853–1856 Ottoman Empire and allies vs. Russia Crimean Peninsula One of the first wider uses of rifles
Miao Rebellion 4,900,000 1854-1873 Qing China vs. Miao China Also known as the Qian rebellion
Punti–Hakka Clan Wars 500,000-1,000,000+ 1855-1868 Hakka vs. Punti China
Panthay Rebellion 890,000–1,000,000 1856–1873 Qing China vs. Hui China – Also known as the Du Wenxiu Rebellion
Indian Rebellion of 1857 800,000–1,000,000 1857–1858 Sepoy Mutineers vs. British East India Company India [51] – Also known as the Sepoy Mutiny or the Indian First War of Independence
American Civil War 650,000–1,000,000 1861–1865 Union States vs. Confederate States USA [52] [53] [54]
Dungan Revolt 8,000,000–20,000,000 1862–1877 Qing China vs. Hui vs. Kashgaria China – Also known as the Tongzhi Hui Revolt
French intervention in Mexico 49,287+ 1862–1867 Mexican Republicans vs. France and Mexican Empire Mexico [30]
Paraguayan War 300,000–1,200,000 1864–1870 Triple alliance vs. Paraguay South America [55] – Also known as the War of the Triple Alliance
Ten Years' War 241,000+ 1868–1878 Spain vs. Cuba Cuba [30] – Also known as the Great War
Conquest of the Desert 30,000–35,000 1870s–1884 Argentina vs. Mapuche people Patagonia
Aceh War 97,000–107,000 1873–1914 Kingdom of the Netherlands vs. Aceh Sultanate Indonesia [56] – Also known as the Infidel War
First Sino–Japanese War 48,311+ 1894–1895 Qing China vs. Japan East Asia A large factor in the weakening of Qing China.
Cuban War of Independence 362,000+ 1895–1898 USA and Cuba vs. Spain Cuba [30]
Thousand Days' War 120,000+ 1899–1902 Colombian Conservatives vs. Colombian Liberals Colombia [57]
South African War (Second Boer War) 73,000–90,000 1899-1902 United Kingdom and allies vs. South African Republic and Orange Free State South Africa [58]
Philippine–American War 234,000+ 1899–1912 Philippines vs. USA Philippines [59] – Also known as the Philippine War
Mexican Revolution 500,000–2,000,000 1910–1920 Revolutionary Forces vs. Anti-Revolutionary Forces Mexico [60]
Balkan Wars 140,000+ 1912–1913 see Balkan wars Balkan Peninsula The war restricted Ottoman control in Europe to territories around Istanbul
World War I 16,000,000–40,000,000+ (the higher estimate also includes the first victims of the related Spanish flu epidemic who died by the end of 1918. Neither includes the subsequent Russian Civil War) 1914–1918 Allied Powers vs. Central Powers Worldwide [23] – Also known as the Great War
Russian Civil War 5,000,000–9,000,000 1917–1922 Red army and allies vs. White army and allies Russia [61]
Kurdish separatism in Iran 15,000-58,000 1918–present Qajar dynasty vs. Shekak (tribe) Iran [62]
Iraqi–Kurdish conflict 138,800–320,100 1918–2003 Kurdistan/Iraqi Kurdistan and allies vs. Iraq and allies Iraq [63] [64]
Kurdish rebellions in Turkey 100,000+ 1921–present Turkey vs. Kurdish people Middle East
Second Italo-Senussi War 40,000+ 1923–1932 Italy vs. Senussi Order Libya
Chinese Civil War 8,000,000– 11,692,000 1927–1949 ROC vs. PRC China [65]
Chaco War 85,000–130,000 1932–1935 Bolivia vs. Paraguay Gran Chaco
Second Italo-Ethiopian War 278,000+ 1935–1936 Ethiopian Empire vs. Italy Ethiopia According to Italian government statistics, the Italians suffered 1,148 KIA, 125 DOW, and 31 MIA. [66] According to the Ethiopian government, at least 275,000 Ethiopians died in the brief war. [66] [67] – Also known as the Second Italo–Abyssinian War
Spanish Civil War 500,000–1,000,000 1936–1939 Nationalists vs. Republicans Spain [30]
Second Sino-Japanese War 20,000,000–25,000,000 1937–1945 Republic of China and allies vs. Japan China [68] – Part of World War II
World War II 56,125,000–85,000,000 1939–1945 Allied powers vs. Axis Powers Worldwide [23] – Largest and deadliest war in history
Winter War 153,736–194,837 1939–1940 Finland vs. Soviet Union Finland – Part of World War II
Greco-Italian War 27,000+ 1940–1941 Greece vs. Italy Southeast Europe – Part of World War II
Continuation War 387,300+ 1941–1944 Finland and Germany vs. Soviet Union Northern Europe – Part of World War II
Soviet–Japanese War 33,420–95,768 1945 Soviet Union and Mongolia vs. Japan Manchuria – Part of World War II
First Indochina War 400,000+ 1946–1954 France vs. Việt Minh, Lao Assara, and Khmer Issarak Southeast Asia – Also known as the Indochina War
Greek Civil War 158,000+ 1946–1949 Greek Government army vs. DSE Greece [69] [70] [71] [72]
Malagasy Uprising 11,342–89,000 1947–1948 France vs. Malagasy Insurgents Madagascar [73] [74]
Kashmir Conflict 80,000–110,000 1947–present India vs. Pakistan North India / Pakistan
La Violencia 192,700–194,700 1948–1958 Colombian Conservative Party vs. Colombian Liberal Party Colombia
Internal conflict in Myanmar 130,000–250,000 1948–present Myanmar vs. Burmese Insurgent Groups Myanmar [75]
Arab–Israeli conflict 116,074+ 1948–present Arab Countries vs. Israel Middle East [76]
Indian annexation of Hyderabad 29,000–242,000 1948 Dominion of India vs. Hyderabad India – Also known as Operation Polo
Korean War 1,500,000–4,500,000 1950–1953 South Korea and allies vs. North Korea and allies Korea [77]
Algerian War 400,000–1,500,000 1954–1962 Algeria vs. France Algeria [78] – Also known as the Algerian War of Independence
Ethnic conflict in Nagaland 34,000+ 1954–present India and Myanmar vs. Naga People Northeast India [79]
Vietnam War 1,300,000–4,300,000 1955–1975 South Vietnam and allies vs. North Vietnam and allies Vietnam [80] [81] [82] – Also known as the Second Indochina War - Includes deaths in Cambodia and Laos
First Sudanese Civil War 500,000+ 1955–1972 Sudan vs. South Sudanese Rebels Sudan
Congo Crisis 100,000+ 1960–1965 DRC, USA, and Belgium vs. Simba and Kwilu Rebels Congo [83]
Angolan War of Independence 83,000–103,000 1961–1974 Angola vs. Portugal and South Africa Angola
North Yemen Civil War 100,000–200,000 1962–1970 Kingdom of Yemen and Saudi Arabia vs. Yemen Arab Republic and United Arab Republic Yemen [84]
Mozambican War of Independence 63,500–88,500 1964–1974 FRELIMO vs. Portugal Mozambique [85]
Insurgency in Northeast India 25,000+ 1964–present India and allies vs. Insurgent Groups Northeast India [75]
Colombian conflict 220,000+ 1964–present Colombia and allies vs. Far Left guerillas and Far Right paramilitares Colombia [86]
Nigerian Civil War 1,000,000–3,000,000 1967–1970 Nigeria vs. Biafra Nigeria – Also known as the Biafran War
Moro Conflict 120,000+ 1969–2019 Philippines vs. Jihadist Groups vs. Bangsamoro Philippines [87]
Communist rebellion in the Philippines 30,000–43,000 1969–present Philippines vs. Communist Party of the Philippines Philippines [88]
Bangladesh Liberation War 300,000–3,000,000+ 1971 India and Bangladesh vs. Pakistan Bangladesh [89] – Also known as the Bangladesh War of Independence
Ethiopian Civil War 500,000–1,500,000 1974–1991 Derg, PEDR, and Cuba vs. Anti-Communist rebel groups Ethiopia
Angolan Civil War 504,158+ 1975–2002 MPLA vs. UNITA Angola
Lebanese Civil War 120,000–150,000 1975–1990 various groups Lebanon
Insurgency in Laos 100,000+ 1975–2007 Laos and Vietnam vs. "Secret army" and Hmong people Laos [90]
War in Afghanistan 1,240,000–2,000,000 1978–present see War in Afghanistan Afghanistan [91]
Kurdish–Turkish conflict 45,000+ 1978–present Turkey vs. KCK Middle East [92] – Part of the Kurdish rebellions in Turkey
Soviet–Afghan War 600,000–2,000,000 1979–1989 Soviet Union and Afghanistan vs. Insurgent groups Afghanistan [93] [94] [95] – Part of War in Afghanistan
Salvadoran Civil War 70,000–80,000 1979-1992 El Salvador vs. FMLN El Salvador [96] [97]
Iran–Iraq War 289,000–1,100,000 1980–1988 Iran and allies vs. Iraq and allies Middle East
Internal conflict in Peru 70,000+ 1980–present Peru vs. PCP-SL and MRTA Peru [98]
Ugandan Bush War 100,000–500,000 1981–1986 ULNF and Tanzania vs. National Resistance Army Uganda [99] [100] – Also known as the Luwero War
Second Sudanese Civil War 1,000,000–2,000,000 1983–2005 Sudan vs. South Sudanese rebels Sudan
Sri Lankan Civil War 80,000–100,000 1983–2009 Sri Lanka vs. Tamil Tigers Sri Lanka [101]
Somali Civil War 300,000–500,000 1986–present Varying Somali governments vs. insurgent groups Somalia [102] [103]
Lord's Resistance Army insurgency 100,000–500,000 1987–present Lord's Resistance Army vs. Central African states Central Africa [104]
Nagorno-Karabakh conflict 38,000+ 1988–present Artsakh and Armenia vs. Azerbaijan and allies Caucasus region – Also known as the Artsakh Liberation War
Gulf War 25,500–40,500 1990–1991 Iraq vs. Coalition Forces Iraq – Also known as the First Iraq War
Algerian Civil War 44,000–200,000 1991–2002 Algeria vs. FIS loyalists vs. GIA Algeria [105]
Bosnian War 97,000–105,000 1991–1995 Bosnia and Herzegovinian governments and allies vs. Republika Srpska and allies Bosnia
1991 Iraqi Civil War 85,000–235,000 1991 Iraq vs various rebels Iraq [106] [107] [108] – Also known as the Sha'aban Intifada
Sierra Leone Civil War 50,000–300,000 1991–2002 see Sierra Leone Civil War Sierra Leone
Burundian Civil War 300,000+ 1993–2005 Burundi vs. Hutu rebels vs. Tutsi rebels Burundi [109]
Rwandan genocide 800,000 April–July 1994 Hutu people vs. Tutsi Rebels Rwanda [110]
First Congo War 250,000–800,000 1996–1997 Zaire and allies vs. AFDL and allies Congo
Second Congo War 2,500,000–5,400,000 1998–2003 See Second Congo War Central Africa [111] [112] [113] [114] – Also known as the Great War of Africa
Ituri conflict 60,000+ 1999–2003 Lendu Tribe vs. Hemu Tribe and allies Congo [115] – Part of the Second Congo War
War on Terror 272,000–1,260,000 2001–present Anti-Terrorist Forces vs. Terrorist groups Worldwide [116] [117] [118] [119] – Also known as the Global War on Terrorism
War in Afghanistan (2001–present) 47,000–62,000 2001–present see War in Afghanistan (2001–present) Afghanistan [117] – Part of the War on Terror and War in Afghanistan
Iraq War 405,000–654,965 2003–2011 See Iraq War Iraq [118] [119] [117] – Also known as the Second Gulf War

Modern wars with fewer than 25,000 deaths by death toll Edit

  • 22,000+ – Dominican Restoration War – One estimate placed total Spanish deaths from all causes at 18,000. The fatal losses among the Dominican insurgents were estimated at 4,000. (1863–1865) [30]
  • 22,211 – Croatian War of Independence (1991–1995) [124]
  • 21,000+ – Six-Day War (1967) [125]
  • 20,000+ – Yaqui Wars (1533–1929) [23]
  • 20,000+ – War of the Quadruple Alliance (1718–1720) [30]
  • 20,000+ – Ragamuffin War (1835–1845) [126]
  • 20,000+ – Italo-Turkish War (1911–1912) [23]
  • 19,619+ – Rhodesian Bush War (1964–1979)
  • 19,000+ – Mexican–American War (1846–1848) [23]
  • 18,069–20,069 – First Opium War (1839–1842) [127]
  • 17,294+ – 1940–44 insurgency in Chechnya (1940–1944)
  • 17,200+ – First Anglo-Afghan War (1939–1942) [128]
  • 16,765–17,065 – Balochistan conflict (1948–present) [129][130][131]
  • 16,000+ – War of the Pacific (1879–1883)
  • 16,000+ – Nepalese Civil War (1996–2006)
  • 16,000+ – Spanish–American War (1898) [23]
  • 15,200–15,300 – Peasants' War (1798) – Part of the French Revolutionary Wars
  • 15,000+ – Nigerian Sharia conflict (2009–present) [132][133][134]
  • 14,460–14,922 – South African Border War (1966–1990)
  • 14,077–22,077 – Mau Mau Uprising (1952–1960)
  • 13,929+ – Republic of the Congo Civil War (1997–1999)[103]
  • 13,812+ – Naxalite-Maoist insurgency (1967–present) [135][136]
  • 13,100–34,000 – Kurdish separatism in Iran (1918–present) [125]
  • 13,073–26,373 – 1948 Arab–Israeli War (1948–1949) [137]
  • 11,500–12,843 – Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 – Part of the Bangladesh Liberation War
  • 10,000+ – Assam separatist movements (1979–present)
  • 10,000+ – Malayan Emergency (1948–1960) [138]
  • 10,000+ – War in Donbas[139]– Part of theRussian military intervention in Ukraine (2014–present)
  • 10,000+ – Rwandan Civil War (1990–1994)
  • 10,000+ – First Italo-Ethiopian War (1894–1896) [23]
  • 10,000+ – Second Melillan campaign (1909) [23]
  • 10,000+ – Hispano-Moroccan War (1859–60)[23]
  • 10,000+ – Spanish conquest of Tripoli (1510) [140]
  • 9,400+ – Libyan Civil War (2011) (2011) [141]
  • 8,136+ – Iraqi insurgency (2011–2013)[142]
  • 7,500–21,741 – War of 1812 (1812–1815) [23][143]
  • 7,400–16,200 – Yemeni Civil War (2015–present) (2015–present)
  • 7,050+ - Portuguese conquest of Goa (1510) [144]
  • 7,104+ – Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 (1947–1949) [145]
  • 7,000+ – Chadian Civil War (2005–10) (2005–2010) [146]
  • 6,800–13,459 – Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 (1965)
  • 6,859+ – 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh conflict(2020–present)
  • 5,641–6,991 - Opposition–ISIL conflict during the Syrian Civil War ( 2014–present )
  • 6,543+ – South Thailand insurgency (2004–present) [147]
  • 6,295+ – Central African Republic conflict (2012–present)
  • 5,641+ – Sudanese nomadic conflicts (2009–present) [148][149]
  • 5,100+ – Gaza–Israel conflict (2006–present) – Part of the Arab–Israeli conflict
  • 5,000+ – Casamance conflict (1982–2014) [150]
  • 5,000+ – Chilean Civil War of 1891 (1891) [151]
  • 5,000+ - Cuban Revolution (1959) [152]
  • 4,715+ – Libyan Civil War (2014–present) (2014–present)
  • 4,000–10,000 – Conflict in the Niger Delta (2004–present) [153]
  • 3,699+ – Al-Qaeda insurgency in Yemen (1992–present) [103]
  • 3,552+ – First Schleswig War (1848–1852)
  • 3,529+ – The Northern Ireland Troubles (1966–1998) [154]
  • 3,366+ – Insurgency in the North Caucasus (2009–2017) [155]
  • 3,270+ – Second Schleswig War (1864)
  • 3,222–3,722 – Hungarian Revolution of 1956 (1956)
  • 3,144+ – Allied Democratic Forces insurgency (1996–present)
  • 3,114+ – 1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine (1947–1948) – Part of the 1948 Palestine war
  • 3,007+ – War of the Golden Stool (1900) [citation needed]
  • 3,000–6,000 – Negro Rebellion (1912) [156][157]
  • 3,000–5,000 – Croatian-Slovene Peasant Revolt (1573) [158]
  • 3,000+ – Second Ivorian Civil War (2010–2011) [159]
  • 3,000+ – Banana Wars (1914–1933) [48]
  • 2,944+ – Insurgency in the Maghreb (2004–present)
  • 2,800+ – Northern Mali conflict (2012–present)
  • 2,781+ – Iranian Revolution (1978–1979) [160]
  • 2,751+ – Third Anglo-Afghan War (1919) [161]
  • 2,557+ – Sudan internal conflict (2011–present) (2011–present) [162][163][164]
  • 2,394+ – Sinai insurgency (2011–present) [165]
  • 2,300+ – Conflict in the Niger Delta (2003–present) [166][167]
  • 2,221–2,406 – 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict (2014) – Part of the Gaza–Israel conflict
  • 2,150+ – Persian Expedition of 1796 (1796)
  • 2,096+ – Aden Emergency (1963–1967)
  • 2,054+ – South Yemen insurgency (2009–2015)

Charts and graphs Edit

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  3. "Body Count of the Roman Empire".
  4. ^ ab
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  16. ^
  17. "귀주대첩 [네이버 지식백과] 귀주대첩 [龜州大捷] (두산백과)". Naver . Retrieved 4 July 2013 .
  18. ^Chapuis 1995, p. 77 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFChapuis1995 (help)
  19. ^Xu Zizhi Tongjian Changbian《長編》卷三百上載出師兵員“死者二十萬”,“上曰:「朝廷以交址犯順,故興師討罪,郭逵不能剪滅,垂成而還。今廣源瘴癘之地,我得之未為利,彼失之未為害,一夫不獲,朕尚閔之,况十死五六邪?」又安南之師,死者二十萬,朝廷當任其咎。《續資治通鑑長編·卷三百》”。 《越史略》載廣西被殺者“無慮十萬”。 《玉海》卷一九三上稱“兵夫三十萬人冒暑涉瘴地,死者過半”。
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  • Levy, Jack S. (1983). War in the Modern Great Power System: 1495-1975. University Press of Kentucky, USA. 081316365X.

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REsults of the war - History

Although Mexico ceded 55% of its territory to the United States in 1848, and the American Civil War in 1861 resulted in 620,000 deaths, the tremendous losses of both nations can be traced directly to the results of the Battle of the Alamo in 1836. In 1846�, unsettled disputes and claims would be settled once and for all on the battlefields of the Mexican-American War. Next, Washington would witness fierce debates in Congress while determining whether Texas would enter the Union as a free or slave state. Just 13 years after fighting concluded with Mexico, the Northern and Southern states would be entangled in bloody civil war.

If Washington annexes Texas and goes to war with Mexico, it will be a most unrighteous war and these deeds will lead to civil war in the United States, stated Patriot John Quincy Adams during the Texas Revolution in 1836 as he strongly opposed both Texas annexation and war with Mexico. Twenty-five years later his concerns of civil war would unfold as North and South engaged in a contest of ideologies and wills.

From Mexico's point of view, the Americans at the Alamo (February 26, 1836–March 6, 1836) were rebellious foreigners challenging Mexico's sovereignty. They were not valiant men or heroes of some magnificent last stand, but rather a patchwork rebel group trying to usurp the sovereignty of Mexico in an effort to annex, to steal a large swath of its territory. On the other hand, the United States justified its westward expansion during the 1800s as the policy of Manifest Destiny , and the resistance at the Alamo was the just cause of free men withstanding the tyrannical rule of Mexico City. Whereas the Battle of the Alamo was a military defeat for the Americans, it would become a psychological victory and rallying cry for the nation. As results of the Alamo would send shockwaves across the United States, relations with Mexico would remain strained over the next decade. Unsettled border disputes between the two nations would eventually lead to the Mexican-American War (1846�), with the defeated Southern neighbor surrendering more than half of its territory as the outcome.

Battle of the Alamo Results

Alamo in 1849

The annexation of Texas and war with Mexico would add new slave territory and contribute to civil war in the United States, said a very vocal opponent by the name of John Quincy Adams in 1836 and again in 1846. Adams had a lengthy public service record with tenures as president, senator, and congressman, and his father was none other than President John Adams, the successor to George Washington. Adams' opposition to slavery made him, along with Henry Clay, one of the leading opponents of Texas annexation and the Mexican–American War, but citizens of a nation who had long been opposed to war with Mexico, let alone an invasion with the objective of taking and annexing more than half of the Southern neighbor, were now beating drums of war and crying Remember the Alamo, as a sitting president and members of both houses alike would turn to the Alamo as the nation's rallying call .

Results of the Alamo

Alamo set the stage for the Mexican-American War

The pivotal siege and Battle of the Alamo, February 23–March 6, 1836, was a clarion sound to all Americans and it resulted in many men enlisting in the U.S. military and fighting during the remainder of the Texas War of Independence, or Texas Revolution as it was also known, which began on October 2, 1835, and concluded on April 21, 1836. It was during the siege of the Alamo that Texas delegates would assemble, declare independence, and form the Republic of Texas, March 2, 1836–February 19, 1846, and when Texas was admitted to the Union as the 28th State on December 29, 1845, it was on February 19, 1846, that transfer of power would be given to the Lone Star State.

(Right) As men rushed to enlist in the U.S. military while beating the war drums to Remember the Alamo, both houses had enormous support for prosecuting the Mexican-American War, a conflict that would have otherwise been unpopular. Most Americans lived much closer to the Canadian border and were far removed from activities near the Rio Grande. In 1840, only three states, Arkansas, Louisiana, and Missouri, existed west of the Mississippi, and the nation's population was concentrated in the north and northeast. Abolitionists also viewed the annexation of Texas as merely another slave state, so what single event galvanized the nation to go to war with Mexico? The citizens of the United States had been constantly reminded by newspapers and politicians alike that some 200 patriotic Americans were butchered at the hands of blood thirsty Mexicans, so the war had become a rather simple act to sell by 1846. Casualty figures provided courtesy Department of Veterans Affairs.

The battle cry that rose from the lopsided Mexican victory at the Alamo over the ill-equipped foreigners who challenged the sovereignty of the host nation, was subsequently shouted during the remaining battles of the Texas Revolution to the many battles that would be fought just 10 years later during the Mexican-American War . While " Remember the Alamo " is widely known by Americans, the name Alamo remains synonymous with a last stand rallying point for many who served, and continue to serve, in the U.S. armed forces.

Following the Alamo tensions continued to escalate between Mexico and the United States during the next decade with heated disputes over the Republic of Texas as well as defining the common boundaries and borders. The Mexican-American War, which began in 1846, was fought over such disputes. After a crushing defeat in 1848, Mexico signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo of 1848 , also known as the Mexican Cession , which formally ended the conflict and sealed the American victory, and in return for $15 million and the assumption of Mexican debts to Americans, Mexico relinquished its claims and rights over immense territory that now forms the present-day states of California, Nevada, Utah, and parts of Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Colorado and Wyoming. Mexico also agreed to finally relinquish all of Texas, including the disputed area along the border, and recognize the boundaries according to the articles of the Treaty. The U.S. Congress ratified the Treaty on March 10, 1848, and Mexico subsequently ceded additional territory to the United States with the ratification of the Gadsden Purchase .

Mexican Cession and Republic of Texas Map

Results of the Battle of the Alamo

Texas War of Independence and Alamo Battle Results

Battle of the Alamo Results and Aftermath, and Texas Revolution Map

The singular Battle of the Alamo resulted in a firestorm of events between the neighboring countries for the ensuing decade, only to conclude with the Mexican Cession of 1848, just 12 years after the Battle of the Alamo. Once the Mexican Cession was signed, 55% of the vast territory of Mexico was signed over to the United States, thus extending the borders of the U.S. from sea to shining sea. It also removed from its doorsteps the footprints of the global powers of England, France, and Spain henceforth. Until the Mexican Cession in 1848, the lands that now formed the United States had long been a struggle between many nations that had once staked their claims of ownership.

As a result of the Battle of the Alamo and Texas Independence, Mexico would soon succumb to political discord, civil strife, and finally civil war. After the Mexican War, Mexico was burdened with staggering debt, the loss of 55% of its territory, and a collapsed economy. France would even make a grand effort to conquer what it referred to as a weakened Mexico in 1862, only to be repulsed at the Battle of Puebla on May 5, 1862, by a much smaller, yet determined Mexican force. To commemorate the Mexican victory, it is celebrated annually during Cinco de Mayo .

The United States too would pay a hefty price because of its acquisition of Mexican territory. With the Mexican Cession in 1848, formally the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo , the nation purchased territory that forms the present-day U.S. states of California, Nevada, Utah, most of Arizona, about half of New Mexico, about a quarter of Colorado, and a small section of Wyoming. Until 1850 the nation had hosted 15 free and 15 slave states, creating a balance between proslavery and free states. When California was admitted to the Union as a free state in 1850, the United States soon added three additional free states with Minnesota in 1858, Oregon in 1859, and Kansas in 1861. The nation was now confronted with an imbalance of power between slave and free states, known as sectionalism , which served only to fuel existing tensions between the North and South. The Mexican Cession of 1848 resulted in the Compromise of 1850 and the rapid shift in political power and influence. While the Compromise of 1850 fanned the flames of sectionalism, in just eleven years, 1861, the nation would be engaged in the bloody American Civil War .

Battle of the Alamo Results and History

The Alamo, ca. 1910. Rare photo.

Unlike several other battles during the Texas Revolution, most individuals are only familiar with the single engagement at the Alamo, which then, like now, stirs emotions of both Mexicans and Americans. The Alamo was an American defeat and a Mexican triumph, but politically, it did more for the United States and its appetite to extend the borders of the nation from sea to shining sea than any other event during the century. Without some 200 dea d Americans covering the grounds of an unfamiliar mission in San Antonio, it would have been very difficult, if not impossible for the White House to have rallied the nation and its citizens to war against Mexico just ten years later in 1846.

Among the most vocal opponents of the looming war with Mexican was Congressman John Quincy Adams of Massachusetts. Adams had voiced concerns about expanding into Mexican territory in 1836 and again in 1846 by opposing the Mexican–American War and annexation of Texas, stating that both would serve to add new slave territory to the nation and therefore stir the country to civil war. Congressman Adams, whose service to the nation would span more than 50 years and include a single term as President of the United States, had correctly predicted that both events would push the nation into civil war, an armed conflict that would eventually devour some 620,000 Americans.

From unjust to immoral, were the words of who's who in America while challenging the grounds for war with Mexico. While debating whether the United States should go to war, Congressman Abraham Lincoln challenged President James K. Polk by referring to any war with Mexico as immoral, proslavery, and a threat to the nation's republican values. By enlarging the borders of the United States at the expense of any nation would also serve to provoke President Ulysses S. Grant, who had successfully led the Union Army to victory during the American Civil War, to level a stern rebuke at the nation while writing his memoirs in 1885.

Battle of the Alamo results

Battle of the Alamo results and US States acquired from the defeat of Mexico

Having fought in the conflict as a lieutenant, U.S. Grant said in 1885 that the Mexican-American War was "one of the most unjust ever waged by a stronger against a weaker nation. It was an instance of a republic following the bad example of European monarchies, in not considering justice in their desire to acquire additional territory." Continuing in Grant's memoirs, he wrote, "I have never altogether forgiven myself for going into that [war]. I do not think there was ever a more wicked war than that waged by the United States on Mexico. I thought so at the time, when I was a youngster, only I had not moral courage enough to resign.” Ulysses S. Grant would rise through the ranks to the position of Union General of the Army before serving as Eighteenth President of the United States.

Seeking any opportunity to severely punish Mexico for what many believed to be the slaughtering of America's finest during the failed coup attempt at the Alamo and for the continual border disagreements that followed the Texas Revolution, Washington would prod and provoke its neighbor until the two nations were engaged in the Mexican-American War. When you remove the results of the Battle of the Alamo, the majority of Americans, having resided much closer to Canada than the Rio Grande, had little interest in a conflict with Mexico. Without the carnage at the Alamo, the fight with Mexico had very little support and likely would have never been fought. But now with a conquered Mexico, the nation would indeed span from sea to shining sea.


Results Of The Attack On Pearl Harbor

On the 7th of December 1941, an overwhelming attack was conducted by the Japanese on the American naval base at Pearl Harbor. As a result, the US suffered massive losses. However, this outbreak of violence on Pearl Harbor accelerated the participation of the US in the Second World War. The joint session of the US Congress was address by President Roosevelt, a day after the attack. He said 7th December was a date that would forever live in the minds of Americans and the world for its infamy.

The Congress approved the resolution of war kept before them by the President amidst outrage of the attack and a note delivered late from the government of Japan breaking off ties with the US government. The declaration for war was signed by President Roosevelt on the same day later. They strengthened their military mobilization by adapting the war economy strategy where Great Britain and Soviet Union were given a provision of war weaponries and supplies.

It did not take even a day for the Americans to unite against the Japanese in reply to the Pearl Harbor attack. Though public opinion was in favor of America entering Second World War, but there was some opposition that was stopping the nation from taking part in the war. American solidarity during the war was probably what ensured unconditional surrender policy adopted by all Allies. Historians, like Samuel Eliot Morison, felt the Pearl Harbor attack had awakened a sleeping beast and irrespective of whether the machine shops or fuel depots were destroyed or if carriers were sunk or caught in port, the US military and industrial capacity was more than enough to provide all the necessary resources required in the Atlantic and Pacific to neutralize and defeat the Japanese. According to many, American submarines were enough to take Japan towards defeat.

Another result of the attack on Pearl Harbor was that people all over the country began worrying that Japanese living in the US and Japanese sympathizers were spies for Japan. Media propaganda had a lot to do with fueling this paranoia. However, it worked. As a result, the Japanese Americans were forcibly ordered for internment after President Roosevelt signed the US Executive Order 9066 in February 1942. Also, many private citizens began attacking Japanese and Japanese business across the country.

Propaganda made frequent mention of the attack. Soon the war watchwords were &ldquoRemember Pearl Harbor&rdquo. The government of America understated the inflicted damage to hide the exact numbers from Japan. However, close to accurate estimate was made by the Japanese with the help of covert surveillance.

Wikipedia: Results Of The Attack On Pearl Harbor
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Results_of_the_attack_on_Pearl_Harbor

On seventh December 1941, 7:55 am, as per Hawaii timing, a dive bomber from Japan appeared from the clouds covering Oahu Island. It bore on the wings the insignia of a red rising sun, the symbol of Japan and was followed by a fleet of three hundred and sixty Japanese warplanes. These planes brutally attacked the American naval base at Pearl Harbor. This surprise attack came as a critical setback on the Pacific navy of US and drew the Americans irreversibly into the Second World War. More..


Civil War Results

Slavery for the Confederacy's 3.5 million blacks effectively ended when Union armies arrived they were nearly all freed by the Emancipation Proclamation. Slaves in the border states and those located in some former Confederate territory occupied prior to the Emancipation Proclamation were freed by state action or (on December 18, 1865) by the Thirteenth Amendment. The full restoration of the Union was the work of a highly contentious postwar era known as Reconstruction. The war produced about 1,030,000 casualties (3% of the population), including about 620,000 soldier deaths—two-thirds by disease. [191] The war accounted for roughly as many American deaths as all American deaths in other U.S. wars combined. [192]

The causes of the war, the reasons for its outcome, and even the name of the war itself are subjects of lingering contention today. Based on 1860 census figures, 8% of all white males aged 13 to 43 died in the war, including 6% in the North and 18% in the South. [193] [194] About 56,000 soldiers died in prisons during the Civil War. [195] One reason for the high number of battle deaths during the war was the use of Napoleonic tactics, such as charging. With the advent of more accurate rifled barrels, Minié balls and (near the end of the war for the Union army) repeating firearms such as the Spencer repeating rifle, soldiers were mowed down when standing in lines in the open. This led to the adoption of trench warfare, a style of fighting that defined the better part of World War I.


Civil War Results of the Civil War

The American Civil War lasted for just four years, from 1861 ñ 1865 and it is often also known as the War Between the States. It was the event where 11 Southern States that supported Slavery declared their succession from the United States, and announced the Formation of the Confederate States of America.

It chose at their leader Jefferson Davis, and they declared war on the remaining states in the United States, referred to as The Union.

The results of the Civil War was the decisive defeat of the Confederate States of America, and their eventual resumption of their status in the United States. The time period directly after the Civil War was known as the Reconstruction, a time marked by turmoil, violence and a lot of conflict and controversy. The Reconstruction Era was not a peaceful time, there were a large number of people
that tried to take advantage of the weakened South.

The biggest result was the end to Slavery. The 13th Amendment called for the abolishment of Slavery, and it was in support of President Lincoln’s Emancipation proclamation.

In addition, the 14th and 15th Amendments to the Constitution were also passed by Congress and ratified by states, becoming law.

The 13th Amendment effectively made law the ending of slavery across the United States. The 14th Amendment was enacted that said that Federal Legal Protection is available to all United States citizens, regardless of what race, color or creed they are. This was a new policy and came as part of the aftermath and results of the Civil War.

Finally, the last Amendment to the Constitution that was a result of the Civil War was the 15th Amendment. The 15th Amendment abolished all restrictions on voting and said that all U.S. Citizens would be able to vote no matter what race they were.

Despite the ending of the Civil War 1865, it took another 12 years for most states to successfully make the transition back into the United States.

This aftermath is called the Reconstruction, and most historical scholars agree that the Reconstruction was ended finally by the Compromise of 1877, when Federal Troops were removed from the South and Rutherford B. Hayes was elected as U.S. President.

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Connecticut First Declaration of War May 1, 1637

As a result of the Wethersfield attack, Connecticut declared war on the Pequot on May 1, 1637. The colony raised a force of ninety soldiers from the three river towns (Hartford, Wethersfield and Windsor) for an expedition against the Pequot. Captain John Mason of Windsor was given command of the Connecticut forces and issued instructions to attack the Pequot fortified villages at Mistick and Weinshauks (the home of Sassacus).

May 1 Declaration of the Pequot War. Page lifted from the “Public Records of the Colony of Connecticut” edited by J. H. Trumbull.


The Republic of Texas was formed in 1836. As the Texas Revolution continued, the papers that documented the workings of the interim government accompanied government officials as they evacuated to various towns to stay in front of the Mexican Army. [1] After the war ended in April, Columbia became the nation's capital city, and the archives were located there. The center of government and the archives were then moved to Houston. [2]

In 1839, Mirabeau B. Lamar became President of Texas. Under his influence, the Texas Congress authorized the establishment of a planned city to serve as the seat of government. The new city, Austin, was at the edge of the frontier, near several hostile native tribes, with no easy way to get supplies. [2] Proponents of the move predicted that when the rest of the nation was settled, Austin would be the population center. [3]

The opposition, led by former President Sam Houston, wanted the government to remain near the current population center, along the Gulf Coast. [2] The nation's archives were moved to Austin between August 26 and October 14, 1839. Fifty wagons were used. Lamar and his cabinet arrived on October 17. Over the next several years, the Comanche staged several raids near Austin. Citizens in the Houston area and the Houston Morning Star editorial board used them as evidence to support their argument that the capital and the archives should be returned to Houston. [3]

Sam Houston was elected president again in September 1841. His margin of victory was so large that he assumed a mandate to implement his priorities, including moving the capital. Congress continued to reject proposals to move the archives. [3]

Congress adjourned in February 1842. The following month, Mexican troops, under General Rafael Vásquez, invaded Texas. By March 5, over 1,000 Mexican soldiers were camped in San Antonio. [3] Several days later, a committee of vigilance in Austin recommended martial law and ordered residents to evacuate. A small number of people remained. President Houston returned to the city that bore his name. [4]

Vásquez retreated after a few days. Sam Houston may not have known of that, and on March 10, he ordered George Washington Hockley, Secretary of War, to move the archives to Houston. As justification, he cited the part of the Constitution of the Republic of Texas that stated, "The president and heads of departments shall keep their offices at the seat of government, unless removed by the permission of Congress, or unless, in case of emergency in time of war, the public interest may require their removal." [4]

Colonel Henry Jones, the military commander in Austin, convened a group of citizens to discuss Houston's order. Public sentiment was that Austin was safe and that Houston's departure had created a lack of confidence in the city, which had resulted in devalued real estate. [5] On March 16, the committee of vigilance resolved that removing the archives was against the law. It formed a patrol at Bastrop to search every wagon and to seize any government records found. [6] Sam Houston's private secretary, W.D. Miller, wrote to him that Austin residents "would much rather take their rifles to prevent a removal [of the archives] than to fight Mexicans." [7] To resolve the issue, the president called a special session of Congress, which convened in Houston on June 27, 1842. Congress took no action to move the capital. [6]

In September 1842, General Arián Woll led another Mexican expedition into Texas and temporarily captured San Antonio. [6] Houston convened the Seventh Texas Congress at Washington-on-the-Brazos. [6] In his introductory remarks, Houston demanded that Congress support the removal of the archives over the protests of the "seditious" citizens of Austin and asserted that "as to the propriety and necessity of the act no reasonable doubt could exist." [8] On December 9, Senator Greer proposed "A Bill to provide for the safety of the National Archives." [8] The vote to suspend the rules to allow the bill to pass quickly resulted in a tie. Senate President Edward Burleson, who did not like Sam Houston, cast the deciding vote against the bill. Undeterred, on December 10, Greer introduced another bill to move the General Land Office. He left blank the name of the city to which the office should be moved, which resulted in weeks of debate as to which city should be so honored. [8]

On December 10, Houston privately tasked Colonel Thomas I. Smith and Captain Eli Chandler with moving the nation's archives to Washington-on-the-Brazos. [6] Houston wrote, "The importance of removing the public archives and government stores from their present dangerous situation at the City of Austin to a place of security, is becoming daily more and more imperative. While they remain where they are, no one knows the hour when they may be utterly destroyed." [9] The men were encouraged to raise a small troop on the premise of conducting an excursion against the native tribes and then to secure the archives quickly and to transport them. [9]

Smith led over 20 men and 3 wagons into Austin the morning of December 30, 1842. The men were almost finished loading the wagons with papers when they were noticed by Angelina Eberly, the owner of a nearby boarding house. [9] Eberly ran to Congress Avenue, where a six-pound howitzer was situated. She turned the small cannon toward the General Land Office and fired it. Although some shot hit the General Land Office, there was no real damage, and no one was injured. [10]

Smith and his men left quickly and headed northeast to avoid the men patrolling the road through Bastrop. [10] They were accompanied by two clerks from the General Land Office, who were tasked with ensuring the General Land Office records were not harmed or modified. [11] Their progress was slow since a downpour made roads almost impassable for the already slowly-moving oxen. [10] The group managed to travel 18 miles (29 km) before it stopped for the night at Kinney's Fort, along Brushy Creek.

In Walnut Creek, north of Austin, some of Houston's agents were surpassed by angry citizens who then recovered some of the stolen documents and returned them to Austin. [12]

In Austin, Captain Mark Lewis gathered a group of men to retrieve the archives. Some of the pursuers had no horses, and some had little or no weaponry. [10] Lewis's men reached Smith's encampment in the middle of the night. They were undetected since Smith had neglected to post guards. [10] On the morning of December 31, the records were returned to Austin. It is uncertain as to whether Smith's men took them back, or the Austin group took custody of the records and transported them. [13]

The Texas House of Representatives formed a committee to investigate the attempted transferral of the archives. The committee admonished President Houston for his actions in trying to move the capital from Austin without the approval of Congress. [14] A Senate committee reported that they did not agree that Austin should be the capital, but without an immediate threat to the city, Houston had no legal reason to move the records. [15] In 1843, the Senate voted that the archives should be moved if there was not peace with Mexico. The vote was again tied, but this time Burleson cast his deciding vote in favor of the bill. The Texas House rejected it. [15]

The Senate also issued a resolution encouraging Houston to move the governmental agencies back to Austin. [16] Nevertheless, the legislature and government offices continued to run from Washington-on-the-Brazos. [17] Former president Lamar received a letter in March 1843 that said the town of Austin was almost deserted most businesses were closed, but the archives were still present. [17]

On July 4, 1845, a convention met in Austin to consider the annexation of Texas to the United States. At that time, the governmental records created in Washington-on-the-Brazos were transferred to Austin, creating a single archive. [17]

A bronze statue of Angelina Eberly was placed on Congress Avenue in downtown Austin in the summer of 2004. [18]


Operation Linebacker II: The 11-Day War

“It was a near-run thing,” said the Duke of Wellington, after narrowly defeating Napoleon at Waterloo. The same could just as easily be said of Operation Linebacker II, what B-52 aircrews came to call the “11-Day War.” If not for the bravery and resilience of those American airmen, the operation might have ended in disaster.

Linebacker I had been mounted in response to the earlier 1972 Easter Offensive, the North Vietnamese Army’s sudden invasion of South Vietnam, a campaign that failed largely because of massive B-52 bombing. It had been hoped the war could then be concluded through diplomacy, but by mid-December it was clear the enemy was stalling at the negotiating table. Forty years ago this month, President Richard M. Nixon’s patience ran out and he issued this order to the Joint Chiefs: “You are to commence at approximately 1200 Zulu, 18 December 1972, a three-day maximum effort, repeat maximum effort, of B-52/Tacair strikes in the Hanoi/Haiphong areas. Object is maximum destruction of selected targets….Be prepared to extend operations past three days, if directed.”

The president’s directive apparently came as a surprise to Strategic Air Command, which seemingly had no contingency plan compatible with Linebacker II’s objectives. SAC was forced to fall back on its eight-year-old Operation Arc Light tac­tics (interdiction of the Ho Chi Minh Trail, coupled with close ground support). Tactical Arc Light operations, however, had little in common with the strategic bombing objectives of Linebacker II. Worse, after eight years of Arc Light opera­tions in relatively benign threat environments, SAC HQ had become complacent about the dangers in Route Pack Six, the section of the combat theater encompassing Hanoi and Haiphong. This last circumstance led to a rude awakening when America’s B-52 Strato­for­tress bombers proved shockingly vulnerable to the Soviet-built SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missile (SAM) defense system.


A view from the cockpit of a typical “cell” of B-52Ds. (U.S. Air Force)

The enormity of SAC’s planning errors was first exposed during the Day One (December 18-19) briefing at Andersen Air Force Base on Guam. The BUFF (Big Ugly Fat F—er) aircrews, still half-believing Secretary of State Henry Kissinger’s “peace is at hand” rhetoric of several weeks earlier, sat in stunned silence as the briefing officers flashed the primary target on the screen: Hanoi. Adam’s apples bobbed even faster when it was announced that “press-on rules” were in effect: “All bombers will press on, despite SAMS, MiGs or flak, if there is a reasonable chance to strike the target and recover at an allied base.”

There was worse news—the attack tactics themselves. All bombers were to depart from the same initial point (IP), make the same bomb run in single-file formation, fly exactly the same airspeeds, operate in exactly the same altitude blocks and maintain exactly the same spacing between each of the three-ship cells (one minute) and between each aircraft within the cells (15 seconds).

A B-52 copilot who flew Linebacker II sorties from Andersen, then-Captain Don Craig, wrote me that “We knew there were big planning flaws, starting with the long lines of bombers coming in the same route…and it was straight down Thud Ridge, for God’s sake….It looked very much like ducks in a shooting gallery.” B-52 radar navigator Captain Wilton Strickland, operating from the other B-52 base, at U-Tapao airfield in Thailand, concurred: “[The spacing] gave enemy air de­fenses plenty of time to track and fire on each aircraft as it came within range….Long before we entered the target area, they knew our precise altitude, spacing and approach route….”


A fully loaded “BUFF” takes off from Andersen Air Base, which had 53 B-52Ds and 99 B-52Gs on station when Linebacker II started. (U.S. Air Force)

Another concern was the bomb run no-evasion order issued by an Andersen wing commander (apparently on his own authority, on penalty of court-martial), despite previous evidence that if the B-52 was brought back straight and level prior to release, accuracy was not degraded. After aircrews repeatedly ignored the order on Days One and Two, without affecting bombing results, it was quietly rescinded.

Most egregious, SAC planners mandated a “combat break” to the right after bomb release (post-target turn, or PTT), a nuclear-release procedure carried over into Arc Light (where it had been just as pointless the PTT was designed solely for better survivability against a nuclear blast). During Arc Light, the PTT had rendered no harm. Over heavily defended Hanoi, however, it turned lethal. Not only were criti­cal electronic countermeasures degraded, the 120-knot-plus jet stream tailwind that B-52s enjoyed on the bomb run became a 120-knot-plus headwind after the turn, resulting in a combined groundspeed reduction of nearly 250 knots.

Later, during the Day Two pre-mission briefing, a disgusted Captain Strickland, who was destined to fly six of the 11 Linebacker missions, could no longer keep silent: “Who is planning such stupid tactics,” he asked the briefers, “and why?” Their response: “The planning is being done at Omaha’s SAC HQ, and the common routes, altitudes and trail formations are used for ease of planning.”

“Well,” Strickland shot back, “the enemy is using your plan, along with the after-release turn and our slow withdrawal, for ease of tracking and shootdown!”

U-Tapao’s 17th Air Division commander, Brig. Gen. Glenn Sulli­van, who was present during Strickland’s comments, was thinking along similar lines. Sullivan and his wing commanders had been carefully listening to aircrew feedback, though their requests for tactics changes had so far fallen on deaf ears. Sullivan was most upset about the PTT after the battle he wrote a friend, “The post-target turn was the murder point.”

Nevertheless, good tactics or bad, the 300 BUFF in-theater aircrews still had to fly the missions in the 206 Stratofortresses available (Andersen had 53 B-52Ds and 99 B-52Gs on station U-Tapao had 54 B-52Ds). On Day One, 129 B-52s launched from Andersen and U-Tapao in three massive waves spaced at four-hour intervals. Shortly after dark, the first wave (33 B-52Ds and 15 B-52Gs) arrived at their Laotian IP and wheeled southeast toward seven Hanoi targets—setting the stage for the biggest air battle since World War II. Although the BUFFs were the attack’s centerpiece, more than 100 additional U.S. Air Force, Navy and Marine recon, radar jammer and fighter-bomber aircraft flew in support of the heavies or delivered their own assigned blows.


A sprawling arsenal, ready for another BUFF trip “downtown”—to Hanoi. (U.S. Air Force)

Twenty-one U-Tapao B-52Ds kicked things off, attacking Hanoi’s airfields. At least one MiG rose up in challenge, the enemy pilot taking up the customary “six” position behind a BUFF designated Brown Three. Tail gunner Staff Sgt. Sam Turner shot the MiG-21 down, the first ever air-to-air kill by a B-52. Shortly thereafter, Lilac Three was struck by a SAM while attacking the Kinh No complex. Although badly damaged, the bomber managed to limp back to U-Tapao. Charcoal One, a B-52G attacking the Yen Vien rail yards, was not as fortunate. Two SAMs struck from behind, and the bomber disintegrated. Three crewmen were killed in action three became prisoners of war.

The second wave attacked around midnight. Peach Two entered the PTT and, slowed to a near-crawl by the 120-knot headwind, took a SAM hit in its left wing. The bomber made it back into Thailand, where all seven crew members bailed out and were rescued.

Rose One, a U-Tapao B-52D, led the third wave of 51 BUFFs in at 5 a.m. Bracketed by missiles, its jammers overwhelmed, the plane was hammered twice. One SAM blew a hole in the fuselage big enough for the navigator-bombardiers to see the external bomb racks. Moments later the cockpit was afire. Four crewmen were captured, with two KIA.

Day One ended with three Stratoforts shot down and two seriously damaged. Publicly, SAC put on a brave face privately, its chieftains were aghast. They had completely underestimated the SAM threat. Worse, nothing could immediately be done about it—because of the long distances involved in operating from Guam, it had been necessary to order the Day Two bombers launched even before all the Day One aircraft returned.

On Day Two, 93 BUFFs attacked the same targets, using the same Day One tactics. Ivory One, piloted by Major John Dalton, led six B-52Ds against Radio Hanoi. While rolling into the PTT, his aircraft was struck by a missile, seemingly stopping the bomber in its tracks. “You could feel the concussion,” he told writer Marshall Michel, “then you heard it. I never realized you could hear them explode like that…you get static electricity raising the hair on your arms….” Dalton was in big trouble—his no. 5 engine had flamed out, then no. 6 caught fire. Both tip tanks were hit and spewing fuel, plus he was dealing with severe electrical and flight system problems. For 45 nerve-wracking minutes the crew staggered toward the Marine Corps base at Nam Phong, Thailand. Just before touchdown, Dalton lost most of his rudder control. Pulling the last rabbit out of his hat, he planted that giant BUFF on a narrow runway, saving the aircraft and crew. Major Dalton was awarded the Silver Star for his actions.

Meanwhile, Strickland and his crew in Copper Two were pressing on against Radio Hanoi. Thirty seconds from release, Strickland’s electronic warfare officer (EWO) called, “SAM uplink!” A missile had them wired. Then the copilot yelled, “Visual SAM at 2 o’clock, I have the airplane!” and threw the big bomber into a steep right turn. There was a bright flash, a muffled explosion and the aircraft lurched, as if driving over a speed bump. EWO again: “SAM uplink, 9 o’clock!” The pilot responded: “Visual SAM to left, I have the airplane!” A hard steep left turn followed. Bright flash, another lurch. Some­how Strickland kept his crosshairs on Hanoi’s Paul Doumer Bridge, the offset aiming point. “Pilot, roll it out,” he ordered. “Center the PDI [pilot’s deflection indicator]!” The nav read the To Go (TG) meter, announcing, “10 seconds!” Strickland opened the bomb bay doors. The EWO cried out, “Two SAM uplinks, 12 o’clock!” Strickland responded, “Pilot, hold it straight and level!” The two missiles continued to home in on Copper Two. After what seemed an eternity, the TG ran down to zero. “Bombs away,” Strick­land shouted, “and turn! Let’s get the hell out of here!” Another hard, shuddering right turn the two SAMs just missed them. For their actions, all six crewmen re­ceived the Distinguished Flying Cross.

The Americans were lucky on Day Two: Only two B-52s were damaged and none lost. Breathing easier, SAC gave the go-ahead for Day Three, December 20-21, once again ordering up the same tactics as Days One and Two. But the inevitable bill had finally arrived the Americans were about to face their darkest hour.

Ninety-nine B-52s struck on Day Three. Enemy SAM batteries, having at last figured out how to destroy the hated “Fatted Calves,” waited eagerly for the first wave to appear. As if on cue, the three bombers in Quilt cell arrived over the Yen Vien complex in their B-52Gs. (While the Arc Light B-52Ds had been refitted with the most up-to-date ECM jammers to counter Hanoi’s highly sophisticated air defense system, there had not been time to do the same with the U.S.-based Gs when they were rushed into the war during the 1972 Easter Offensive.) A missile promptly nailed Quilt Three during its PTT. Four crewmen became POWs, and another two were KIA.


A North Vietnamese crew readies its SA-2 missile for action. (RIA Novosti/Alamy)

Shortly thereafter, during yet another harried post-release turn, Brass cell became separated. The enemy seized on the cell’s abrupt loss of groundspeed, its prominent radar return in the steep turn and collapse of mutual support radar jamming. Two SAMs slammed into Brass Two miraculously, the entire crew successfully bailed out over the Marine base at Nam Phong. Orange Three also became isolated in its PTT and was nailed by two missiles. The aircraft fluttered out of control, exploded halfway to the ground and crashed spectacularly near Hanoi. Four crewmen perished and two became POWs—the last of the first wave casualties.

At roughly this point, a curious incident occurred. R.J. Smith, a grizzled electronic warfare officer credited with 506 Arc Light/Linebacker combat missions (possibly the record), took matters into his own hands. Configuring his countermeasures equipment just so, he hacked into the North Vietnamese ground control intercept network, whipped out his “lucky” whistle and let fly with a blast over Guard frequency—followed by an angry shout: “Time out!” Perhaps Smith’s unorthodox actions did confuse the enemy there was an obedient pause in the SAM launches, and his crew successfully completed their bomb run. One thing was certain: EWO stock shot up to all time highs!

By that time, 27 second wave bombers were well on their way inbound, 12 of which were B-52Gs. While six of those Gs had some updated jamming equipment, the other six didn’t. With the hot Hanoi kitchen burning up the G-model birds, SAC pulled the plug by recalling the six unmodified Gs. The remaining six Gs and 15 Ds in the second wave unloaded on their targets and escaped without losses.

Four hours later, wave three attacked Hanoi’s Gia Lam rail yards. A SAM slammed into Straw Two, wounding the pilot and navigator. The tough B-52D managed to reach Laos, and five of its crew survived, but the radar nav was lost. Olive One was later hit over Kinh No repair complex during its post-release turn. Five of the seven crewmen were KIA two became POWs. Minutes later, Tan Three took two SAMs, disintegrating so rapidly only the gunner survived. Brick Two, at the tail end of wave three, was in its PTT when a missile ripped into it. The D shook the hit off and got home, but that was the final straw: B-52 aircrews wanted nothing more to do with SAC’s deadly post-release turns.

Out of Day Three’s 99 bombers, four Gs and two Ds had been shot down, with another D seriously damaged—7 percent attrition, a completely unsustainable rate. The battle, indeed the war itself, suddenly hung in the balance. Great consternation gripped the leadership of both SAC at Omaha and the Eighth Air Force at Andersen. Fearing this indecision had created a leadership vacuum, U-Tapao’s General Sullivan made a risky decision. Without consulting his immediate superiors, he sent an urgent message directly to SAC commander in chief General J.C. Meyer in Omaha (copying Ander­sen), specifying the necessary changes: Vary the inbound routes and altitudes, eliminate the PTT and use a straight-ahead “feet-wet” exit out to the Gulf of Tonkin. Although angry at being bypassed, his Eighth Air Force commanders sent a “we agree” message to Meyer, who quickly or­dered the changes. (Sullivan must have understood he’d fallen on his sword despite his leading role in winning the war’s decisive battle, he was denied a second star and retired two years later.)

But how to implement those changes without creating an even bigger disaster? The size and scope of Linebacker II had given it an almost un­changeable mo­mentum—even as Meyer made his decision, it was already bus time for Andersen’s Day Four crews.

Desperately short of options, SAC held back all Andersen bombers on Days Four and Five, buying time for essential analysis and planning. On Days Four through Seven, only 60 of the better-equipped B-52Ds were launched against North Vietnam (the more vulnerable Gs would never again be used over Hanoi).

Despite launching a much higher percentage of D models, BUFFs were still going down. On Day Four, while attacking Bac Mai airfield, Blue One was bracketed by a six-SAM salvo. With his aircraft burning fiercely but nearing “bombs away,” pilot John Yuill reluctantly hit the red abandon light. That intuitive decision proved providential roughly a minute after the last crewman had bailed out, the aircraft exploded. Although several of the captured crew were wounded, all survived the war.

Day Five was a repeat of Day Four—though the attack shifted away from the crack Hanoi SAM batteries. U-Tapao sent up 30 B-52Ds against the less heavi­ly defended but still lucrative targets at Haiphong Harbor—primarily railroad infrastructure and petroleum facilities. Only 43 SAMs came up, thanks to the element of surprise and excellent suppression work by 65 Navy, Marine and Air Force fighter/jammer aircraft. For the first time since the operation began, not a single B-52 received battle damage.

On Day Six, 30 bombers launched, 12 Ds from Andersen and 18 Ds from U-Tapao. The targets were three SAM sites and Haiphong’s Lang Dang rail yards. Again, the objectives were successfully struck, with no losses or aircraft damaged. SAC was finally getting its act together.

On Day Seven, 30 Ds launched against Hanoi, bombing the Thai Nguyen and Kep railroad yards. No aircraft were lost, though one was struck by flak, the only occasion enemy AAA scored a hit. MiGs en­gaged Black and Ruby cells one bo­gey got careless behind Ruby Three and was shot down by Airman 1st Class Albert Moore, the second and final confirmed MiG kill by a B-52 tail gunner. As the last of the Day Seven bombers landed, the obligatory Christmas pause got underway.

SAC used that 36-hour reprieve to develop a comprehensive new battle plan. Day Eight, December 26, was to be the decisive engagement. That night 120 B-52s struck Hanoi and Haiphong in a simultaneous attack involving seven waves bombing 10 targets, with bombers crisscrossing at different altitudes and axes of attack. American ECM capability, long a chronic deficiency, had been significantly enhanced via greater knowledge of enemy frequencies and techniques. Most dramatically, all 8,000 bombs were released during a single 15-minute timeframe.

Nevertheless, the North Vietnamese fought back hard. Shortly be­fore bombs away, a missile struck Ebony Two, killing the pilot, though the copilot and radar nav held everything together through the bomb drop. Then another SAM struck. With unmistakable finality, Ebony Two flipped on its back and turned supernova, lighting up the sky for 100 miles in every direction. Thousands of gallons of burning JP-4 hung in the sky as if suspended, while shattered remnants of the great ship slowly fluttered to earth like dead leaves. Two crewmen were KIA four became POWs.

Minutes later, Ash One’s jamming came up short and it took a missile. The crew made a valiant attempt to land their crippled B-52D at U-Tapao, but lost the struggle when an attempted go-around resulted in a departure stall. Only the gunner and a wounded copilot survived the ensuing crash. Nearly three decades later that same copilot, Defense Intelligence Agency analyst and retired Lt. Col. Robert Hymel, was killed when hi­jacked American Airlines Flight 77 crashed into the Pentagon on September 11, 2001.

SAC made Day Nine a repeat of Eight, albeit a scaled-back version. Due to maintenance issues, Andersen and U-T could raise only 30 bombers each—but halving the force didn’t have as great an impact as might be presumed: SAC was already running out of targets.

December 27 was the final day of SAMs coming in salvos, though the BUFFs were not out of the woods yet. Cobalt One was releasing bombs on its Trung Quang target when it took a direct hit that killed the navigator and the EWO. The remaining four crewmen would be captured.

Soon after that Captain John Mize in Ash Two, whose aircraft had already been hit by enemy fire on two previous sorties, was struck by a missile, the detonation wounding everyone on board. Despite Mize’s wounds and severely damaged aircraft, he somehow manhandled the doomed bomber into Laos, electing to stay with it until his entire crew had successfully bailed out before ejecting. For his heroism, Mize was awarded the Air Force Cross.

Day Ten arrived, and only a few SAMs came up no B-52s were lost or damaged. Everyone took pleasure hearing the last of the airborne commander’s exit roll call:

“Orange cell, out with three.”

On Day Eleven, December 29, 60 B-52s attacked Hanoi’s storage facilities and what was left of the Lang Dang rail yards—in all probability the last massed heavy bomber strike the world will ever see. While the raid was in progress, the North Vietnamese signaled the White House that they were ready to return to the Paris peace table. Before the last B-52 landed, Operation Linebacker II stood down.

President Nixon’s 11-Day War had paid off. As is so often the case with armed conflict, the battle may have turned on circumstances no one could possibly have foreseen. North Vietnam made the crucial mistake of gathering all its eggs in one basket the final defense of its homeland had been left primarily to a limited supply of Soviet SAMs. In the heat of battle, the North Vietnamese then compounded that error by succumbing to zeal and expending missiles wholesale, often in salvoes of six or eight against a single target. As a result, they literally ran out of ammunition. In a final irony, a chilling argument can be made that SAC’s poor tactics—in essence using the B-52s as “missile bait”—had actually worked to the Ameri­cans’ advantage.

The Paris Peace Accords were signed in January 1973. By April all 591 of America’s known POWs were released. That August, with the Paris agree­ments seemingly being honored by Hanoi, the B-52s flew their last combat mission, and Operation Arc Light was terminated. For the Americans, the Vietnam War was finally over.


Parts of a downed B-52 on display at Hanoi’s Victory Museum. (Jelle Vanderwolf/Alamy)

Six B-52s suffered minor hits, three were seriously damaged and 15 lost during the December 18-29, 1972, battle. Of the 92 BUFF crewmen shot down, 26 were rescued, 33 were captured and 33 were killed. (Two other B-52s were shot down just before and after the battle, with all 12 men rescued.) Additional U.S. Air Force, Navy and Marine losses included two Navy A-6A carrier strike aircraft, one Marine A-6A, one Navy A-7C, one Navy A-7E, one Marine F-4J carrier fighter, one Navy RA-5C recon aircraft, two Air Force F-111A fighter-bombers, two Air Force F-4E fighter/chaff sowers, one Air Force EB-66 ECM/chaff sower and one HH-53 Jolly Green Giant rescue helicopter. Two of these aircraft were lost to SAMs, three to MiGs, three to flak, one to small arms (Jolly Green), one to engine failure (EB-66) and three others to unknown causes. Among their crews, two were rescued, eight captured and 11 KIA—with possibly two additional unknown KIAs in the EB-66.

Robert O. Harder flew 145 combat missions in Vietnam as a B-52D navi­gator-bombardier. For further reading, see his book Flying From the Black Hole: The B-52 Navigator-Bombardiers of Vietnam The 11 Days of Christ­mas, by Marshall Michel and Boeing B-52, by Walter J. Boyne. An online cockpit audiotape offers a ringside seat to the December 26 raid. Go to YouTube and search “B-52 Over Hanoi” for five separate links.

This feature originally appeared in the January 2013 issue of Aviation History. For more great articles subscribe today!


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