10:30AM THE PRESIDENT receives the Presidential Daily Briefing
11:15AM THE PRESIDENT meets with Secretary of the Treasury Lew
12:55PM THE PRESIDENT departs the White House en route Joint Base Andrews
The White House
1:30PM THE PRESIDENT departs Joint Base Andrews
2:40PM THE PRESIDENT arrives Boston, Massachusetts
Logan International Airport
3:55PM THE PRESIDENT delivers remarks on health care
Faneuil Hall, Boston, Massachusetts
5:35PM THE PRESIDENT delivers remarks at a DCCC event
Private Residence, Boston, Massachusetts
6:50PM THE PRESIDENT departs Boston, Massachusetts en route Andrews Air Force Base
Logan International Airport
8:10PM THE PRESIDENT arrives Joint Base Andrews
8:45PM THE PRESIDENT arrives the White House
The White House
October 30, 2013 Day 284 of the Fifth Year - History
The ensuing year 5613, from the creation, after the ordinary manner of computing time among the Israelites, commences on Tuesday, the 14th of September, 1852, of the vulgar era, or rather on the afternoon of Monday the 13th, with the decline of the sun, as all our festivals begin about sunset, and end with the appearance of the stars on the day of their conclusion. It is an ordinary leap-year, that is to say, it consists of thirteen months, in which there are alternately in each 30 and 29 days, except in the sixth month, which has 30 days as well as its preceding, the fifth month. The Sabbaths in this year are 55 and Passover will be on Sabbath (the 23d of April, 1853). Hence it is designated after the manner of the Jews, as גכ״ז מעברת , meaning an ordinary leap-year, of which Rosh-hashanah is on Tuesday, ג׳ and the Passover on the seventh day, ז׳ .
As we have never given an explanation of the Calendar, we wilt now do so, in order that it may serve as a guide for the future.
The Jewish civil year commences with the first of the seventh month of the ecclesiastical year, which latter commences in the Spring, or month of Abib, אביב , as it is called in Scripture, or the one in which the early grain, such as barley, began to ripen, in Palestine. In order to bring the festival of the Passover, on which a measure of barley of the new crop was to be sacrificed in the temple, in its proper season, care was to be taken that the lunar year, consisting ordinarily of twelve lunations or periodical revolutions of the moon round the earth, which would make only 354 days, should be made to correspond with the solar year of 365 days, and nearly 6 hours, by an occasional doubling of the twelfth month by another of 30 days, the one immediately pre <<285>> ceding Abib, or, as we now term it, Nissan and by repeating this process seven times in a cycle of 19 years, and occasionally adding one day to the eighth month, we obtained the compensation of the excess of 11 X 19, or 209, to which add 4 days for four leap-years of the solar year, the fourth usually of the series, or a total of 213 days, as 30 X 7 is 210, and thus requiring only an addition as above, of 8 or 4 days to the various eighth month, in order to make the lunar year correspond exactly with the astronomical or solar year of 365¼ days, by which we effected, that the Passover always recurred at the same season as the Exodus from Egypt, which was at the ripening of the early harvest. (See Exodus ix. 31.)
Since the Babylonian captivity, when the Israelites became acquainted with the astronomy, no less than the language of the Chaldeans ( כשדים ), the months have been designated by names derived from the East, and those of old Israelitish origin have disappeared. We find but four proper names in the old Biblical books, to wit: אביב , Abib, the first זיו , Ziv, or Splendour, for the 2d אתנים , Aithanim (of no certain derivation), for the 7th and בול Bul or rain, for the 8th. Otherwise, they are merely styled the first, second, &c. Now, however, they are called ניסן , Nissan אייר , Iyar סיון , Sivan תמוז , Tamuz אב , Ab or מנחם , Menachem אלול , Elul תשרי , Tishry חשון , Cheshvan or מרחשון , Marcheshvan כסלו , Kislev טבת , Tebeth שבט , Shebath and אדר , Adar. In leap-years the twelfth month is called אדר ראשון , the first Adar, and the thirteenth אדר שני , the second Adar, or ואדר , Veadar.
The first day of Tishry, as above, is called ראש השנה , Rosh-Hashanah, the head or first of the year, or New Year. It is observed, together with the second, as a strict holy day, on which all labour is suspended, except preparing food for actual use. The same is the case with all other festivals. The second day is not of Biblical origin but arose, probably, during the existence of the second temple, when people out of the reach of the Sanhedrim, who fixed the commencement of the months, and with this, of course, the proper day of the commencement of the festivals, observed double days, so as to be sure of keeping at least one day with the Israelites of Palestine, or those within reach of the high court at Jerusalem. The festival is called in Scripture יום תרועה the day of the blowing of the cornet which ceremony is still the distinguishing mark by which it differs from the other feasts. Five persons are called up to the first Sepher, or law book, if it be on a week day (the second is always so), and seven when on the Sabbath. The section for the first day, is as indicated in our tables in Genesis xxi., <<286>> from verse 1 to 34. On the second day, the next chapter, xxii., from 1 to 24 is read. On both days the Maphtere is read from the sacrifices in Numbers xxix., from verse 1 to 6. The prophetic sections for both days are alike for all divisions of Israelites, and are indicated in our tables.
The day subsequent to the New Year festival, the third of the month, is a strict fast day, and called צום גדליה , the fast of Gedaliah. If it happens on a Sabbath, it is held on Sunday, the 4th. This year it is on Thursday the 16th of September. In the morning and afternoon a portion from Exodus is read as the lesson of the day, from chapter xxxii., 11 to 15, and from xxxiv., 1 to 10. The same is the case with all other stated fasts, except the 9th of Ab, in the morning. In the afternoon, the Germans [Ashkenazim] read a Haphtorah in Isaiah, lv. 6 to lvi. 8, but the Portuguese [Sephardim] read none, except on the 9th of Ab, as shown in our tables, which are constructed on the Portuguese platform. They were first sent in by one of that denomination.
The tenth of Tishry is the Day of Atonement, יום הכיפרים , and is observed as a strict fast day from the afternoon of the 9th to the rising of the stars on the 10th. It falls this year on Thursday, the 23d of September. It can happen only on Monday, Wednesday, Thursday, and Sabbath, but not on Sunday, Tuesday, and Friday, just as New Year cannot happen on Sunday, Wednesday, and Friday, and Passover on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. This fact should be specially recollected, as it will be a good guide to a correct knowledge of the calendar for those who may not live in the vicinity of other Israelites.
The fifteenth of Tishry is the first day of the feast of Tabernacles. It is distinguished by the erection of booths, in obedience to Leviticus xxiii. 42, and by the use of the palm branch, myrtle, willow, and a citron (Ibid. 40). When the first day is on Sabbath, the palm is taken on the 2d as is also the case on New Year, that the cornet is not blown on the first when on Sabbath, but on the second. The festival commences this year on Tuesday, the 28th of September, and ends on Monday, October 4th, with the 7th day, called הושענא רבה , the Great Hosanna, from the number of prayers, the refrain of which is Hoshangna (abridged, Hosanna), “help us, we pray thee.” On that day it was customary to encircle the altar with willow boughs which is now commemorated by our taking other willows, in addition to those of the palm, or Lulab. The next day is called, the Eighth, the festival of Assembly, שמיני חג עצרת , and falls this year on the 5th of October. On it prayers are offered up for an abundance of seasonable showers of rain. The 6th <<287>> of October (23d of Tishry), is kept as a special celebration, called “Rejoicing of the Law,” שמחת תורה , and is regarded a continuation of the 8th day. On it, three law-books are taken out of the ark, for reading, and the person to whom the conclusion of Deuteronomy is read, is called “the Bridegroom of the Law,” חתן תורה , and the one who in theory reads the beginning of Genesis is called חתן בראשית , “the Bridegroom of the Genesis.” In many congregations they are considered as honorary officers during the entire year. In the third Sepher the Maphtere is read. We would merely remark that in order to avoid unrolling the Sepher, which is the same as book of the Law of Moses, which alone is kept in our Synagogues in the ark, is a manuscript roll, written only on one side of the parchment composing the same, on the reading desk, as many different books (Sepharim) are taken out, as it is necessary to read disconnected passages. Hence on Simchath Torah, as we are to read the end of Deuteronomy, the beginning of Genesis, and from the 28th of Numbers, we take out three books, which have been unrolled beforehand to the various sections indicated.
The Sabbath subsequent to Simchath Torah, is called Sabbath Bereshith, or “of Genesis,” because on it the first section of Genesis, from i.1 to vi. 8, is read. It happens this year on October the 9th.
It must be observed, that when a month has thirty days, such as Tishry, the 30th is called the 1st of Rosh Chodesh, or New-Moon-day of the next, and the succeeding day, or the second day of Rosh Chodesh, is called the first of the month. For instance, the first day of Rosh Chodesh Cheshvan of this year, happens on Wednesday, the 13th of October, and is the 30th of Tishry the next, or Thursday, the 14th of October, is the first day of Cheshvan. But if the preceding month has but 29 days, then the day following it is the only day of Rosh Chodesh, and at the same time the first of the month for instance, this year, Friday, the 12th of November, the 30th from the 1st of Cheshvan, is Rosh Chodesh and 1st day of Kislev.
On the 25th day of Kislev, Monday, the 6th of December, is the first day of Chanukkah, or festival of the Dedication of the Temple, after the expulsion of Antiochus Epiphanes. It is celebrated by lighting of lamps in the Synagogues and dwellings, commencing with one on the evening preceding the 25th, and increasing by one every day, till the 8th, when eight lamps are lighted. The sections to be read are indicated in the tables.
On Sabbath, the 11th of December, three Sepharim are taken out, it being at the same time Rosh Chodesh, and Chanukkah. In the first is read the usual weekly section, Mikketz (Gen. xli. 1 to liv. 17), on the <<288>> second, the portion for New Moon (Numbers, xxviii. 9 to 15), in the last the appropriate lesson for the day, from Numbers vii. this year, verses 42 to 47.
Sunday, the 12th of December, is the 1st day of Tebeth, and the second day of Rosh Chodesh. Two Sepharim are taken out read out of the first Numbers xxviii. 1 to 15, and out of the second Numbers vii. 48 to 53. Monday is the last day of the Chanukkah, when you take out one Sepher, and read from Numbers vii. 54 to viii. 4.
On the 10th of Tebeth is a general fast day the reading is the same as on the Fast of Gedaliah. It falls this year on Tuesday, the 21st of December.
January 1st, 1853, falls on Sabbath, the 21st of Tebeth. On Monday, the 10th of January, is Rosh Chodesh Shebat. On Tuesday, the 8th of February, is the 30th of Shebat, or first day of R. Ch. Adar, and on Wednesday the 9th, is the 1st of Adar. The first of R. Ch, Veadar is on Thursday, March 10th, and the first day of the month is on Friday, March 11th.
The section from Exodus xxx. 11 to 16, called Parshath Shekalim, or the section of the Shekels, is read on the Sabbath before or on* the 1st of Adar, in an ordinary, or of Veadar, if in a leap-year. Two Sepharim are then taken out, and the Haphtorah is read from 2d Kings xi. 17 to xii. 17 (the Germans commence with xii. 1). This year, on the 5th of March. The Sabbath before Purim (which see) is called Parshath Zachor, in remembrance of the attack of the Amalekites on Israel (Exod. xvii. 8) when two Sepharim are taken out, and read from the second Deuteronomy xxv. 17 to 19, and the Haphtorah from 1st Samuel xv. 1 to 34. This year Zachor is on the 19th of March.
* If on R. Ch., three Sepharim are used the second for Numbers xxviii. 9 to 15, the third for Exodus xxx. 11 to 16.
The Fast of Esther is on the 13th of Adar, in a plain year, and on the same day of Veadar in a leap-year. But if this be on a Sabbath, the fast is kept on the Thursday preceding. The reading as usual on other fasts.
The festival of Purim is on the 14th of the month, the next succeeding the fast. It is commemorated both evening and morning by reading the book of Esther in commemoration of the deliverance granted to the Israelites when Haman, a satrap of the King of Persia, had bought of the latter the privilege of destroying them all, and to confiscate their property. The reading for the day is from Exodus xvii. 8 to 16. The next day is called Shushan Purim, or the day, in memory <<289>> of the additional vengeance taken by the Jews of the capitol of Shushan on their enemies. These days fall this year respectively on Wednesday, the 23d, Thursday, the 24th, and Friday, the 25th of March.
The first or second Sabbaths after Purim, as the case may be, is called Parshath Parah, when out the second Sepher to be taken out the section, from Numbers xix. 1 to 22, relating to the Red Cow which was burned for purification (see the chapter cited), is read. The Haphtorah is from Ezekiel xxxvi. 16 to 36. The Sabbath Wore the new moon of Nissan, is called Parshath Hachodesh, when two Sepharim are taken out, the second to serve for reading the institution of the month Nissan as the first and of the Passover (Exodus xii. 1 to 20). The Haphtorah is from Ezekiel xlv. 18 to xlvi. 23. If on Rosh Chodesh, three Sepharim are taken out, the second for Numbers xxviii. 9 to 15, and the third for Exodus xii. 1 to 20.
The first falls this year on April 2d, the other, which is also Rosh Chodesh Nissan, on April 9th.
The Sabbath before Passover is called the Great Sabbath, Shabbath Haggadol when the Haphtorah is from Malachi iii. 4 to 24. But some congregations read this only when it is the Eve of Passover, as in the current year 5612. It falls this year on April 16th.
The Passover always comes on the first full moon after the equinox (the 21st of March), and on no other time. It is in celebration of the redemption from Egypt, as the Pentecost (50 days later), is to recall the declaration of the Decalogue or Ten Commandments at Sinai, and the feast of Tabernacles, that God protected the Israelites forty years in the desert of Arabia. The Passover lasts by the Bible seven, but by our customs, eight days, during which no leaven of any sort, either in food or drink, can be used, and we are commanded to eat unleavened bread, especially on the night preceding the 15th of Nissan. The lessons and Haphtorahs are pointed out in the tables. It commences this year on Sabbath, the 23d, and finishes on the 30th of April. The first of Omer is on the night after the first day. The Omer is a formula of numbering, with prayer, the days between Passover and Pentecost, or 7 times 7 weeks. (Leviticus xxiii. 15.)
Between Passover and Pentecost (and some during the whole summer) many are accustomed to read every afternoon of Sabbath one of the six chapters of the Ethicks of the Rabbins, or the Proverbs of the Fathers, in rotation.
The first day of Rosh Chodesh Iyar, is on Sunday, the 8th, and the se <<290>> cond on Monday, 9th of May. The second Passover ( פסח שני ), for which, see Numbers ix. 11, is on the 14th of Iyar this year, on Sunday, the 22d of May.
The 33d day of Omer, observed as a half festival, occurs on the 18th of Iyar this year, on Thursday, May 26th.
Rosh Chodesh Sivan, is on Tuesday, the 7th of June and the Pentecost, which is on the 6th and 7th of Sivan, about the first quarter of the moon, on Sunday and Monday, the 12th and 13th of June.
The first of Rosh Chodesh Tamuz, is on Wednesday, the 6th, and the second on Thursday, the 7th of July. The 17th of this month is a strict fast day but when it falls on the Sabbath, that is, whenever the Passover happens on the same day, then it is held on the day following, the 18th, which is on Sunday. This will be the case this year on Sunday, the 24th of July.
Rosh Chodesh Ab, will be on Friday, August 5th. The 9th of the month, is a strict fast, held in commemoration of the burning of the temple by Nebuchadnezzar and Titus but it is observed as above, on Sunday if the proper day be Sabbath as will happen this year, on the 14th of August, instead of the 13th. This manner of removing a fast, is called נדחה (Nidcheh). The Portuguese read for Minchah (the afternoon service), the Haphtorah from Hosea xiv. 1 to 9, and add the last three verses from Micah (vii. 18 to 20).
The first day of Rosh Chodesh Elul, will be on Sabbath, September 3d, and the 2d day on Sunday, the 4th, and the Eve of the New Year, 5614, on Sunday, October 2d. The Portuguese use propitiatory prayers, סליחות , both morning and evening of week days, including the night after Sabbath from the 1st day of Elul but the Germans commence only the Sunday before New Year, when this is on Thursday or Sabbath, and the second Sunday before New Year, when this happens on a Monday or Tuesday. This year they commence on September 25th.
Ethiopia has its own ancient calendar. According to the beliefs of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, God created the world 5500 years before the birth of Christ and it is 1994 years since Jesus was born. Based on this timeline, we are in the year 7494 of the eighth millennium (orስምንተኛው ሺህ). These are referred to as Amete Alem (ዓመተ ዓለም) inAmharic or "the years of the world". Era of the world dates from 5493 B.C.
Ethiopic is not the only calendar in Ethiopia either. The works of Enoch(ሄኖክ) had been in Ethiopia and Egypt before the times of Moses and on through the times of King Solomon and Queen of Sheba. As has been the case for Israel, Egypt and Ethiopia have had important roles in Biblical History. An Enochian year is completed in 364 days, Enoch 82:4-7 and Jubilees 6:23-28. More precisely, a 365-day-solar-year and the 365-year-solar-cycle appear as a 365-days-and-years single term. From the three books of Enoch, a curious 364-day length of calendar year lends new insight by reserving the last day of the solar year. Ethiopians followed the Old Testament before the introduction of Christianity (1 Kings 10:1-9). The Arc of the Covenant was brought to Ethiopia long before Christianity accepted the Old Testament and offered worship to God. The Oromo (ኦሮሞ) people have their own calendar. Bete Israel(ቤተ እሥራዔል) believe in the Jewish faith.
The Ethiopic Enochian Calendar had 364 days per year. The Book of Enoch, whose Ethiopic version in its entirety survived only in Ethiopia and was taken to Europe by James Bruce was publicized around 1790 A.D. The Book of Enoch has been part of the Ethiopian Bible and Enoch 28:11 mentions the completion of the year in 364 days. (ዓመቱም በሦስት መቶ ስልሳ ኣራት ቀን ይጨረሳል ነገሩ እውነትም ነው የተጻፈው ቍጥሩ የተጠነቀቀ ነው። መጽሓፈ ሄኖክ ምዕ. ፳፰ ቊ. ፲፩።- Amharic Bible.) (In view of the Ethiopian Orthodox, Enoch wrote his Ethiopic Bible as the first and oldest author in any human language.)
The earliest known date is 4236 B.C.E., the founding of the Egyptian calendar. The ancient Egyptian calendar was lunar. The solar Coptic (ግብጽ) calendar, oldest in history, originated three millennia before the birth of Christ. The exact date of its Egyptian origin is unknown. It is believed that Imhotep, the supreme official of King Djoser C.2670 B.C. had a great impact on the construction of the calendar. Historically, ancient Egyptians initially used a civil calendar based on a solar year that consisted of 365 days only, without making any adjustment for the additional quarter of a day each year. Each year had 12 months. The heliacal rising of Sirius coincides with the arrival of the highest point of river Nile flood at Memphis marking the first day of the year. The new year of the ancient Egyptians started on Meskerem 1 (መስከረም ፩). This date is an Ethiopian new year signaling the end of Noah's flood. (The Hebrew new years also start in Meskerem. The Egyptian solar calendar consisted of 12 30-day months with five extra festival days at the end of the year. It should be noted that the chronology of 3,000 years of Ancient Egyptian history, by modern Egyptologists, was made possible only because the Ancient Egyptians followed the Sothic Year of slightly over 365¼ days, i.e. 365.25636 days.)
The connection between Egypt and Ethiopia from at least as early as the Twenty-second Dynasty was very intimate and occasionally the two countries were under the same ruler, so that the arts and civilization of the one naturally found their way into the other.
The Ethiopian Calendar has more in common with the Coptic Egyptian Calendar. The Ethiopic and Coptic calendars have 13 months, 12 of 30 days each and an intercalary month at the end of the year of 5 or 6 days depending whether the year is a leap year or not. The year starts on 11 September in the Gregorian Calendar (G.C.) or on the 12th in (Gregorian) Leap Years. The Coptic Leap Year follows the same rules as the Gregorian so that the extra month always has 6 days in a Gregorian Leap Year.
The names of the months and their starting dates are as follows:
|Amharic in Ethiopic||Amharic in Latin||Coptic Pronunciation||Start Date||Start Date Leap Year|
|መስከረም||Meskerem||Tout||11 Sept||12 Sept|
|ጥቅምት||Thikimt||Baba||11 Oct||12 Oct|
|ኅዳር||Hidar||Hator||10 Nov||11 Nov|
|ታኅሣሥ||Tahsas||Kiahk||10 Dec||11 Dec|
|ጥር||Thir||Toba||9 Jan||10 Jan|
|የካቲት||Yekatit||Amshir||8 Feb||9 Feb|
|Modified from http://saintmark.com/easter.html|
Following his conquest of Egypt, Julius Caesar consulted the Alexandrian astronomer Sosigenes (ሶሲጂነስ) about calendar reform. The calendar that Julius Caesar adopted in the Roman year 709 A.U.C. (Ab Urbe Condita, i.e. since the founding of Rome or 46 B.C.) was identical to the Alexandrian Aristarchus' (የካህናት) calendar of 239 B.C., and consisted of a solar year of twelve months and of 365 days with an extra day every fourth year. This calendar that replaced the Roman calendar became the Julian calendar. The lunar Roman calendar had only ten months with December (the Latin decem for ten) as the tenth month until January and February were inserted. Quintilis, the fifth month, was changed to July in honor of Julius Caesar and Sextilis was renamed August for Augustus Caesar.
When the Roman papal chancellor, Bonifacius, asked a monk by the name of Dionysius Exiguus (ዲዮናሲዮስ ኤክሲጅዮስ) to implement the rules from the Nicaean Council (የኒቅያ ጉባዔ) for general use and to prepare calculations of the dates of Easter, Dionysius fixed Jesus' birth in such a manner that it falls on 25 December 753 A.U.C., thus making the current era start with A.D. 1 on 1 January 754 A.U.C. It was about 525 A.D. that Dionysius Exiguus, started his count (instead of the Diocletian /ዲዮቅልጥያኖስ of 284 A.D.) with the year 1 A.D., considered to be the year of the birth of Christ. It is likely that Jesus was actually born around 7 B.C. or before King Herod's death in 750 A.U.C.
The Venerable Bede wrote the history of the early centuries of England in 731 A.D. He adopted the system of Dionysius and its use spread. Unfortunately, Bede made a blunder when he invented the B.C. system and stuck it immediately before A.D. 1. A year and a day were lost because of this error and the controversy on the start of new millennium has even run into 2000 G.C. though 2001 is assumed to be the new beginning. The Julian Calendar was modified to the Gregorian calendar in 1582 A.D. Pope Gregory authorized that ten days be excised from October 5 through October 14 in the year 1582 and added about nine days to the new calendar. Christians celebrated Easter on the same date, using the algorithm from A.D. 325 until 1582.
In 1583 G.C. Joseph Scaliger introduced the Julian day and began counting time from 4713 B.C. taking it day by day. In 1740 G.C. Jacques Cassini used +1 to designate A.D. 1 so that +1 is preceded by year 0, which is preceded by year -1.
In the Gregorian Calendar, the tropical year is approximated as 365+97/400 days = 365.2425 days. Thus it takes approximately 3300 years for the tropical year to shift one day with respect to the Gregorian calendar. The approximation 365+97/400 is achieved by having 97 leap years every 400 years. Some claim that the Gregorian calendar took care of the extra 11 minutes and 14 seconds of the tropical solar year with 365.242199 days instead of the 365.25 days. Yet, in the Eastern Orthodox system a century year is a leap year only if division of the century number by 900 leaves a remainder of 200 or 600 with 365+218/900 days = 365.242222 days, which is certainly more accurate than the official Gregorian number of 365.2425 days. Furthermore, due to the gravitational dynamics of the Sun-Earth-Moon system the length of the tropical year is not constant. In the Ethiopian calendar leap years come every four years. The Julian year is equal in length to the Coptic or Ethiopic year. In the Gregorian calendar every year that is exactly divisible by 4 is a leap year, except for years that are exactly divisible by 100 these centurial years are leap years only if they are exactly divisible by 400. In other word, Ethiopic has 100 Leap years every 400 years while Gregorian has 97.
(With the proper intercalation the Ethiopic Enochian calendar can be made more accurate. For instance an intercalation of a year every 293 years (107016 days) gives 365.2423 days, a fraction very close to the real time of 365.2422 days (20926 divided by 86000 seconds equals 0.2422 of a day). An unexpected feature of the 364-day year of Enoch is that it results in an average year length even more accurate than the modern Gregorian calendar. The actual length of the year is now 365.2422 days. The Gregorian calendar averages 365.2425 days. But if 52 weeks are intercalated every 293 years into the calendar of Enoch, then it averages 365.2423 days which is extremely accurate. It is very surprising that such accuracy can be obtained by intercalating an entire week at a time over so short a time period. In contrast, the Gregorian calendar intercalates one day at a time over a 400-year cycle and achieves less long-term accuracy.)
The Ethiopic calendar differs from both the Coptic and the Julian calendars. The current 1994 Ethiopian Calendar (E.C.) year is equivalent to the 1718 Coptic Calendar (C.C.), the 2001 Julian Calendar (J.C.) and the 2001 Gregorian Calendar (G.C.) years. After the massive killing by the Romans that was so severe and traumatic the Egyptians began a new calendar called "The Martyr's Calendar" in A.D. 284. The difference between the Ethiopic and Coptic is 276 years. In spite of this, the Ethiopic Calendar is closely associated with the rules and the different calculations influenced by the Coptic Church and the Ethiopian OrthodoxTewahido Church. (According to Aymro and Motovu, the Calendar of the Ethiopian Church came from Egypt and as to methods and dates agrees with the Calendar of the Coptic Church. But the two calendars differ with regards to the saints' days and the time of observing them.) According to Ethiopian scholars such as Aleqa Kidane Wold Kiflie (ኣለቃ ኪዳነ ወልድ ክፍሌ), the Ethiopic Calendar A.D. differs from other Christian calendars because of the continuity to these years after completion of the 5500 years and the former is religious while the latter is based on history. The Ethiopic years are seven years behind the Western and Eastern Church calendars. The seven years difference by Meskerem 1 or መስከረም ፩becomes eight on January 1. Ethiopic uses the 5500 E.B.C. years in proleptic as well as modern calendrical calculations.
According to Asrat Gebre Mariam (ዓሥራት ገብረ ማርያም) and Gebre Hiwot Mehari (ገብረ ሕይወት መሓሪ), the Romans endorsed an inaccurate figure by the time they started from counting the birth year of Jesus Christ. Exiguus suggested that the Romans (drop the A.U.C. calendar and) start with the Christian Calendar in 532 A.M. (and 19 lunar cycles times 28 solar cycles equals 532). Many churches accepted the A.D. 1(or 753 A.U.C.) calculation of Exiguus, which was off by four years, only because of the difficulty associated with changing calendar rules and regulations established on it. The authors point out to evidence presented by Flavius Josephus and other which include Matthew 2:1.Also Tiberius Caesar became the king of Rome in the Roman 765 year and Jesus started teaching fifteen years into his reign, at the age of thirty, in 780 A.U.C.- see Luke 3:1-23.
The starting point of the Jewish calendar is 3761 B.C., the date for the creation of the world according to their religion. The Aztecs believed that the creation of the world occurred 3113 B.C. The Greek epoch correlates to 776 B.C.E. Olympiad. The Islamic Calendar started from A.D. 622 after the flight of Mohammed to Medina.
The Geez Calendar (ቀለንጦስ) is divided into old and new. The old era which is equivalent to the B.C. is Zemene Bluy (Z.B.) or (ዘመነ ብሉይ).Zemene Haddis (Z.H.) or (ዘመነ ሓዲስ) is Anno Domini (A.D.), though it is commonly referred to as Amete Mihret (A.M.) which means "years of mercy". Amete Mihret (ዓመተ ምሕረት) is abbreviated as ዓ.ም.. Coptic Years are Amete Semaetat (ዓመተ ሰማዕታት or ዓ.ሰ.). The Gregorian Calendar years are followed by እንደ ኤውሮጳ ኣቆጣጠር, which means according to the "European" calendar and is abbreviated as እ.ኤ.ኣ.. In Amharic Julius is ዩልዮስ, Gregory is ጎርጎርዮስ and B.C. is ከክርስቶስ በፊት(ክ.በ.). The current Ethiopic year can be written as ፲፱፻፺፬ ዓ.ም., 1994 A.M., 1994 Z.H., 7494 A.A. and even ፩፱፱፬ ዓ.ም..
The Ethiopians, like all their contemporaries, probably did not know about the zero between the B.C. and the A.D. years. In spite of this, 5500 + Amete Mihret years divided by 4 is an Ethiopic Leap year if the remainder is 3. Leap (ሠግር) years by the Ethiopian Calendar are those that end in a Gregorian calendar year preceding a Gregorian calendar leap year. The Ethiopic Leap day is Phagumien 6 (ጳጉሜን ፮).
Calendar raises the issue of the types of counting glyphs used for documentation. The ancient people might have used the "Aebegede" (አበገደ) digits. The numerals of the Heleheme (ሀለሐመ) Ethiopic are notalphabetic (ፊደላዊ ኣኃዝ) to Ethiopic. Some Ethiopians claim that the resemblance of most Ethiopic numbers to the Greek or Coptic numerals do not necessarily mean they were copied from them. Recent research shows that the Greek alphabetic numerals were borrowed from the Egyptian Demotic system. The modern Ethiopian calendar is tabulated with Ethiopic and Latin alphanumeric characters to make it bi-alphabetic and includes the G.C. dates. Many incorporate national, Christian and Muslim holidays. (The week tables start with Sundays.) It has continued to play important roles in agriculture, genealogy, astronomy, history, astrology, commerce, science, etc. and in calculating movable holidays such as Ethiopian Easter. Many other movable Christian holidays change with the Easter (that also uses the Hebrew Calendar).
Ethiopian calendar tables are usually annual, though one spans 532 years. The calendar cycles repeat and thus the charts are re-usable. Dr. Getatchew has published examples and describes how the 532-year cycle table with the movable holidays (በዓላት) and fast (ኣጽዋማት) days was created for the first time by Annianus (ኣንያኖስ), an Egyptian monk, who lived around 400 A.M. The table was for the 12 th cycle or years 5853 to 6384 A.A.
Groups of years like those associated with lunar and solar cycles have Amharic names (qemer / ቀመር, awde chereka / ዓውደ ጨረቃ, terefe tsehay / ተረፈ ፀሓይ, etc.). The Ethiopic years have four-year cycles. The years are named after the evangelists Matthew (ማቴዎስ), Luke (ሉቃስ), Mark (ማርቆስ) and John (ዮሓንስ). Each year has four seasons, similar to autumn (fall or ፀደይ), winter (ክረምት), spring (መጸው) and summer (በጋ). An Ethiopian week has seven days. Each day has a numeric value for use in calendarical calculations. For instance, Pope Demetrios (ፓትርያርክድመጥሮስ) of the Church of Alexandria (seat of St. Mark see) utilized Mitonic cycles, the calculations of Ptolemy and the Egyptian calendar to establish the rules for calculating Easter and the day of a particular new year. Asrat and Gebre Hiwot have published the arithmetic of similar Ethiopic old methods.
Each day has 24 hours with twelve hours of daylight followed by the night.
|Days in Amharic Alphabet (ዕለት)||Amharic Days in Latin Alphabet||Days in English|
Apart from hours, minutes, seconds, etc. Ethiopic also has a time frame known as kekros (ኬክሮስ). A kekros is 1/60th of a day. An Ethiopian solar year has 365 days and 15 kekroses while a lunar year has 354 days and 22 kerkoses. (A 1987 E.C. Amharic book by Asrat (ዓሥራት) and Gebre Hiwot (ገብረ ሕይወት) is recommended for more information on the calendar or calculations of the holidays in accordance with a book called Bahre Hassab (b'R 'sb). For example, the 1994 A.M. Meskerem 1 day can be calculated by adding 7494 A.A.+1873 and dividing the sum by 7. If the remainder is one it is on a Tuesday. (1873 is 5500 Z.B.+1994 A.M. divided by 4.)
Listed below are the calculated holidays and fast days of the EthiopianOrthodox Tewahido Church for 1994 (፲፱፻፺፬ ዓ.ም.) and 2000 E.C. (፳፻ዓ.ም.). A Wenber (ወንበር) of 7, an Abeqtie (ኣበቅቴ) of 17 and a Methiqi(መጥቅዕ) of 13 were utilized for the year of Mark (ዘመነ ማርቆስ) that started Tuesday morning Ethiopic night time (12:00 E.N.) or 6:00 P.M. on September 11, 2001 G.C. What is important is to calculate Nineveh (ነነዌ).
One of the reasons behind the controversy between the Ethiopian and the Gregorian calendars is because Pope Gregory abandoned the rules for calculating Easter and introduced new rules in 1582 without consulting the Alexandrian Church. Gregorian also changed the beginning of Julian new years from መጋቢት (March) to ጥር (January) and reduced Leap years. It also involves the minutes that add up to one day (about every 128 years) and the relative positions of these days within the year numbers, while the days have constantly remained the same.
The Ethiopian calendar lacks the historical numerical discontinuity and inflation of the other Christian calendars and may be one of the oldest, even if it is another inaccurate calendar. As a result, it is not affected by the absence of the zero digit and it is reasonable to conclude that the new millennium will begin on Meskerem 1, 2001 E.C. (መስከረም ፩ ቀን ፳፻፩ ዓ.ም.). Considering that all calendars are not really accurate and we continue to worry about leap seconds to improve on them while ignoring years, the reluctance of Ethiopians in accepting the Gregorian calendar is understandable. However, the four years gap introduced by Exiguusdoes not account for the seven years difference between the Ethiopic and the Christian calendars. If Jesus was born in 7 B.C. and nobody made the effort to correct the error, the A.D. years should have remained the same. The Ethiopians imply that Exiguus used 532 in the wrong year without mentioning the A.D. year, though he was working on his Easter calculations in (the proleptic) A.D. 525. The difference of about seven years has moved date of creation of the Julian calendar by as many years relative to the Ethiopian. Further research is justified for historical, chronological, computational and other reasons and to find out how the Ethiopians stayed younger in spite of hanging onto the calendar for millennia. The Ethiopian calendar is neither Julian nor Gregorian. (The difference between the Ethiopian and Julian calendars most likely appeared only after Exiguus came up with Anno Domini.) For instance, Ethiopic days could be references. In a new book in Amharic, ባሕረሓሳብ (Bahra Hassab), Getatchew Haile (ጌታቸው ኃይሌ) used 365.25 days per year starting with Tuesday, Meskerem 1, 5500 years before the birth of Jesus. Nevertheless, if the birth of Christ is a new era for Christians we might as well get ready to celebrate the new millennium with Ethiopians in the year 2001 E.C. on September 11, 2008 G.C.
Ethiopia is located on 45 degrees longitude and is thus three hours ahead of the Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) or coordinated universal time, abbreviated UTC.
When it is 0000 UTC or midnight in London, it is 3:00 A.M. in Addis Abeba (ads aBb). This 3 A.M. standard local time is Ethiopic 9 o'clock or the 9 th hour of the night. (A simple method to convert from Ethiopic to local English time or vice versa is to add or subtract six.) Qen (ቀን) is an Amharic word for day and Lelit (ሌሊት) is night.
It is thus important that Ethiopian computers and software utilize Ethiopic alphabets, numerals and symbols.
In re Rathbun
Original proceeding in discipline. Opinion filed October 26, 2007. Disbarment.
Frank D. Diehl, deputy disciplinary administrator, argued the cause, and Stanton A. Hazlett, disciplinary administrator, was with him on the formal complaint for the petitioner.
John J. Ambrosio, of Topeka, argued the cause for the respondent.
No appearance by the respondent.
Per Curiam: This is an original proceeding in discipline filed by the Disciplinary Administrator against respondent, Kiehl Rathbun, of Wichita, an attorney admitted to the practice of law in Kansas on September 12, 1975. This action arose from two disciplinary complaints. A hearing panel of the Kansas Board for the Discipline of Attorneys conducted a formal hearing, as required by Kansas Supreme Court Rule 211 (2006 Kan. Ct. R. Annot. 284).
The hearing panel concluded that Rathbun violated Kansas Rules of Professional Conduct (KRPC) as follows: KRPC 1.1 (2006 Kan. Ct. R. Annot. 358) (competence) KRPC 1.3 (2006 Kan. Ct. R. Annot. 371) (diligence) KRPC 1.4 (2006 Kan. Ct. R. Annot. 386) (communication) KRPC 1.5 (2006 Kan. Ct. R. Annot. 401) (fees) KRPC 1.16 (2006 Kan. Ct. R. Annot. 448) (declining or terminating representation) KRPC 3.3(d) (2006 Kan. Ct. R. Annot. 467) (candor toward the tribunal) and KRPC 8.4(d) (2006 Kan. Ct. R. Annot. 510) (misconduct). Additionally, Rathbun was held to have violated Kansas Supreme Court Rule 211(b) (formal hearings). The hearing panel unanimously recommended that Rathbun be indefinitely suspended from the practice of law in the state of Kansas. Rathbun did not file exceptions to the final hearing report.
Hearing Panel's Findings of Fact
The hearing panel, based upon clear and convincing evidence, made findings of fact. Highly summarized, the final hearing report contained the following findings of fact regarding the two complaints against Rathbun.
The first complaint arose from Rathbun's representation of a party in postdivorce proceedings. Rathbun filed a motion to modify child support. At a hearing on June 18, 2002, the court sustained Rathbun's motion and directed Rathbun to prepare the journal entry. Rathbun failed to timely do so it was not until March 2003–8 months after the hearing–that Rathbun prepared the journal entry.
Simultaneous with the issues regarding support, motions were also pending regarding visitation. The court appointed a case manager who, on June 10, 2002, completed a plan for visitation. The plan included a provision that Rathbun's client–the children's father who lived in Kansas City–would pick up the children in Wichita on Friday, June 14, 2002, and return them on Sunday, June 16, 2002. On Friday, June 14, 2002, in an ex parte contact, Rathbun told the judge the mother was denying the father visitation. As a result, the judge signed an ex parte order that changed the visitation from Friday through Sunday to Saturday through Monday at 8 a.m. and required the mother to pick up the children in Kansas City.
Rathbun's client had received the case manager's visitation plan prior to the ex parte contact. Rathbun, however, did not inform the judge that the case manager's plan required his client to pick up and return the children to Wichita or that his client had been required to do the driving to and from visitation in the past.
As a result of the ex parte order, the children's mother traveled to Kansas City on Sunday and spent the night in a hotel so she could pick up her children at 8 a.m. Monday morning. Because of the travel to Kansas City, the mother missed a day of work. The attorney representing the mother filed a motion seeking reimbursement of the mother's expenses for travel, lodging, gasoline, and attorney fees and requiring Rathbun to compensate the case manager.
On June 25, 2002, a different judge imposed sanctions that were personally paid by Rathbun.
The second complaint arose from Rathbun's representation of a client in a criminal proceeding. Rathbun prepared an engagement letter which detailed the terms of the representation and the fee. According to the engagement letter, the fee was "earned on receipt" and was "not refundable." Although an executed copy of the agreement was not an exhibit in the disciplinary proceeding, Rathbun testified during the final hearing that the engagement letter reflected the agreement of the parties and that he believed that he and his client signed the letter of engagement.
On the morning scheduled for the jury trial, Rathbun waived his client's right to a jury and the case was tried to the court. During the trial, Rathbun, who had not interviewed any of the eyewitnesses, did not call any witnesses and advised his client not to testify. The client followed the advice. As a result, no factual defense was asserted.
Following the trial, the court directed the parties to brief a legal issue and submit written closing arguments. The prosecutor submitted a brief and closing argument. Rathbun, however, did not. On August 17, 2005, the court issued its decision in which it stated that the facts were not disputed. Rathbun's client was convicted.
Before the sentencing hearing, Rathbun did not research his client's criminal history or advise his client regarding the impact of previous convictions on the possible sentence or that the presumptive sentence was a term of imprisonment. Rathbun's client served 14 months in prison.
Immediately following the sentencing hearing, Rathbun filed a notice of appeal but told his client he thought he should withdraw because the court did not look favorably on the respondent. Rathbun, however, never withdrew from the case nor took any further action.
Additionally, at one hearing, a court services officer presented a warrant for the arrest of Rathbun's client. Rathbun became enraged and called the court services officer a "bitch."
Complaints arising from these actions led to the Disciplinary Administrator filing a formal complaint in the instant case. Rathbun failed to file an answer to the formal complaint within 20 days, as required by Supreme Court Rule 211(b). His answer was filed just 6 days before the hearing was held on the formal complaint.
Hearing Panel's Conclusions of Law
Based upon these facts, the hearing panel made several conclusions of law. First, the hearing panel noted: "Lawyers must provide competent representation to their clients. KRPC 1.1. 'Competent representation requires the legal knowledge, skill, thoroughness and preparation reasonably necessary for the representation.'" The hearing panel concluded that Rathbun failed to be thorough and prepared and thereby failed to competently represent his client in the criminal case when he failed to interview witnesses to the crime. Accordingly, the hearing panel concluded Rathbun violated KRPC 1.1.
Second, the hearing panel noted: "Attorneys must act with reasonable diligence and promptness in representing their clients. See KRPC 1.3." The hearing panel concluded Rathbun violated this provision when he failed to prepare a journal entry for a period of 8 months. Additionally, Rathbun failed to provide diligent representation in the criminal proceeding when he failed to file a letter brief and closing argument and failed to properly research his client's criminal history.
Third, the hearing panel cited KRPC 1.4(b), which provides that a "lawyer shall explain a matter to the extent reasonably necessary to permit the client to make informed decisions regarding the representation." The hearing panel concluded that Rathbun violated KRPC 1.4(b) when he failed to properly explain the effects of his client's criminal history.
Fourth, the hearing panel noted that a lawyer's fee must be reasonable. KRPC 1.5(a). The hearing panel concluded it is unreasonable for a lawyer to charge a fee that is nonrefundable and, therefore, Rathbun violated KRPC 1.5(a).
Fifth, the hearing panel quoted KRPC 1.16(d), which provides:
"Upon termination of representation, a lawyer shall take steps to the extent reasonably practicable to protect a client's interests, such as giving reasonable notice to the client, allowing time for employment of other counsel, surrendering papers and property to which the client is entitled and refunding any advance payment of fee that has not been earned. The lawyer may retain papers relating to the client to the extent permitted by other law."
The hearing panel concluded that Rathbun violated this provision by failing to take any steps to protect his client's interest in the appeal after the criminal conviction.
Sixth, the hearing panel concluded that Rathbun violated KRPC 3.3(a)(1), which provides that a "lawyer shall not knowingly make a false statement of material fact or law to a tribunal." The hearing panel concluded that Rathbun violated this provision when he knew the case manager in the postdivorce proceedings had developed a visitation plan and, without informing the court of the plan, sought and received an ex parte order that directly conflicted with the plan.
Seventh, the hearing panel found that when Rathbun became belligerent and called the court services officer a "bitch" he violated KRPC 8.4(d), which states: "It is professional misconduct for a lawyer to . . . engage in conduct that is prejudicial to the administration of justice."
Finally, the hearing panel noted that the Supreme Court Rules require attorneys to file answers to formal complaints. Supreme Court Rule 211(b) states: "The respondent shall serve an answer upon the Disciplinary Administrator within twenty days after the service of the complaint unless such time is extended by the Disciplinary Administrator or the hearing panel." 2006 Kan. Ct. R. Annot. 285. The hearing panel concluded that Rathbun violated Supreme Court Rule 211(b) by failing to file a timely written answer to the formal complaint.
In deciding what discipline to recommend, the hearing panel considered the factors outlined by the American Bar Association in its Standards for Imposing Lawyer Sanctions (1991). Applying Standard 3, the hearing panel considered the duty violated, the lawyer's mental state, the potential or actual injury caused by the misconduct, and the existence of aggravating or mitigating factors.
"Duty Violated. The Respondent violated his duty to his clients to provide competent and diligent representation and adequate communication. Additionally, the Respondent violated his duty to the legal profession to maintain his personal integrity. Finally, the Respondent violated his duty to the legal system to refrain from interfering with the administration of justice.
"Mental State. The Respondent knowingly violated his duties.
"Injury. As a result of the Respondent's misconduct, the Respondent caused actual injury.
"Aggravating or Mitigating Factors. Aggravating circumstances are any considerations or factors that may justify an increase in the degree of discipline to be imposed. In reaching its recommendation for discipline, the Hearing Panel, in this case, found the following aggravating factors present:
"Prior Disciplinary Offenses. The Respondent has been informally admonished for having engaged in misconduct in five previous cases. First, on July 10, 1979, the Respondent was informally admonished for having spoken with represented parties without written consent of their counsel, W1395. On December 5, 1996, in A6641, the Respondent was informally admonished for having violated KRPC 1.1, KRPC 1.5, and KRPC 1.15. On June 17, 1997, the Respondent was informally admonished for violating KRPC 1.9, A6809. On July 18, 2000, the Respondent was informally admonished in two separate cases. In A7100, the Respondent was informally admonished for having violated KRPC 1.1, KRPC 1.3, KRPC 1.4, and KRPC 8.4 and in A7519, the Respondent was informally admonished for having violated KRPC 1.5(d).
"Additionally, on May 30, 2003, the Kansas Supreme Court placed the Respondent on probation for three years for having violated KRPC 1.3, KRPC 1.4, KRPC 1.5, KRPC 1.15, KRPC 1.16, KRPC 3.3, KRPC 3.4, KRPC 3.5, and KRPC 8.4, in a total of eight disciplinary cases.
"Finally, on December 9, 2005, the Kansas Supreme Court extended the Respondent's probation for one year for having violated KRPC 1.3, KRPC 1.4, KRPC 1.15, KRPC 3.1, and Kan. Sup. Ct. R. 207(b), in a total of six disciplinary cases. The Respondent's probation is set to terminate on May 30, 2007.
"A Pattern of Misconduct. Included in this case are two complaints. The complaints involve similar misconduct. Additionally, the Respondent has previously been disciplined on a number of occasions. Some of the previous cases have included violations of the rules violated in this case. Accordingly, the Respondent engaged in a pattern of misconduct.
"Multiple Offenses. The Respondent violated KRPC 1.1, KRPC 1.3, KRPC 1.4, KRPC 1.16, KRPC 3.3(d), KRPC 8.4(d), and Kan. Sup. Ct. R. 211(b). As such, the Respondent committed multiple offenses.
"Substantial Experience in the Practice of Law. The Kansas Supreme Court admitted the Respondent to practice law in 1975. At the time the Respondent engaged in misconduct, the Respondent had been practicing law for more than thirty years. Accordingly, the Hearing Panel concludes that the Respondent had substantial experience in the practice of law at the time he engaged in the misconduct.
"Mitigating circumstances are any considerations or factors that may justify a reduction in the degree of discipline to be imposed. In reaching its recommendation for discipline, the Hearing Panel, in this case, found the following mitigating circumstances present:
"Absence of a Dishonest or Selfish Motive. Dishonesty and selfishness were not motivating factors in this case.
"Personal or Emotional Problems. The Respondent has had extensive personal and emotional problems in his life. The Respondent has engaged in mental health treatment to address his personal and emotional problems.
"Remoteness of Prior Offenses. The discipline imposed in 1979 is remote in time and in character to the misconduct in this case. The other cases are similar in time and circumstances, however.
"In addition to the above-cited factors, the Hearing Panel has thoroughly examined and considered the following Standards:
'Suspension is generally appropriate when a lawyer has been reprimanded for the same or similar misconduct and engages in further acts of misconduct that cause injury or potential injury to a client, the public, the legal system, or the profession.' Standard 8.2."
The Deputy Disciplinary Administrator recommended that Rathbun be informally admonished for his conduct in his representation of his client in the postdivorce proceedings. This recommendation was made, in part, because the misconduct occurred prior to Rathbun being placed on probation. Additionally, the Deputy Disciplinary Administrator recommended that Rathbun be suspended for an indefinite period of time for his conduct in representing the criminal defendant because the misconduct in that case occurred in 2004 and 2005 while Rathbun was on probation.
The hearing panel concluded that Rathbun's license to practice law should be indefinitely suspended. The hearing panel noted that Rathbun has had the benefit of probation for a number of years and, yet, he continues to violate the Kansas Rules of Professional Conduct. The hearing panel concluded that Rathbun's plan of probation is insufficient to resolve the problems and, therefore, should not be extended for a longer period of time.
In a disciplinary proceeding, this court considers the evidence, the findings of the hearing panel, and the arguments of the parties and determines whether violations of KRPC exist and, if they do, what discipline should be imposed. Attorney misconduct must be established by substantial, clear, convincing, and satisfactory evidence. In re Landrith, 280 Kan. 619, 636, 124 P.3d 467 (2005) Supreme Court Rule 211(f) (2006 Kan. Ct. R. Annot. 284). When a respondent does not file exceptions to the hearing panel's report, the report is deemed admitted under Supreme Court Rule 212(c) and (d) (2006 Kan. Ct. R. Annot. 295). In this case, Rathbun filed no exceptions to the hearing panel's report.
We conclude there is clear and convincing evidence that Rathbun violated KRPC 1.1, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.16, 3.3(d), 8.4(d) as well as Supreme Court Rule 211(b), and we adopt the conclusions of the hearing panel.
Further, Rathbun, having been notified of these proceedings, failed to appear before this court. This failure to appear constitutes a violation of Supreme Court Rule 212(d).
With respect to the discipline to be imposed, the hearing panel's unanimous recommendation that Rathbun be indefinitely suspended from the practice of law in the state of Kansas is advisory only. The court may impose discipline greater or lesser than that recommended by the hearing panel or the Disciplinary Administrator. Supreme Court Rule 212(f).
The hearing panel based its recommendation upon ABA Standard 8.2, relating to discipline imposed after a respondent has previously been disciplined. Standard 8.2 provides for suspension from the practice of law. Related Standard 8.1 provides:
"Disbarment is generally appropriate when a lawyer:
(a) Intentionally or knowingly violates the terms of a prior disciplinary order and such violation causes injury or potential injury to a client, the public, the legal system, or the profession or
(b) has been suspended for the same or similar misconduct, and intentionally or knowingly engages in further acts of misconduct that cause injury or potential injury to a client, the public, the legal system, or the profession."
Potentially, Standard 8.1 applies in this case because in In re Rathbun, 275 Kan. 920, 69 P.3d 537 (2003), this court suspended Rathbun from the practice of law and then suspended that punishment and placed Rathbun on probation. The order prohibited Rathbun from violating any provisions of the Kansas Rules of Professional Conduct. The same term was imposed when Rathbun's probation was extended in In re Rathbun, 280 Kan. 672, 124 P.3d 1 (2005). In addition, Standard 8.1 relates to situations in which there has been a knowing violation of the previous disciplinary order and resulting injury. Although not specifically addressing Standard 8.1, the hearing panel found that Rathbun's violations were knowingly made and that actual injury resulted. Hence, the hearing panel made the findings suggested by Standard 8.1. See In re Comfort, 284 Kan. 183, 207, 159 P.3d 1011 (2007) (every potentially applicable ABA Standard need not be discussed by hearing panel or court ABA Standards serve only as guidelines to assist courts in selecting appropriate and uniform discipline).
In our consideration of whether to order suspension or disbarment, we note that subsequent to the hearing panel's recommendation Rathbun has committed a new violation by failing to appear before the court as required by Supreme Court Rule 212(d). While every such violation does not result in an escalation of the severity of punishment, in this case the violation reflects a pattern of misconduct that spans a decade, involves 21 separate cases, and occurs while the respondent is already on probation. Repeated attempts at probation and rehabilitation have failed.
We conclude that the appropriate discipline is disbarment.
IT IS THEREFORE ORDERED that the respondent, Kiehl Rathbun, be and he is hereby disbarred from the practice of law in the state of Kansas in accordance with Supreme Court Rule 203(a)(1) (2006 Kan. Ct. R. Annot. 243) for his violations of the Kansas Rules of Professional Conduct.
IT IS FURTHER ORDERED that the Clerk of the Appellate Courts strike the name of Kiehl Rathbun from the roll of attorneys licensed to practice law in Kansas.
IT IS FURTHER ORDERED that Kiehl Rathbun comply with Supreme Court Rule 218 (2006 Kan. Ct. R. Annot. 314).
IT IS FURTHER ORDERED that this order be published in the official Kansas Reports and that the costs of this action be assessed to respondent.
Day 285: Comfort to Endure & Overcome
I think one of the most disturbing aspects of all of the speeches from Job’s “friends” is that they teach a “prosperity gospel.” In other words, they believe that if you do good works for God, he will make you prosperous. And if you sin against God, God will make you suffer on earth. This just isn’t true!
The best defense against this position is Christ, himself. Christ was absolutely sinless! Yet, he suffered greatly. He was born in poverty and lived in Egypt to avoid being murdered by Herod. As an adult, he had no home, no income and was unjustly arrested, flogged and murdered. Christ knew suffering – just as Job knew suffering.
But Job seems to have gathered himself and can think more objectively about his suffering in Chapters 23-24. He is able to articulate God’s sovereignty and understands that he is being tested (23:10).
But he is still confused by the apparent lack of justice in this world. He spends Chapter 24 wondering when and if the wicked will ever be judged. The question of why do the wicked prosper while the righteous suffer has been asked for centuries.
Paul talks about Christ’s suffering in one of the most profound passages on Christ’s incarnation in Scripture (Philippians 2:5-11). But Paul was using Christ as an example of how to serve others in love. He had just commanded the Philippians to “count others more significant than yourselves. Let each of you look not only to his own interests, but also to the interests of others” (Philippians 2:3).
Isn’t this the key to offering comfort to the suffering AND receiving God’s comfort in the midst of our own suffering??
It’s all about humility…laying down our idols of “entitlement” and looking to Christ’s example of pouring ourselves out for others.
If Christ wasn’t spared from suffering, then why would we? God expects and endures our questions, but it is our faith that brings God delight. Just as Paul instructed the Philippians…enduring suffering without grumbling or complaining is like a bright light in a “crooked and twisted” world (Philippians 2:14-16).
October 30, 2013 Day 284 of the Fifth Year - History
Canterbury Shaker Village is many things, but at its heart it has always been a spiritual place.
While preparing an exhibit for the Infirmary, we were reminded of the care that Shaker community members took of one another from birth to death and of their relationship to one another even after death.
Steven Stein in "The Shaker Experience in America" reminds us that "Spiritualism rejects death as final. Spirit communication provides consolation for the living and hope for the dead. Shaker families, it was assumed, remained intact across the barriers of time."
And it was this reminder that prompted a discussion about mourning and the afterlife, and how the Believers perceived and experienced communications with those who had " departed to the Spirit land of the souls."
We developed "Ghost Encounters," which returns this month for a second year, to be a truly unique opportunity for visitors to experience firsthand the stories of spirit communications at Canterbury Shaker Village .
We hope you'll join us on October 18th or 19th and learn from our living history performers the details of these other-worldly encounters that occurred in many of the buildings at the Village and to rethink for yourself the meaning of spiritualism.
Back by popular demand for a second year, Ghost Encounters lets you experience for yourself true stories of ghostly encounters at Canterbury Shaker Village, many in the actual rooms where the other-worldly incidents took place. Meet "the Chef," "the Museum Guide," "the Museum Intern," "the Historian," "the Psychic," "the Tourist," "The Textiles Expert," "Eldress Elizabeth Stirling," and "Sister Caroline Whitcher" in these dramatizations of true accounts.
Ghost Encounters is sponsored by the Hays Companies.
Tickets are $15.00 per person. Not recommended for small children. Space is limited and pre-registration is required.
Canterbury Shaker Village and the White Mountain Region Chapter of the White Mountain Region Chapter of the Model A Ford Club of America host this popular Vintage Car Show on the Village grounds.
Admire automobiles from many eras, meet with the owners and other vintage car enthusiasts, enjoy Village tours and exhibits, and shop for local handcrafts at the Museum Store. An outdoor grill lunch will be available as well as soups, salads, sandwiches and baked goods at the Shaker Box Lunch & Farm Stand .
The Vintage Car Show is sponsored by Valpey Financial Services.
Tickets are $17 for adults, $8 for children ages 6-17. Village members and children under 5 are admitted free of charge.
The Coptic year is the extension of the ancient Egyptian civil year, retaining its subdivision into the three seasons, four months each. The three seasons are commemorated by special prayers in the Coptic Liturgy. This calendar is still in use all over Egypt by farmers to keep track of the various agricultural seasons. (Egypt used the Coptic Calendar till the Khedive Ismael adopted the Western Gregorian Calendar in the nineteenth century and applied it in Egypt's government departments.)
The Coptic calendar has 13 months, 12 of 30 days each and an intercalary month at the end of the year of 5 or 6 days, depending whether the year is a leap year or not. The year starts on 29 August in the Julian Calendar or on the 30th in the year before (Julian) Leap Years. The Coptic Leap Year follows the same rules as the Julian Calendar so that the extra month always has six days in the year before a Julian Leap Year.
The Feast of Neyrouz marks the first day of the Coptic year. Its celebration falls on the 1st day of the month of Thout, the first month of the Coptic year, which for AD 1901 to 2098 usually coincides with 11 September, except before a Gregorian leap year when it's September 12. Coptic years are counted from AD 284, the year Diocletian became Roman Emperor, whose reign was marked by tortures and mass executions of Christians, especially in Egypt. Hence, the Coptic year is identified by the abbreviation A.M. (for Anno Martyrum or "Year of the Martyrs"). The A.M. abbreviation is also used for the unrelated Jewish year (Anno Mundi).
Every fourth Coptic year is a leap year without exception, as in the Julian calendar, so the above mentioned new year dates apply only between AD 1900 and 2099 inclusive in the Gregorian Calendar. In the Julian Calendar, the new year is always 29 August, except before a Julian leap year when it's August 30. Easter is reckoned by the Julian Calendar in the Old Calendarist way.
To obtain the Coptic year number, subtract from the Julian year number either 283 (before the Julian new year) or 284 (after it).
The 2014 North Atlantic hurricane season had eight tropical storms, four hurricanes, and two major hurricanes. The number of tropical storms was below the 1981-2010 average of 12.1, the number of hurricanes was below the 1981-2010 average of 6.4, and the number of major hurricanes was near the 1981-2010 average of 2.7. In terms of the total number of named storms, this was the least since 1994 when eight named storms were observed. One hurricane, Arthur, made landfall in the U.S. during the 2014 season, marking the first landfalling hurricane in the contiguous U.S. since Isaac in August 2012. No other tropical cyclones directly impacted the contiguous U.S. during 2014. The first major hurricane of the season was Edouard, which never made landfall. Edouard had maximum sustained winds of 115 mph and a central minimum pressure of 955 mb. Edouard was the first major hurricane in the North Atlantic basin since Hurricane Sandy in 2012. Gonzalo was the second major hurricane in the North Atlantic during 2014 and had maximum sustained winds of 145 mph and a central minimum pressure of 940 mb. This was the first Category 4 hurricane in the North Atlantic since Ophelia in 2011 and the strongest since Igor in 2010. Gonzalo caused significant damage as it passed over Bermuda.
The Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE) index of tropical cyclone activity also indicated a below-average season in the North Atlantic. The ACE index is used to calculate the intensity of the hurricane season and is a function of the wind speed and duration of each tropical cyclone. The 2014 Atlantic hurricane season had an approximate ACE of 64 (x10 4 knots 2 ) which was below the 1981-2010 average value of 104 (x10 4 knots 2 ). Despite the below-average number of named storms, the ACE was higher than last year (2013), which had more storms, because of the two major hurricanes that occurred in 2014.
Additional tropical cyclone summaries are available through NOAA's National Hurricane Center.
East Pacific Basin
2014 Season Summary:
The 2014 East Pacific Hurricane Season had 22 named storms, of which 16 were hurricanes, and of these nine were major hurricanes. The 1981-2010 average number of named storms in the East Pacific is 16.5, with 8.9 hurricanes, and 4.3 major hurricanes. The number of named storms was the highest since 1992 and the third highest since reliable records began. The number of hurricanes tied with 1990 and 1992 as the most on record for the basin. Several of the storms impacted Mexico and the Hawaiian Islands causing significant damage and over 40 fatalities. Several remnant low pressures from the active East Pacific tropical cyclone season brought heavy rain into the Southwest and Southern Plains regions of the United States, causing record flooding and bringing some drought relief. The ACE index for the season was 150 (x10 4 knots 2 ), which is above the 1981-2010 average of 132 (x10 4 knots 2 ) and the most since 2006. Several noteworthy storms occurred including Hurricane Amanda in May which had maximum sustained winds of 155 mph and a central minimum pressure of 932mb &mdash the strongest May hurricane on record for the basin. Hurricane Iselle, which formed in the East Pacific basin and moved into the central Pacific made landfall on the Big Island of Hawaii as a tropical storm, marking the first landfall of a tropical cyclone in Hawaii since Hurricane Iniki in 1992 and only the second tropical cyclone to make landfall on the Big Island.
The Oldest Climber to Climb Mount Everest
The oldest person to ascend Mt. Everest was Japanese Miura Yiuchiro (Japan, b. 12 October 1932), who reached the summit on 23 May 2013 at the age of 80 years 223 days. Miura and his nine-person team climbed up the southeast ridge, using the same route pioneered by Sir Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norway 60 years ago. This is the 3rd time that he has held this record: he previously reached the highest point on Earth as the world's oldest mountaineer in 2003 and 2008. He has spent a lifetime defying the odds.
October 30, 2013 Day 284 of the Fifth Year - History
If you look at that 5-round group you might think it was shot with a 6 PPC or maybe a 6mmBR. But no, this was done with heavy 180gr Berger Hybrid bullets and the .284 Shehane, an improved version of the .284 Winchester. In fact, this impressive sub-quarter MOA group was shot while fire-forming with a very well-worn barrel! Gun builder Ryan Pierce of Piercision Rifles explains:
Our friend Erik Cortina notes that the .284 Shehane has a velocity edge over the straight .284 Win because it holds more powder: “The Shehane has more capacity than the .284 Winchester. Ryan is using 54.0 grains simply as a fire-forming load. Typical load for a Shehane is around 57.0 grains of Hodgdon H4831 SC.” By blowing the sidewalls out 0.010″, the .284 Shehane picks up about 3.3 grains of extra case capacity. That enhancement makes a BIG difference. The extra boiler room is enough to drive the 180s at 2900-2950 fps with H4831sc, with long barrels.
Scotland’s Grant Taylor. who used the .284 Shehane to finish third at the 2009 F-Class Worlds in England says the .284 Shehane is “very accurate with superb vertical spreads at 1000 yards. [This] caliber… has awesome accuracy. I’m getting 2930-2950 fps with spreads in the 3-5 fps range. I use Hodgdon H4831sc powder, CCI BR2 primers, and pointed 180gr Bergers.”
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Watch the video: Wednesday Study, October 30, 2013, part 2 (November 2021).