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Ida Proper, the daughter of a Baptist minister, was born in Bonaparte, Iowa in 1873.
After raising funds by working in a library in Seattle, she moved to New York where he attended the Arts Students League. Proper's work rated highly by her tutors and she was awarded a fellowship to study in Munich.
After spending several years in Europe she returned to the United States where she became involved in the struggle for women's suffrage.
In 1912 she joined with Malvina Hoffman to open their own art gallery. Proper also became art editor of the journal Women Voter and was a member of New York Woman Suffrage Association.
Ida Proper died in 1957.
Tater tots were invented in 1953 when American frozen food company Ore-Ida founders F. Nephi Grigg and Golden Grigg were trying to figure out what to do with leftover slivers of cut-up potatoes.    They chopped up the slivers, added flour and seasoning, then pushed the mash through holes and sliced off pieces of the extruded mixture. Thus, Tater Tots came to be. The product was first offered commercially in stores in 1956. 
The name "Tater Tot" is a registered trademark of Ore-Ida—which has been a subsidiary of Heinz since 1965—but has become so widely associated with the dish that it is often used as a generic term.  "Tater" is short for potato.  The name "Tater Tot" was created in the 1950s, and soon trademarked, by a member of the Ore-Ida company's research committee, who used a thesaurus to come up with an alliterative name. 
Originally, the product was very inexpensive according to advertising lectures at Iowa State University, people did not buy it at first because there was no perceived value. [ citation needed ] When the price was raised, people began buying it. Today, Americans consume approximately 70,000,000 pounds (32,000,000 kg) of Tater Tots, or 3,710,000,000 Tots per year.  
Recently, [ when? ] some vegetable companies (e.g. Green Giant brand) have introduced "veggie tots" which seek to substitute more nutritionally dense vegetables for the potato (e.g. broccoli and cauliflower). 
In the United Kingdom, Ross Frozen Foods once produced "Oven Crunchies" which are no longer available.
North America Edit
In Canada, McCain Foods Limited calls its line "Tasti Taters".
United States Edit
In the United States, tater tots are common at school-lunch counters and cafeterias.  They are also sold in the frozen food sections of grocery stores.  Some fast-food restaurants also offer them.
Supermarket chain Safeway sells a generic brand of tater tots known as "Tater Treats". Cascadian Farm calls its line "Spud Puppies". Sonic drive-in also features tater tots on their regular menu available toppings include cheese and chili. Sonic also sells "Cheesy Tots", coin-shaped tots that contain melted cheese and potatoes. Several restaurants in the Pacific Northwest offer a nacho version of tots known as "totchos", covered in nacho cheese sauce and toppings. Totchos were invented by publican Jim Parker in Portland, OR. 
Some Mexican-style fast-food restaurants offer seasoned tater tots: Taco Time and Señor Frog's call them "Mexi-Fries", while Taco Bell used to sell them as "Mexi-Nuggets" and "Border Fries". Taco Mayo in the Southwest offers round disc-shaped tater tots called "Potato Locos." Taco John's also has coin shaped tots called "Potato Olés".
Food franchise Potato Corner also offers tater tots.
In Australia and New Zealand, they are known as "potato gems", "potato royals" or "potato pom-poms". The New Zealand Pizza Hut franchise offers "Hash Bites" as a side dish, available alone or with an aioli dipping sauce.
Ida Proper - History
Twenty-five cases selected from those whose social history is known are given here in some detail in order to furnish an idea of the quality of much of the stock which was transplanted from its natural to its artificial environment by adoption. While one would hesitate to call them typical, it can be said that they are not unusual. Several of these cases show also something of the kind of home into which the children were permanently received. Opinions will differ as to the propriety of some of these adoptions.
(1) A little girl of fourteen months was the first illegitimate child of a mother who had had at least three. This mother herself was probably the illegitimate daughter of a woman of bad reputation and of a man said to have had colored blood. She had already made arrangements to allow the adoption of the child of the study by a woman with whom she was boarding her, when an agency was asked to put through the legal papers. An investigation showed that the middle-aged foster parents, although respectable, were financially unable to assume the permanent support of this child. The foster mother, in need of a surgical operation, could get about only with difficulty. The foster father was earning but $16 a week at the same job he had held for many years. The agency, therefore, considered it unwise to put through the adoption. A private attorney, however, transacted this piece of legal business. Not long after, another organization was asked to assist the adoptive parents who were giving the child good care but could not carry the burden of its support.
(2) Three illegitimate children were found by a court to be neglected and removed from their parents. This family had been known to several agencies for years because of conditions of neglect in the home due to the mother’s mental condition. She was finally committed to a hospital as epileptic and insane and continued to deteriorate mentally. The boy of the study, who in spite of his heredity seemed normal, was adopted at nine years of age by a family with whom he had lived some time.
(3) An agency put through the adoption of a two months old illegitimate baby whose mother was also illegitimate and had been in care of an organization during the first two years of her life. Then she had been returned to the maternal grandmother, who at once placed her with a fine woman who gave her an excellent bringing up. In spite of this opportunity the girl had a child just after she had begun to work.
(4) A little boy of two years was admitted to the care of an agency on application of his mother who was fatally ill with tuberculosis. She had struggled in vain to support him and his older sister and had been obliged to accept assistance from more than one agency. Her husband was a chronic non-supporter and finally found his way to a correctional institution. After the mother’s death the little boy was discharged by the agency to the maternal relatives who adopted him when four year years old. The older child was taken by relatives on the father’s side. . . .
The adoption law in Massachusetts is on the whole good. It was framed to protect all the parties at interest but in its intent exists primarily for the welfare of the child. The judges of the probate courts are men of integrity and worthy of the pride that the citizens of Massachusetts have always felt in its judiciary. Yet the children of Massachusetts are not adequately protected under the present adoption practice. Adoptions which for the welfare of the child, of the adoptive parents, and of society, should never be permitted, are being decreed almost daily.
It has been shown that at the present time it is possible in Massachusetts’ court procedure for inaccuracies or even untruths concerning social facts bearing upon adoptions to pass undetected. No oath is required as to the truth of any of the facts contained in the petition. No penalty is prescribed for misstatements. There is no requirement for going behind any plausible statements, nor any as to what parties to the process shall be seen by the judge.
The difficulty seems to lie in lack of appreciation of the fact that adoption is a most complicated child-welfare problem and not merely a small part of the business of crowded courts whose primary concern is far removed from this problem. Once it is recognized that there is a social problem behind each adoption petition and that therefore it is not the occasional, but every case, concerning which the court needs full information, the number of unsuitable adoptions will decrease. A way will be found to secure the facts for the courts.
The outstanding conclusion from this study is the great need of thorough investigation of the social facts which bear upon every adoption petition filed.
Source: Ida R. Parker, Fit and Proper?: A Study of Legal Adoption in Massachusetts (Boston: Church Home Society, 1927), 19-20, 69.
Dysgraphia is a Greek word. The base word graph refers both to the hand’s function in writing and to the letters formed by the hand. The prefix dys indicates that there is impairment. Graph refers to producing letter forms by hand. The suffix ia refers to having a condition. Thus, dysgraphia is the condition of impaired letter writing by hand, that is, disabled handwriting. Impaired handwriting can interfere with learning to spell words in writing and speed of writing text. Children with dysgraphia may have only impaired handwriting, only impaired spelling (without reading problems), or both impaired handwriting and impaired spelling.
What causes dysgraphia?
Research to date has shown orthographic coding in working memory is related to handwriting and is often impaired in dysgraphia. Orthographic coding refers to the ability to store written words in working memory while the letters in the word are analyzed or the ability to create permanent memory of written words linked to their pronunciation and meaning. Children with dysgraphia do not have primary developmental motor disorder, another cause of poor handwriting, but may have difficulty planning sequential finger movements such as the touching of the thumb to successive fingers on the same hand without visual feedback. Children with dysgraphia may have difficulty with both orthographic coding and planning sequential finger movements.
Does dysgraphia occur alone or with other specific learning disabilities?
Children with impaired handwriting may also have attention-deficit disorder (ADHD)–inattentive, hyperactive, or combined inattentive and hyperactive subtypes. Children with this kind of dysgraphia may respond to a combination of explicit handwriting instruction plus stimulant medication, but appropriate diagnosis of ADHD by a qualified professional and monitoring of response to both instruction and medication are needed.
Dysgraphia may occur alone or with dyslexia (impaired reading disability) or with oral and written language learning disability (OWL LD, also referred to as selective language impairment, SLI).
Dyslexia is a disorder that includes poor word reading, word decoding, oral reading fluency, and spelling. Children with dyslexia may have impaired orthographic and phonological coding, rapid automatic naming and focused, switching, and/or sustained attention.
OWL LD (SLI) is impaired language (morphology–word parts that mark meaning and grammar syntax–structures for ordering words and understanding word functions finding words in memory, and/or making inferences that go beyond what is stated in text). These disorders affect spoken as well as written language. Children with these language disorders may also exhibit the same writing and reading and related disorders as children with dysgraphia or dyslexia.
Why is diagnosis of dysgraphia and related learning disabilities important?
Without diagnosis, children may not receive early intervention or specialized instruction in all the relevant skills that are interfering with their learning of written language. Considering that many schools do not have systematic instructional programs in handwriting and spelling, it is important to assess whether children need explicit, systematic instruction in handwriting and spelling in addition to word reading and decoding. Many schools offer accommodations in testing and teaching to students with dysgraphia, but these students also need ongoing, explicit instruction in handwriting, spelling, and composition. It is also important to determine if a child with dysgraphia may also have dyslexia and require special help with reading or OWL LD (SLI) and need special help with oral as well as written language.
What kinds of instructional activities improve the handwriting of children with dysgraphia?
Initially, children with impaired handwriting benefit from activities that support learning to form letters:
- playing with clay to strengthen hand muscles
- keeping lines within mazes to develop motor control
- connecting dots or dashes to create complete letter forms
- tracing letters with index finger or eraser end of pencil
- imitating the teacher modeling sequential strokes in letter formation and
- copying letters from models.
Subsequently, once children learn to form legible letters, they benefit from instruction that helps them develop automatic letter writing, using the following steps to practice each of the 26 letters of the alphabet in a different order daily:
- studying numbered arrow cues that provide a consistent plan for letter formation
- covering the letter with a 3 x 5 card and imaging the letter in the mind’s eye
- writing the letter from memory after interval that increases in duration over the handwriting lessons
- writing letters from dictation (spoken name to letter form).
In addition, to developing handwriting speed, they benefit from writing letters during composing daily for 5 to 10 minutes on a teacher-provided topic.
Students benefit from explicit instruction in spelling throughout K-12:
- initially in high frequency Anglo-Saxon words
- subsequently in coordinating the phonological, orthographic, and morphological processes relevant for the spelling of longer, more complex, less frequent words and
- at all grade levels in the most common and important words used for the different academic domains of the curriculum.
Throughout K -12, students benefit from strategies for composing:
- planning, generating, reviewing/evaluating, and revising
- compositions of different genre including narrative, informational, compare and contrast, and persuasive
- self-regulation strategies for managing the complex executive functions involved in composing.
Do children with dysgraphia make reversals or other letter production errors?
Some children do make reversals (reversing direction letter faces along a vertical axis), inversions (flipping letters along a horizontal axis so that the letter is upside down), or transpositions (sequence of letters in a word is out of order). These errors are symptoms rather than causes of handwriting problems. The automatic letter writing instruction described earlier has been shown to reduce reversals, which are less likely to occur when retrieval of letters from memory and production of letters have become automatic.
What kind of instructional strategies improve spelling of children with dysgraphia?
If children have both handwriting and spelling problems, the kinds of handwriting instruction described earlier should be included along with the spelling instruction.
Are educators in public schools identifying children with dysgraphia and providing appropriate instruction in public schools?
In general, no. Although federal law specifies written expression as one of the areas in which students with learning disabilities may be affected, it does not clearly identify the transcription problems that are the causal factors in dysgraphia–impaired handwriting and/or spelling–for impaired written expression of ideas. Some of the tests used to assess written expression are not scored for handwriting or spelling problems and mask the nature of the disability in dysgraphia. Content or ideas may not be impaired. All too often, the poor writing or failure to complete writing assignments in a timely fashion or at all is misattributed to lack of motivation, laziness, or other issues unrelated to the real culprit–dysgraphia. Children who are twice exceptional–gifted and dysgraphic–are especially under-diagnosed and underserved. Teachers mistakenly assume that if a student is bright and cannot write it is because the student is not trying.
Are there research-supported assessment tools for diagnosing dysgraphia?
Yes. See Barnett, Henderson, Scheib, and Schulz (2007), Berninger (2007a), Milone (2007), and Slingerland assessment below for assessing handwriting problems associated with dysgraphia. Also, see Berninger (2007b) and Berninger, O‚ÄôDonnell, and Holdnack (2008) for using these tests and other evidence-based assessment procedures in early identification, prevention, and diagnosis for linking assessment results to evidence-based handwriting and spelling instruction (also see Troia, 2008).
In summary, dysgraphia is a specific learning disability that can be diagnosed and treated. Children with dysgraphia usually have other problems such as difficulty with written expression. It is important that a thorough assessment of handwriting and related skill areas be carried out in order to plan specialized instruction in all deficient skills that may be interfering with a student’s learning of written language. For example, a student may need instruction in both handwriting and oral language skills to improve written expression. Although early intervention is, of course, desirable, it is never too late during the school age years to intervene to improve a student’s deficient skills and provide appropriate accommodations.
Balmuth, M. (2009). The roots of phonics. A historical introduction (Revised ed.). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
Berninger, V. (2008). Evidence-based written language instruction during early and middle childhood. In R. Morris & N. Mather (Eds.), Evidence-based interventions for students with learning and behavioral challenges. Philadelphia: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Berninger, V., O’Donnell, L., & Holdnack, J. (2008). Research-supported differential diagnosis of specific learning disabilities and implications for instruction and response to instruction (RTI). In A. Prifitera, D. Saklofske, & L. Weiss (Eds.), WISC-IV Clinical Assessment and Intervention, Second Edition (pp. 69-108). San Diego, CA: Academic Press (Elsevier).
Berninger, V., & Wolf, B. (2009a). Teaching students with dyslexia and dysgraphia: Lessons from teaching and science. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
Brooks, A., Berninger, V., Abbott, R., & Richards, T. (2011) Letter naming and letter writing reversals of some children with dyslexia: Symptoms of inefficient phonological and orthographic loops of working memory? Developmental Neuropsychology, 36, 847-868.
Henry, M. (2010). Unlocking literacy. Effective decoding and spelling instruction. (2nd ed.). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.
Moats, L. C. (Winter, 2005/2006). How spelling supports reading: And why it is more regular and predictable than you think. American Educator, 12-22 , 42-43.
Troia, G. (Ed.). (2008). Instruction and assessment for struggling writers: Evidence- based practices. New York: Guilford.
Yates, C., Berninger, V., & Abbott, R. (1994). Writing problems in intellectually gifted children. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 18, 131-155.
Wolf, B. (2011). Teaching handwriting. In J. Birsch (Ed.), Multisensory teaching of basic language skills: Theory and practice, Revised Edition. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
Resources for Assessment and Instruction
Barnett, A., Henderson, S., Scheib, B., & Schulz, J. (2007). Detailed Assessment of Speed of Handwriting (DASH). UK: Pearson.
Benbow, M. (1990). Loops and groups: A kinesthetic writing system. San Antonio, TX: Therapy Skill Builders. [For cursive.]
Berninger, V. (2007a), Process Assessment of the Learner, 2nd Edition. Diagnostic for Reading and Writing (PAL-II RW) and Berninger (2007b), User’s Guide (CD format ISBN 0158661818) with writing lessons from UW research program that can be downloaded. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.
Berninger, V., & Wolf, B. (2009b). Helping students with dyslexia and dysgraphia make connections: Differentiated instruction lesson plans in reading and writing. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes. [Teaching plans from University of Washington Research Program.]
Bregman, C. (2009). Move into writing. A lowercase handwriting program. Self published. In consultation with Kristi Komai. Mail to [email protected] ISBN: 978- 0-692-00235- 3.
Fry, E. (1996). Spelling book. Level 1-6. Words most needed plus phonics. Westminster, CA: Teacher Created Materials. Retrieved from www.teachercreated.com
Getty. B., & -Dubay, I. Productions website: www.handwritingsuccess.com [10 books, materials, and DVD including Write Now for italic writing. DVD distributor is [email protected], 1-800-777-2844 (2337 NW York, Portland OR 97210).]
Graham, S., Harris, K., & Loynachan, C. (1994). The spelling for writing list. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 27, 210-214.
Milone, M. (2007). Test of Handwriting Skills- Revised. Novato, CA: Academic Therapy. [Distributed by ProEd, Austin, TX.]
Rubel, B. (1995). Big strokes for little folks. Tucson, AZ: Therapy Skill Builders.
Slingerland InstituteTrademark [Instructional (manuscript and cursive) and assessment materials and teacher training from Slingerland Institute for Literacy. See www.slingerland.org or call 425-453-1190.]
Slingerland, B., & Aho, M. (1985). Manual for learning to use manuscript handwriting. Cambridge, MA: Educators.
Slingerland, B., & Aho, M. (1985). Manual for learning to use cursive handwriting. Cambridge, MA: Educators.
Zaner-Bloser handwriting programs for use in general and special education. Available at www.zanerbloser.com/fresh/handwriting- overview.html Also see spelling programs.
The International Dyslexia Association (IDA) thanks Virginia W. Berninger, Ph.D., and Beverly Wolf, M.Ed., for their assistance in the preparation of this fact sheet.
© Copyright The International Dyslexia Association (IDA). For copyright information, please click here .
National Association of Colored Women's Clubs
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National Association of Colored Women’s Clubs (NACWC), formerly (1896–1914) National Association of Colored Women (NACW), American organization formed at a convention in Washington, D.C., as the product of the merger in 1896 of the National Federation of Afro-American Women and the National League of Colored Women—organizations that had arisen out of the African American women’s club movement. Its founders included Harriet Tubman, Frances E.W. Harper, Ida Bell Wells-Barnett, and Mary Church Terrell, who became the organization’s first president.
The NACW adopted the motto “Lifting As We Climb,” with the intention of demonstrating to “an ignorant and suspicious world that our aims and interests are identical with those of all good aspiring women.” Terrell established an ambitious and forward-thinking agenda for the organization, focusing on job training, wage equity, and child care. The organization raised funds for kindergartens, vocational schools, summer camps, and retirement homes. In addition, the NACW opposed segregated transportation systems and was a strong and visible supporter of the antilynching movement.
In 1912 the organization began a national scholarship fund for college-bound African American women. During that same year it endorsed the suffrage movement, two years before its white counterpart, the General Federation of Women’s Clubs. In 1914 the NACW changed its name to the National Association of Colored Women’s Clubs.
Into the early 21st century the NACWC continued its traditional community-based service projects, with equal pay and child care remaining as chief issues.
Obstetrics and Gynecology Words
TPAL terminology is a system used to describe obstetrical history.
T — term births
P — preterm births (prior to 37 weeks gestation)
A — abortions
L — living children
Example: A woman who has 2 living children born as preterm twins in her first pregnancy would be designated as: TPAL 0-1-0-2: 0 term births, 1 delivery prior to 37 weeks gestation (preterm), 0 pregnancies ending in spontaneous or induced abortions, and 2 living children.
Separate TPAL numbers by hyphens. Obstetric history: 4-2-2-4. Alternatively, spell out the terms as follows: 4 term infants, 2 premature infants, 2 abortions, 4 living children.
GPA Terminology - Gravida Para Abortus
GPA is the abbreviation for gravida, para, abortus. Sometimes, GPA terminology is combined with TPAL terminology. The patient is gravida 3, 3-0-0-3.
Accompanied by Arabic numbers, G, P, and A (or Ab) describe the patient’s obstetric history. Roman numerals are not used. Separate GPA sections by commas. Alternatively, spell out the terms in lower case.
Obstetric history: G4, P3, A1 or gravida 4, para 3, abortus 1. When one or more of the numbers is 0, the preferred form is to write out the terms: gravida 2, para 0, abortus 2.
(1900) Ida B. Wells, “Lynch Law in America”
Beginning in 1892 with the destruction of her newspaper, the Memphis Free Speech, Ida B. Wells for the next forty years was the most prominent opponent of lynching in the United States. What follows is a speech she made to a Chicago audience on the subject in January 1900.
Our country’s national crime is lynching. It is not the creature of an hour, the sudden outburst of uncontrolled fury, or the unspeakable brutality of an insane mob. It represents the cool, calculating deliberation of intelligent people who openly avow that there is an “unwritten law” that justifies them in putting human beings to death without complaint under oath, without trial by jury, without opportunity to make defense, and without right of appeal. The “unwritten law” first found excuse with the rough, rugged, and determined man who left the civilized centers of eastern States to seek for quick returns in the gold-fields of the far West. Following in uncertain pursuit of continually eluding fortune, they dared the savagery of the Indians, the hardships of mountain travel, and the constant terror of border State outlaws.
Naturally, they felt slight toleration for traitors in their own ranks. It was enough to fight the enemies from without woe to the foe within! Far removed from and entirely without protection of the courts of civilized life, these fortune-seekers made laws to meet their varying emergencies. The thief who stole a horse, the bully who “jumped” a claim, was a common enemy. If caught he was promptly tried, and if found guilty was hanged to the tree under which the court convened.
Those were busy days of busy men. They had no time to give the prisoner a bill of exception or stay of execution. The only way a man had to secure a stay of execution was to behave himself. Judge Lynch was original in methods but exceedingly effective in procedure. He made the charge, impaneled the jurors, and directed the execution. When the court adjourned, the prisoner was dead. Thus lynch law held sway in the far West until civilization spread into the Territories and the orderly processes of law took its place. The emergency no longer existing, lynching gradually disappeared from the West.
But the spirit of mob procedure seemed to have fastened itself upon the lawless classes, and the grim process that at first was invoked to declare justice was made the excuse to wreak vengeance and cover crime. It next appeared in the South, where centuries of Anglo-Saxon civilization had made effective all the safeguards of court procedure. No emergency called for lynch law. It asserted its sway in defiance of law and in favor of anarchy. There it has flourished ever since, marking the thirty years of its existence with the inhuman butchery of more than ten thousand men, women, and children by shooting, drowning, hanging, and burning them alive. Not only this, but so potent is the force of example that the lynching mania has spread throughout the North and middle West. It is now no uncommon thing to read of lynchings north of Mason and Dixon’s line, and those most responsible for this fashion gleefully point to these instances and assert that the North is no better than the South.
This is the work of the “unwritten law” about which so much is said, and in whose behest butchery is made a pastime and national savagery condoned. The first statute of this “unwritten law” was written in the blood of thousands of brave men who thought that a government that was good enough to create a citizenship was strong enough to protect it. Under the authority of a national law that gave every citizen the right to vote, the newly-made citizens chose to exercise their suffrage. But the reign of the national law was short-lived and illusionary. Hardly had the sentences dried upon the statute-books before one Southern State after another raised the cry against “negro domination” and proclaimed there was an “unwritten law” that justified any means to resist it.
The method then inaugurated was the outrages by the “red-shirt” bands of Louisiana, South Carolina, and other Southern States, which were succeeded by the Ku-Klux Klans. These advocates of the “unwritten law” boldly avowed their purpose to intimidate, suppress, and nullify the negro’s right to vote. In support of its plans the Ku-Klux Klans, the “red-shirt” and similar organizations proceeded to beat, exile, and kill negroes until the purpose of their organization was accomplished and the supremacy of the “unwritten law” was effected. Thus lynchings began in the South, rapidly spreading into the various States until the national law was nullified and the reign of the “unwritten law” was supreme. Men were taken from their homes by “red-shirt” bands and stripped, beaten, and exiled others were assassinated when their political prominence made them obnoxious to their political opponents while the Ku-Klux barbarism of election days, reveling in the butchery of thousands of colored voters, furnished records in Congressional investigations that are a disgrace to civilization.
The alleged menace of universal suffrage having been avoided by the absolute suppression of the negro vote, the spirit of mob murder should have been satisfied and the butchery of negroes should have ceased. But men, women, and children were the victims of murder by individuals and murder by mobs, just as they had been when killed at the demands of the “unwritten law” to prevent “negro domination.” Negroes were killed for disputing over terms of contracts with their employers. If a few barns were burned some colored man was killed to stop it. If a colored man resented the imposition of a white man and the two came to blows, the colored man had to die, either at the hands of the white man then and there or later at the hands of a mob that speedily gathered. If he showed a spirit of courageous manhood he was hanged for his pains, and the killing was justified by the declaration that he was a “saucy nigger.” Colored women have been murdered because they refused to tell the mobs where relatives could be found for “lynching bees.” Boys of fourteen years have been lynched by white representatives of American civilization. In fact, for all kinds of offenses–and, for no offenses–from murders to misdemeanors, men and women are put to death without judge or jury so that, although the political excuse was no longer necessary, the wholesale murder of human beings went on just the same. A new name was given to the killings and a new excuse was invented for so doing.
Again the aid of the “unwritten law” is invoked, and again it comes to the rescue. During the last ten years a new statute has been added to the “unwritten law.” This statute proclaims that for certain crimes or alleged crimes no negro shall be allowed a trial that no white woman shall be compelled to charge an assault under oath or to submit any such charge to the investigation of a court of law. The result is that many men have been put to death whose innocence was afterward established and to-day, under this reign of the “unwritten law,” no colored man, no matter what his reputation, is safe from lynching if a white woman, no matter what her standing or motive, cares to charge him with insult or assault.
It is considered a sufficient excuse and reasonable justification to put a prisoner to death under this “unwritten law” for the frequently repeated charge that these lynching horrors are necessary to prevent crimes against women. The sentiment of the country has been appealed to, in describing the isolated condition of white families in thickly populated negro districts and the charge is made that these homes are in as great danger as if they were surrounded by wild beasts. And the world has accepted this theory without let or hindrance. In many cases there has been open expression that the fate meted out to the victim was only what he deserved. In many other instances there has been a silence that says more forcibly than words can proclaim it that it is right and proper that a human being should be seized by a mob and burned to death upon the unsworn and the uncorroborated charge of his accuser. No matter that our laws presume every man innocent until he is proved guilty no matter that it leaves a certain class of individuals completely at the mercy of another class no matter that it encourages those criminally disposed to blacken their faces and commit any crime in the calendar so long as they can throw suspicion on some negro, as is frequently done, and then lead a mob to take his life no matter that mobs make a farce of the law and a mockery of justice no matter that hundreds of boys are being hardened in crime and schooled in vice by the repetition of such scenes before their eyes–if a white woman declares herself insulted or assaulted, some life must pay the penalty, with all the horrors of the Spanish Inquisition and all the barbarism of the Middle Ages. The world looks on and says it is well.
Not only are two hundred men and women put to death annually, on the average, in this country by mobs, but these lives are taken with the greatest publicity. In many instances the leading citizens aid and abet by their presence when they do not participate, and the leading journals inflame the public mind to the lynching point with scare-head articles and offers of rewards. Whenever a burning is advertised to take place, the railroads run excursions, photographs are taken, and the same jubilee is indulged in that characterized the public hangings of one hundred years ago. There is, however, this difference: in those old days the multitude that stood by was permitted only to guy or jeer. The nineteenth century lynching mob cuts off ears, toes, and fingers, strips off flesh, and distributes portions of the body as souvenirs among the crowd. If the leaders of the mob are so minded, coal-oil is poured over the body and the victim is then roasted to death. This has been done in Texarkana and Paris, Tex., in Bardswell, Ky., and in Newman, Ga. In Paris the officers of the law delivered the prisoner to the mob. The mayor gave the school children a holiday and the railroads ran excursion trains so that the people might see a human being burned to death. In Texarkana, the year before, men and boys amused themselves by cutting off strips of flesh and thrusting knives into their helpless victim. At Newman, Ga., of the present year, the mob tried every conceivable torture to compel the victim to cry out and confess, before they set fire to the faggots that burned him. But their trouble was all in vain–he never uttered a cry, and they could not make him confess.
This condition of affairs were brutal enough and horrible enough if it were true that lynchings occurred only because of the commission of crimes against women–as is constantly declared by ministers, editors, lawyers, teachers, statesmen, and even by women themselves. It has been to the interest of those who did the lynching to blacken the good name of the helpless and defenseless victims of their hate. For this reason they publish at every possible opportunity this excuse for lynching, hoping thereby not only to palliate their own crime but at the same time to prove the negro a moral monster and unworthy of the respect and sympathy of the civilized world. But this alleged reason adds to the deliberate injustice of the mob’s work. Instead of lynchings being caused by assaults upon women, the statistics show that not one-third of the victims of lynchings are even charged with such crimes. The Chicago Tribune, which publishes annually lynching statistics, is authority for the following:
In 1892, when lynching reached high-water mark, there were 241 persons lynched. The entire number is divided among the following States:
Of this number, 160 were of negro descent. Four of them were lynched in New York, Ohio, and Kansas the remainder were murdered in the South. Five of this number were females. The charges for which they were lynched cover a wide range. They are as follows:
In the case of the boy and girl above referred to, their father, named Hastings, was accused of the murder of a white man. His fourteen-year-old daughter and sixteen-year-old son were hanged and their bodies filled with bullets then the father was also lynched. This occurred in November, 1892, at Jonesville, La.
Indeed, the record for the last twenty years shows exactly the same or a smaller proportion who have been charged with this horrible crime. Quite a number of the one-third alleged cases of assault that have been personally investigated by the writer have shown that there was no foundation in fact for the charges yet the claim is not made that there were no real culprits among them. The negro has been too long associated with the white man not to have copied his vices as well as his virtues. But the negro resents and utterly repudiates the efforts to blacken his good name by asserting that assaults upon women are peculiar to his race. The negro has suffered far more from the commission of this crime against the women of his race by white men than the white race has ever suffered through his crimes. Very scant notice is taken of the matter when this is the condition of affairs. What becomes a crime deserving capital punishment when the tables are turned is a matter of small moment when the negro woman is the accusing party.
But since the world has accepted this false and unjust statement, and the burden of proof has been placed upon the negro to vindicate his race, he is taking steps to do so. The Anti-Lynching Bureau of the National Afro-American Council is arranging to have every lynching investigated and publish the facts to the world, as has been done in the case of Sam Hose, who was burned alive last April at Newman, Ga. The detective’s report showed that Hose killed Cranford, his employer, in self-defense, and that, while a mob was organizing to hunt Hose to punish him for killing a white man, not till twenty-four hours after the murder was the charge of rape, embellished with psychological and physical impossibilities, circulated. That gave an impetus to the hunt, and the Atlanta Constitution’s reward of $500 keyed the mob to the necessary burning and roasting pitch. Of five hundred newspaper clippings of that horrible affair, nine-tenths of them assumed Hose’s guilt–simply because his murderers said so, and because it is the fashion to believe the negro peculiarly addicted to this species of crime. All the negro asks is justice–a fair and impartial trial in the courts of the country. That given, he will abide the result.
But this question affects the entire American nation, and from several points of view: First, on the ground of consistency. Our watchword has been “the land of the free and the home of the brave.” Brave men do not gather by thousands to torture and murder a single individual, so gagged and bound he cannot make even feeble resistance or defense. Neither do brave men or women stand by and see such things done without compunction of conscience, nor read of them without protest. Our nation has been active and outspoken in its endeavors to right the wrongs of the Armenian Christian, the Russian Jew, the Irish Home Ruler, the native women of India, the Siberian exile, and the Cuban patriot. Surely it should be the nation’s duty to correct its own evils!
Second, on the ground of economy. To those who fail to be convinced from any other point of view touching this momentous question, a consideration of the economic phase might not be amiss. It is generally known that mobs in Louisiana, Colorado, Wyoming, and other States have lynched subjects of other countries. When their different governments demanded satisfaction, our country was forced to confess her inability to protect said subjects in the several States because of our State-rights doctrines, or in turn demand punishment of the lynchers. This confession, while humiliating in the extreme, was not satisfactory and, while the United States cannot protect, she can pay. This she has done, and it is certain will have to do again in the case of the recent lynching of Italians in Louisiana. The United States already has paid in indemnities for lynching nearly a half million dollars, as follows:
Paid China for Rock Springs (Wyo.) massacre……….. $147,748.74
Paid China for outrages on Pacific Coast………….. 276,619.75
Paid Italy for massacre of Italian prisoners at
New Orleans ……………………… 24,330.90
Paid Italy for lynchings at Walsenburg, Col ………… 10,000.00
Paid Great Britain for outrages on James Bain
and Frederick Dawson ………………. 2,800.00
Third, for the honor of Anglo-Saxon civilization. No scoffer at our boasted American civilization could say anything more harsh of it than does the American white man himself who says he is unable to protect the honor of his women without resort to such brutal, inhuman, and degrading exhibitions as characterize “lynching bees.” The cannibals of the South Sea Islands roast human beings alive to satisfy hunger. The red Indian of the Western plains tied his prisoner to the stake, tortured him, and danced in fiendish glee while his victim writhed in the flames. His savage, untutored mind suggested no better way than that of wreaking vengeance upon those who had wronged him. These people knew nothing about Christianity and did not profess to follow its teachings but such primary laws as they had they lived up to. No nation, savage or civilized, save only the United States of America, has confessed its inability to protect its women save by hanging, shooting, and burning alleged offenders.
Finally, for love of country. No American travels abroad without blushing for shame for his country on this subject. And whatever the excuse that passes current in the United States, it avails nothing abroad. With all the powers of government in control with all laws made by white men, administered by white judges, jurors, prosecuting attorneys, and sheriffs with every office of the executive department filled by white men–no excuse can be offered for exchanging the orderly administration of justice for barbarous lynchings and “unwritten laws.” Our country should be placed speedily above the plane of confessing herself a failure at self-government. This cannot be until Americans of every section, of broadest patriotism and best and wisest citizenship, not only see the defect in our country’s armor but take the necessary steps to remedy it. Although lynchings have steadily increased in number and barbarity during the last twenty years, there has been no single effort put forth by the many moral and philanthropic forces of the country to put a stop to this wholesale slaughter. Indeed, the silence and seeming condonation grow more marked as the years go by.
A few months ago the conscience of this country was shocked because, after a two-weeks trial, a French judicial tribunal pronounced Captain Dreyfus guilty. And yet, in our own land and under our own flag, the writer can give day and detail of one thousand men, women, and children who during the last six years were put to death without trial before any tribunal on earth. Humiliating indeed, but altogether unanswerable, was the reply of the French press to our protest: “Stop your lynchings at home before you send your protests abroad.”
Risks (and How to Mitigate Them)
How will the rating agencies respond? Some IDA stakeholders raise concerns about the prospective reactions of rating agencies—who rate IDA AAA—to an expansion in borrowing. But this seems overly cautious given that the DSC would still be well within prudential limits. Shareholder and IDA management could explain to the rating agencies that the increase in risk through lower DSC levels is part of a package alongside robust levels of donor contributions, a clear indication of the strong levels of shareholder support that IDA enjoys, a key metric in how some of the rating agencies evaluate IDA.
As a further cushion, IDA could consider asking its highly rated shareholders to issue an exceptional joint guarantee for IDA that could act as temporary callable capital. This would reinforce shareholder support for IDA’s financial expansion and their willingness to backstop it.
Shareholders should request IDA to obtain ratings evaluation service (RES) which provides a shadow rating based on several scenario scenarios.
Could a big ramp up in borrowing disincentivize donor contributions (i.e., substitution risk)? This has been a perennial concern since the launch of IDA’s hybrid model and the use of concessional partner loans. The reality is that these financial innovations have allowed IDA to grow significantly and rendered partner contributions more financially efficient since they leverage a bigger program. Moreover, IDA cannot sustain a large grant program over time absent donor contributions.
Will the market undermine IDA’s development mandate? Donor-funded concessional windows were largely set up to insulate MDBs from having to balance development objectives with the exigencies of capital markets. When IDA’s hybrid model was introduced many stakeholders worried that the vagaries of maintaining a AAA would implicitly push IDA to eschew riskier countries or embrace a less concessional model. In practice, IDA’s policy-based allocation (PBA) model—which allocates resources to countries according to a set formula—and its traffic light system for allocating loans and grants based on country’s debt sustainability have helped maintain the integrity of IDA’s resource allocation process. And since the IDA hybrid model was introduced, IDA has actually increased its program in fragile states.
Is the model sustainable if interest rates go up? IDA’s hybrid model is sensitive to interest rate fluctuations especially under a scenario where IDA uses equity to buy down market loans to concessional levels. In a benign interest rate environment this is a financially appealing arrangement, but should interest rates shoot up significantly, it would make this model more expensive (i.e., it would require more reflows and/or grants to buy-down market rates to concessional terms). IDA stakeholders should be prepared to take this risk today with the understanding that the model could need adjusting if conditions tighten. For instance, IDA could seek to borrow on longer terms or enter interest rate swaps.
Ida Proper - History
This repository is quite popular and spans all versions of IDA. If you can help categorize plugins based on version, it would be much appreciated. Submit a PR.
I'll be organizing the plugins over time. Please submit PRs if you have any other outstanding plugins. I would like to tag each plugin with its corresponding IDA version, but it will take me a long time to test. If you can help there, please do.
If a plugin is only a source repo with no description or documentation, I am not adding it.
3DSX Loader: IDA PRO Loader for 3DSX files
abyss Postprocess Hexrays Decompiler Output
ActionScript 3: An ActionScript 3 processor module and Flash debugger plugin.
Adobe Flash disassembler: The 2 plugins present in this archive will enable IDA to parse SWF files, load all SWF tags as segments for fast search and retrieval, parse all tags that can potentially contain ActionScript2 code, discover all such code(a dedicated processor module has been written for it) and even name the event functions acording to event handled in it (eg. OnInitialize). Download
- Finds paths to a given code block inside a function
- Finds paths between two or more functions
- Generates interactive call graphs
- Fully scriptable
Amnesia: Amnesia is an IDAPython module designed to use byte level heuristics to find ARM thumb instructions in undefined bytes in an IDA Pro database. Currently, the heuristics in this module find code in a few different ways. Some instructions identify and define new code by looking for comon byte sequences that correspond to particular ARM opcodes. Other functions in this module define new functions based on sequences of defined instructions.
Android Debugging: This version have both support for native arm debugging via usb and sdk ADV manager.
Android Scripts Collection: Collection of Android reverse engineering scripts that make my life easier
APIScout: This project aims at simplifying Windows API import recovery. As input, arbitrary memory dumps for a known environment can be processed (please note: a reference DB has to be built first, using apiscout/db_builder). The output is an ordered list of identified Windows API references with some meta information, and an ApiVector fingerprint. Includes a convenience GUI wrapper for use in IDA.
AutoRE: Auto-renaming plugin with tagging support.
BinAuthor: Match an author to an unknown binary.
BinCAT: BinCAT is a static Binary Code Analysis Toolkit, designed to help reverse engineers, directly from IDA.
BinClone: BinClone: detecting code clones in malware [SERE 2014]
BinNavi: BinNavi is a binary analysis IDE - an environment that allows users to inspect, navigate, edit, and annotate control-flow-graphs of disassembled code, do the same for the callgraph of the executable, collect and combine execution traces, and generally keep track of analysis results among a group of analysts.
Bin Sourcerer: BinSourcerer (a.k.a RE-Source Online) is an assembly to source code matching framework for binary auditing and malware analysis.
Bootroom Analysis Library: IBAL is the IDA Pro Bootrom Analysis Library, which contains a number of useful functions for analyzing embedded ROMs.
Bosch ME7: Siemens Bosch ME7.x Disassembler Helper for IDA Pro
CGEN: CGEN with support for generating IDA Pro IDP modules.
Class Informer: Scans an MSVC 32bit target IDB for vftables with C++ RTTI, and MFC RTCI type data. Places structure defs, names, labels, and comments to make more sense of class vftables ("Virtual Function Table") and make them read easier as an aid to reverse engineering. Creates a list window with found vftables for browsing.
Classy: Helps users easily manage classes in IDA Pro. Vtables can be generated by selecting a range, functions can be assigned to classes, their signatures can be easily editing and mangled, IDA structs can be assigned, C headers can be generated, probably more.
- Defines ASCII strings that IDA's auto analysis missed
- Defines functions/code that IDA's auto analysis missed
- Converts all undefined bytes in the data segment into DWORDs (thus allowing IDA to resolve function and jump table pointers)
c0demap: Codemap is a binary analysis tool for "run-trace visualization" provided as IDA plugin.
collabREate: collabREate is a plugin for IDA Pro that is designed to provide a collaborative reverse engineering capability for multiple IDA users working on the same binary file.
Comida: Comida is a plugin which searches all the references of the GUID COM object (Common Object Model) and deduce the associated type using the Hexrays plugin to improve the readability of the code.
Cortex M Firmware: The Cortex M Firmware module grooms an IDA Pro database containing firmware from an ARM Cortex M microcontroller. This module will annotate the firmware vector table, which contains a number of function pointers. This vector table annotation will cause IDA Pro to perform auto analysis against the functions these pointers point to.
Crowd Detox: The CrowdDetox plugin for Hex-Rays automatically removes junk code and variables from Hex-Rays function decompilations.
Dalvik Header: This is a simple Dalvik header plugin for IDA Pro
Data Xref Counter: Enumerates all of the the x-references in a specific segment and counts the frequency of usage. The plugin displays the data in QtTableWidget and lets the user filter and sort the references. You can also export the data to a CSV file.
Debugger: Debugger plugin for IDA Pro backed by the Unicorn Engine
deREferencing: IDA Pro plugin that implements more user-friendly register and stack views.
Diaphora: Diaphora (διαφορά, Greek for 'difference') is a program diffing plugin for IDA Pro, similar to Zynamics Bindiff or the FOSS counterparts DarunGrim, TurboDiff, etc. It was released during SyScan 2015.
Docker IDA: Run IDA Pro disassembler in Docker containers for automating, scaling and distributing the use of IDAPython scripts.
DOXBox Debugger: Eric Fry's IDA/DOSBox debugger plugin
DrGadget: This is an IDAPython plugin for the Interactive Disassembler for all your ROP experimentation needs.
DriverBuddy: DriverBuddy is an IDA Python script to assist with the reverse engineering of Windows kernel drivers.
Drop: An experimental IDA Pro plugin capable of detecting several types of opaque predicates in obfuscated binaries. It leverages the power of the symbolic execution engine angr and its components to reason about the opaqueness of predicates based on their symbolic context.
dsync: IDAPython plugin that synchronizes decompiled and disassembled code views.
dwarfexport: dwarfexport is an IDA Pro plugin that allows the user to export dwarf debug information. This can then be imported in to gdb and other tools, allowing you to debug using info you have recovered in IDA even when you cannot connect the IDA debugger.
DWARF Plugin: IDADWARF is an IDA plugin that imports DWARF debugging symbols into an IDA database. Download
Dynamic Data Resolver: A plugin for IDA that aims to make the reverse-engineering of malware easier. Features: Code Flow Trace, Searchable API call logging, Searchable string logging, Resolving dynamic values and auto-commenting.
Dynamic IDA Enrichment: DIE is an IDA python plugin designed to enrich IDA`s static analysis with dynamic data. This is done using the IDA Debugger API, by placing breakpoints in key locations and saving the current system context once those breakpoints are hit.
EFI Scripts: Some IDA scripts and tools to assist with reverse engineering EFI executables.
efiXplorer: IDA plugin for UEFI firmware analysis and reverse engineering automation.
EtherAnnotate: Parses the specialized instruction trace files that are generated using the EtherAnnotate Xen modification (http://github.com/inositle/etherannotate_xen). From the instruction trace, register values and code coverage of the run-time information are visualized in IDA Pro through instruction comments and line colorations.
Extract Macho-O: This is a very simple IDA plugin to extract all Mach-O binaries contained anywhere in the disassembly.
FCatalog: FCatalog (The functions catalog) is a mechanism for finding similarities between different binary blobs in an efficient manner. It is mostly useful for identifying a new binary blob is somewhat similar to a binary blob that have been encountered before. The client side of FCatalog is an IDA plugin that allows a group of reverse engineers to manage a pool of reversed functions. Whenever a new binary function is encountered, FCatalog can compare it to all the known and previously reversed binary functions.
Findcrypt: IDA pro plugin to find crypto constants (and more)
FIRST: Function Identification and Recovery Signature Tool (FIRST) is a plugin for IDA Pro that allows users to automatically search for and apply function metadata (the function name, parameter names, parameter types, comments, etc.) submitted from different IDBs / users. This functionality is similar to IDA's Lumina feature, which was introduced in IDA 7.2, although with FIRST the function metadata server address is configurable and the FIRST server code is open source, which means the user can set up a private metadata server for internal use if desired. A community database is also maintained by Cisco Talos and available to use free-of-charge. FIRST supports IDA 6.9 SP1 and above.
flare-emu: flare-emu marries a supported binary analysis framework, such as IDA Pro or Radare2, with Unicorn’s emulation framework to provide the user with an easy to use and flexible interface for scripting emulation tasks. It is designed to handle all the housekeeping of setting up a flexible and robust emulator for its supported architectures so that you can focus on solving your code analysis problems. Currently, flare-emu supports the x86, x86_64, ARM, and ARM64 architectures.
FLARE Plugins: Shellcode Hashes, Struct Typer, StackStrings, MSDN Annotations, ApplyCalleType
FLS Loader: IDA Pro loader module for IFX iPhone baseband firmwares. Based on a universal scatter loader script by roxfan.
Fluorescence: Un/highlights function call instructions
Free the debuggers: Free the ida pro debuggers for all files.
Frida: This is plugin for ida pro thar uses the Frida api. Mainly trace functions.
FRAPL: FRAPL is a reverse engineering framework created to simplify dynamic instrumentation with Frida.
FRIEND: Flexible Register/Instruction Extender aNd Documentation. FRIEND is an IDA plugin created to improve disassembly and bring register/instruction documentation right into IDA View.
Funcap: This script records function calls (and returns) across an executable using IDA debugger API, along with all the arguments passed. It dumps the info to a text file, and also inserts it into IDA's inline comments. This way, static analysis that usually follows the behavioral runtime analysis when analyzing malware, can be directly fed with runtime info such as decrypted strings returned in function's arguments.
Functions+: IDA Pro plugin to make functions tree view. Plugin parses function names and groups them by namespaces.
Function Tagger: This IDAPython script tags subroutines according to their use of imported functions
Gamecube Extension: This is a Gekko CPU Paired Single extension instructions plug-in for IDA Pro 5.2
Gamecube DSP: This project adds support for the DSP present in the Gamecube and the Wii to IDA, the Interactive Disassembler . This allows easy analyze of a DSP ucode, handling cross-references, control flow, and so on.
gdbida: A visual bridge between a GDB session and IDA Pro's disassembler
genmc: Genmc is an IDAPython script/plugin hybrid that displays Hexrays decompiler microcode, which can help in developing microcode plugins.
Gensida: IDA debugger plugin for Sega Genesis / Megadrive ROMs based on Gens ReRecordings emulator modifications.
Geolocator: Lookup IP's and http/https adresses, using google maps, and MaxMind databases.
GhIDA: GhIDA is an IDA Pro plugin that integrates the Ghidra decompiler in IDA.
golang_loader_assist: Making GO reversing easier in IDA Pro
Graph Slick: Automated detection of inlined functions. It highlights similar groups of nodes and allows you to group them, simplifying complex functions. The authors provide an accompanying presentation which explains the algorithms behind the plugin and shows sample use cases.
HeapViewer: An IDA Pro plugin to examine the heap, focused on exploit development.
HexRays CodeXplorer: The Hex-Rays Decompiler plugin for better code navigation in RE process. CodeXplorer automates code REconstruction of C++ applications or modern malware like Stuxnet, Flame, Equation, Animal Farm .
HexRaysDeob: A Hex-Rays microcode API plugin breaking an obfuscating compiler used to create an in-the-wild malware family. The plugin is fully automatic and requires no user intervention upon installation, the decompilation listings presented to the user will be free of obfuscation.
Hexrays Toolbox Find code patterns within the Hexrays AST
- Assist in creation of new structure definitions / virtual calls detection
- Jump directly to virtual function or structure member definition
- Gives list of structures with given size, with given offset
- Finds structures with same "shape" as is used.
- convert function to __usercall or __userpurge
- and more.
HexRaysPyTools: Plugin assists in creation classes/structures and detection virtual tables. Best to use with Class Informer plugin, because it helps to automatically get original classes names.
HRDEV: This is an IDA Pro Python plugin to make Hex-Rays Decompiler output bit more attractive. HRDEV plugin retrieves standard decompiler output, parses it with Python Clang bindings, does some magic, and puts back.
HrDevHelper: HexRays decompiler plugin that visualizes the ctree of decompiled functions using IDA's graph engine.
Hyara: A plugin to create pattern-matching rules. It helps creating rules for the YARA pattern-matching tool direcly in IDA. It includes a simple detection of relocatable bytes in x86 opcodes for improved matching. It also provides a checker feature for testing the rules on the loaded binary.
ida-qscripts: An IDA scripting productivity plugin. With this plugin, you will be able to easily write and test scripts using your favorite editor. ida-qscripts will automatically detect changes to your script or one of its dependencies and automatically reload them and re-execute your script.
ida-cmake: This is not an IDA plugin but a CMake project generator for IDA plugins development.
ida-climacros: ida-climacros is a productivity plugin that allows you to define macros that will be expanded when interfacing with IDA's command line interpreter (in the output window).
IDA2SQL: As the name implies this plugin can be used to export information from IDA databases to SQL databases. This allows for further analysis of the collected data: statstical analysis, building graphs, finding similarities between programs, etc.
IDA ARM: This script will give you the list of ARM system instructions used in your IDA database. This is useful for locating specific low-level pieces of code (setting up the MMU, caches, fault handlers, etc.).
idawasm: These IDA Pro plugins add support for loading and disassembling WebAssembly modules.
- control flow reconstruction and graph mode
- code and data cross references
- globals, function parameters, local variables, etc. can be renamed
- auto-comment hint suport
IDA Batch Decompile: IDA Batch Decompile is a plugin for Hex-Ray's IDA Pro that adds the ability to batch decompile multiple files and their imports with additional annotations (xref, stack var size) to the pseudocode .c file
IDABuddy: IDABuddy is a reverse-engineer's best friend. Designed to be everything Clippy the Office Assistant was, and more!
IDA Compare: IDA disassembly level diffing tool, find patches and modifications between malware variants. See mydoom A/B sample database and video trainer for usage.
IDACyber: IDACyber is a plugin for the Interactive Disassembler that visualizes an IDA database's content.
IDA EA: Provides a context viewer, instruction emulator, heap explorer, trace dumper, GDB integration, Styling
IDA Emu: idaemu is an IDA Pro Plugin - use for emulating code in IDA Pro. it is base on unicorn-engine.
IDA Eye: Plugin that enables you to perform different operations at the mnemonic level, independent of any particular processor type. These operations are facilitated through a parameterized template, which include the capabilities to de/highlight instructions, gather statistical information about the frequency of each instruction, and search for sequences of mnemonics, among other features.
IDA Extrapass: An IDA Pro Win32 target clean up plug-in by Sirmabus. It does essentially four cleaning/fixing steps: Convert stray code section values to "unknown", fix missing "align" blocks, fix missing code bytes, and locate and fix missing/undefined functions.
IDAFuzzy: IDAFuzzy is fuzzy searching tool for IDA Pro. This tool helps you to find command/function/struct and so on.
ida-genesis: Suite of IDA scripts for SEGA Genesis ROM hacking.
idaidle: idaidle is a plugin for the commercial IDA Pro disassembler that warns users if they leave their instance idling for too long. After a predetermined amount of idle time, the plugin first warns and later then saves the current disassemlby database and closes IDA.
IDA Images: Image preview plugin for IDA disassembler.
IDA IPython: This is a plugin to embed an IPython kernel in IDA Pro. The Python ecosystem has amazing libraries (and communities) for scientific computing. IPython itself is great for exploratory data analysis. Using tools such as the IPython notebook make it easy to share code and explanations with rich media. IPython makes using IDAPython and interacting with IDA programmatically really fun and easy.
IDAngr: Use angr in the ida debugger generating a state from the current debug session
IDA BPF Processor: BPF Bytecode Processor for IDA (python). Supports the old BPF bytecode only (no eBPF).
IDA Migrator: IDA Migrator plugin makes the job of migrating symbols and type informations from one IDA database instance to another. It will help migrating function names, structures and enums. This comes in handy when:
- Moving to a newer version of IDA that does better analysis and you don't want to change in the new instance type information or variable names of the decompiled functions.
- The current idb instance fails to decompile a function or the decompilation looks wrong in comparison to another idb instance of the same binary.
- Experimenting on another idb instance before making major changes on the current instance.
- A lightweight easy way of creating small backups of the current work.
- For w/e reason, the current idb instance you're working on gets corrupted.
IDAMagicStrings: An IDA Python plugin to extract information from string constants. The current version of the plugin is able to:
- Display functions to source files relationships (in a tree and in a plain list, a chooser in IDA language).
- Display guessed function names for functions.
- Rename functions according to the source code file their belong + address (for example, memory_mgmt_0x401050).
- Rename functions according to the guessed function name.
idamagnum: A plugin for integrating MagnumDB requests within IDA. MagNumDB is a database that contains about 380,000 items. These items are constants, names, values all extracted from more than 6,000 header files (.h, .hxx, .hpp, .idl, etc.) provided by standard Windows and Visual Studio SDKs and WDKs.
IDA-minsc: A plugin that assists a user with scripting the IDAPython plugin that is bundled with the disassembler. This plugin groups the different aspects of the IDAPython API into a simpler format which allows a reverse engineer to script different aspects of their work with very little investment.
IDA Patchwork: Stitching against malware families with IDA Pro (tool for the talk at Spring9, https://spring2014.gdata.de/spring2014/programm.html). In essence, I use a somewhat fixed / refurbished version of PyEmu along IDA to demonstrate deobfuscation of the different patterns found in the malware family Nymaim.
IDA Python Embedded Toolkit: IDAPython scripts for automating analysis of firmware of embedded devices.
IDAPyHelper: IDAPyHelper is a script for the Interactive Disassembler that helps writing IDAPython scripts and plugins.
IDARay: IDARay is an IDA Pro plugin that matches the database against multiple YARA files. Maybe your rules are scattered over multiple YARA files or you simply want to match against as much rules as possible, IDARay is here to help.
IDA Ref: IDA Pro Full Instruction Reference Plugin - It's like auto-comments but useful.
IDA Rest: A simple REST-like API for basic interoperability with IDA Pro.
IDArling: IDArling is a collaborative reverse engineering plugin for IDA Pro and Hex-Rays. It allows to synchronize in real-time the changes made to a database by multiple users, by connecting together different instances of IDA Pro.
IDA Scope: IDAscope is an IDA Pro extension with the goal to ease the task of (malware) reverse engineering with a current focus on x86 Windows. It consists of multiple tabs, containing functionality to achieve different goals such as fast identification of semantically interesting locations in the analysis target, seamless access to MSDN documentation of Windows API, and finding of potential crypto/compression algorithms.
IDA Signature Matching Tool: Tool for searching signatures inside files, extremely useful as help in reversing jobs like figuring or having an initial idea of what encryption/compression algorithm is used for a proprietary protocol or file. It can recognize tons of compression, multimedia and encryption algorithms and many other things like known strings and anti-debugging code which can be also manually added since it's all based on a text signature file read at run-time and easy to modify.
IDA Skins: Plugin providing advanced skinning support for the Qt version of IDA Pro utilizing Qt stylesheets, similar to CSS.
IDA Sploiter: IDA Sploiter is a plugin for Hex-Ray's IDA Pro disassembler designed to enhance IDA's capabilities as an exploit development and vulnerability research tool. Some of the plugin's features include a powerful ROP gadgets search engine, semantic gadget analysis and filtering, interactive ROP chain builder, stack pivot analysis, writable function pointer search, cyclic memory pattern generation and offset analysis, detection of bad characters and memory holes, and many others.
IDA Stealth: IDAStealth is a plugin which aims to hide the IDA debugger from most common anti-debugging techniques. The plugin is composed of two files, the plugin itself and a dll which is injected into the debuggee as soon as the debugger attaches to the process. The injected dll actually implements most of the stealth techniques either by hooking system calls or by patching some flags in the remote process.
IDA StringCluster: This plugin extends IDA Pro's capabilities to display strings within the binary by clustering found strings on a per-function basis.
IDA Toolbag: The IDA Toolbag plugin provides many handy features, such as:
- A 'History' view, that displays functions in the disassembly that you have decided are important, and the relationships between them.
- A code path-searching tool, that lets you find what functions (or blocks) are forming a path between two locations.
- Manage and run your IDC/Python scripts
- Something that's also of considerable importance is that the IDA Toolbag lets you collaborate with other IDA users: one can publish his 'History', or import another user's history & even merge them!
- See the official documentation for an extensive feature list.
IdaVSHelp: IDAPython plugin to integrate Visual Studio Help Viewer in IDA Pro >= 6.8
IDAtropy: IDAtropy is a plugin for Hex-Ray's IDA Pro designed to generate charts of entropy and histograms using the power of idapython and matplotlib.
IDA Xtensa: This is a processor plugin for IDA, to support the Xtensa core found in Espressif ESP8266. It does not support other configurations of the Xtensa architecture, but that is probably (hopefully) easy to implement.
IFL: Interactive Functions List is an user-friendly way to navigate between functions and their references.
ifred: IDA command palette & further
ioctl_plugin: A tool to help when dealing with IOCTL codes and Windows driver IOCTL dispatch functions.
IPyIDA: PyIDA is a python-only solution to use a IPython console in the context of IDA Pro. It spawns an IPython kernel that you can connect to with ipython console --existing in your shell or by opening a QT Console window in IDA Pro with <Shift-.>
JNIDA: Helps to rename JNI native methods and restore their C signatures
Kam1n0: Kam1n0 is a scalable system that supports assembly code clone search. It allows a user to first index a (large) collection of binaries, and then search for the code clones of a given target function or binary file. Kam1n0 tries to solve the efficient subgraph search problem (i.e. graph isomorphism problem) for assembly functions.
Karta: "Karta" (Russian for "Map") is a source code assisted fast binary matching plugin for IDA. Karta identifies and matches open-sourced libraries in a given binary using a unique technique that enables it to support huge binaries (> 200,000 functions) with almost no impact on the overall performance.
Keypatch: A multi-architeture assembler for IDA. Keypatch allows you enter assembly instructions to directly patch the binary under analysis. Powered by Keystone engine.
Labeless: Labeless is a plugin system for dynamic, seamless and realtime synchronization between IDA Database and Olly. Labels, function names and global variables synchronization is supported. Labeless provides easy to use dynamic dumping tool, which supports automatic on-the-fly imports fixing as well as convenient tool for IDA-Olly Python scripting synergy.
LazyIDA: LazyIDA lets you perform many tasks simply and quickly (e.g., remove function return type in Hex-Rays, convert data into different formats, scan for format string vulnerabilities and a variety of shortcuts)
Lighthouse: Lighthouse is a Code Coverage Plugin for IDA Pro. The plugin leverages IDA as a platform to map, explore, and visualize externally collected code coverage data when symbols or source may not be available for a given binary.
LoadProcConfig: LoadProcConfig is an IDA plugin to load processor configuration files.
Localxrefs: Finds references to any selected text from within the current function.
MadNES: This plugin exports IDA names to FCEUXD SP symbols.
MazeWalker: Toolkit for enriching and speeding up static malware analysis. MazeWalker’s goal is to reduce malware analysis time by automating runtime data collection and better visualization eventually helping a researcher to concentrate on static analysis and less on its dynamic part.
MC68K Processor Model Extension: This is a sample plugin for extending gdb support for step-over for the M68K, and to enable type information support so you can press "y" on functions and have the parameters propagate inside and back out of the function.
mipslocalvars: Names stack variables used by the compiler for storing registers on the stack, simplifying stack data analysis (MIPS only)
- Allows you to search for suitable ROP gadgets in MIPS executable code
- Built-in methods to search for common ROP gadgets
MrsPicky: An IDAPython decompiler script that helps auditing calls to the memcpy() and memmove() functions.
MSDN Helper: This tool will help you to get to Offline MSDN help while using IDA Pro.
MyNav: MyNav is a plugin for IDA Pro to help reverse engineers in the most typical task like discovering what functions are responsible of some specifical tasks, finding paths between "interesting" functions and data entry points.
nao: nao(no-meaning assembly omiter) is dead code eliminator plugin for IDA pro
NDSLdr: Nintendo DS ROM loader module for IDA Pro.
NECromancer: IDA Pro V850 Processor Module Extension.
NES Loader: Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) ROM loader module for IDA Pro.
NIOS2: An IDA Pro processor module for Altera Nios II Classic/Gen2 microprocessor architecture.
NSIS Reversing Suite: NRS is a set of Python librairies used to unpack and analysis NSIS installer's data. It also feature an IDA plugin used to disassembly the NSIS Script of an installer.
Optimice: This plugin enables you to remove some common obfuscations and rewrite code to a new segment. Currently supported optimizations are: Dead code removal, JMP merging, JCC opaque predicate removal, Pattern based deobfuscations
Oregami: A plugin analyzing the current function to find the usage frame of registers. Oregami eases the work when tracking the use of a register within a function, by limiting the search to occurrences related to the one currently highlighted instead of the whole function. It also allows localized renaming of the registers, and batch type giving to multiple opcodes using the registers.
Patcher: IDA Patcher is a plugin for Hex-Ray's IDA Pro disassembler designed to enhance IDA's ability to patch binary files and memory.
Plus22: Plus22 transforms x86_64 executables to be processed with 32-bit version of Hex-Rays Decompiler.
Plympton: A gem to read program disassembly from a YAML dump. The YAML dump is generated from an IDA Pro python script. This script is included along with this Gem (func.py)
Pomidor: IDA Pomidor is a plugin for Hex-Ray's IDA Pro disassembler that will help you retain concentration and productivity during long reversing sessions.
Ponce: Taint analysis and symbolic execution over binaries in an easy and intuitive fashion.
Prefix: Prefix is a small function prefixing plugin for IDA Pro. The plugin augments IDA's function renaming capabilities by adding a handful of convenient prefixing actions to relevant right click menus.
Processor changer: Change processor without restarting IDA.
Python Editor: Python editor based IDA Pro. The plugin helps python devs with scripting and running python scripts, and creating them. IT have many functions, code recognition and more.
python-idb: not an IDA Pro plugin but allows to open IDA databases ( *.idb and *.i64 ) and run a simple subset of IDAPython API on top of them, without the IDA Pro itself.
qb-sync: qb-sync is an open source tool to add some helpful glue between IDA Pro and Windbg. Its core feature is to dynamically synchronize IDA's graph windows with Windbg's position.
Qualcomm Loader: IDA loader plugin for Qualcomm Bootloader Stages
Reef: IDAPython plugin for finding Xrefs from a function.
REobjc: REobjc is an IDAPython module designed to make proper cross references between calling functions and called functions in Objective-C methods. The current form of the module supports X64, and will be updated to also support ARM in the future.
REProgram: A way of making almost-arbitrary changes to an executable when run under a debugger -- even changes that don't fit.
retdec: IDA plugin for retdec - a retargetable machine-code decompiler based on LLVM.
ret-sync: ret-sync stands for Reverse-Engineering Tools synchronization. It's a set of plugins that help to synchronize a debugging session (WinDbg/GDB/LLDB/OllyDbg2/x64dbg) with IDA disassembler. The underlying idea is simple: take the best from both worlds (static and dynamic analysis).
REtypedef: REtypedef is an IDA PRO plugin that allows defining custom substitutions for function names. It comes with a default ruleset providing substitutions for many common STL types.
rizzo: Identifies and re-names functions between two or more IDBs based on:
- Formal signatures (i.e., exact function signatures)
- References to unique string
- References to unique constants
- Fuzzy signatures (i.e., similar function signatures)
- Call graphs (e.g., identification by association)
Samsung S4 Rom Loader: IDA Pro Loader Plugin for Samsung Galaxy S4 ROMs
Sark: Sark, (named after the notorious Tron villain,) is an object-oriented scripting layer written on top of IDAPython. Sark is easy to use and provides tools for writing advanced scripts and plugins.
ScratchABit: ScratchABit is an interactive incremental disassembler with data/control flow analysis capabilities. ScratchABit is dedicated to the efforts of the OpenSource reverse engineering community (reverse engineering to produce OpenSource drivers/firmware for hardware not properly supported by vendors).
Screen recorder: IDA Pro Qt Plugin for recording reversing sessions.
Sega Genesis/Megadrive Tools: Special IDA Pro tools for the Sega Genesis/Megadrive romhackers. Tested work on v5.2, v6.6. Should work on other versions.
Sig Maker: Can create sigs automatically and has a wide variety of functions (might be unstable on IDA 6.2).
SimplifyGraph: An IDA Pro plugin to assist with complex graphs.
Simulator: IDASimulator is a plugin that extends IDA's conditional breakpoint support, making it easy to augment / replace complex executable code inside a debugged process with Python code.
Snippt Detector: Snippet Detector is an IDA Python scripts project used to detect snippets from 32bit disassembled files. snippet is the word used to identify a generic sequence of instructions (at the moment a snippet is indeed a defined function). The aim of the tool is to collect many disassembled snippets inside a database for the detection process.
Snowman Decompiler: Snowman is a native code to C/C++ decompiler. Standalone and IDA Plugin. Source Code
Splode: Augmenting Static Reverse Engineering with Dynamic Analysis and Instrumentation
spu3dbg: Ida Pro debugger module for the anergistic SPU emulator.
Stingray: Stingray is an IDAPython plugin for finding function strings. The search is from the current position onwards in the current function. It can do it recursively also with configurable search depth. The results order is the natural order of strings in the BFS search graph.
Structure Dump: StructDump is an IDA plugin, allowing you to export IDA types into high-level language definitions. Currently, C++ is supported.
Styler: Small Plugin to change the style off Ida Pro
Synergy: A combination of an IDAPython Plugin and a control version system that result in a new reverse engineering collaborative addon for IDA Pro. By http://cubicalabs.com/
sysm2elf: A plugin for IDA Pro and radare2 to export the symbols recognized to the ELF symbol table.
Tarkus: Tarkus is a plugin manager for IDA Pro, modelled after Python's pip.
TurboDiff: Turbodiff is a binary diffing tool developed as an IDA plugin. It discovers and analyzes differences between the functions of two binaries.
uEmu: uEmu is a tiny cute emulator plugin for IDA based on unicorn engine. Supports following architectures out of the box: x86, x64, ARM, ARM64, MIPS, MIPS64
UEFI_RETool: IDA Plugin for UEFI firmware executable images analysing
Virtuailor: Virtuailor is an IDAPython tool that reconstructs vtables for C++ code written for intel architechture and both 32bit and 64bit code.
VirusBattle: The plugin is an integration of Virus Battle API to the well known IDA Disassembler. Virusbattle is a web service that analyses malware and other binaries with a variety of advanced static and dynamic analyses.
VMAttack: Static and dynamic virtualization-based packed analysis and deobfuscation.
Win32 LST to Inline Assembly: Python script which extracts procedures from IDA Win32 LST files and converts them to correctly dynamically linked compilable Visual C++ inline assembly.
WinIOCtlDecoder: An IDA Pro plugin which decodes a Windows Device I/O control code into DeviceType, FunctionCode, AccessType and MethodType.
Xex Loader for IDA 6.6: This adds the ability to load xex files into IDA directly without having to first process them in any way. It processes the xex file as much as possible while loading to minimise the work required by the user to get it to a state fit for reversing.
xray: Hexrays decompiler plugin that colorizes and filters the decompiler's output based on regular expressions
X86Emu: Its purpose is to allow a reverse engineer the chance to step through x86 code while reverse engineering a binary. The plugin can help you step through any x86 binary from any platform. For Windows binaries, many common library calls are trapped and emulated by the emulator, allowing for a higher fidelity emulation. I find it particularly useful for stepping through obfuscated code as it automatically reorganizes an IDA disassembly based on actual code paths.
YaCo : Collaboration Plugin : when enabled, an unlimited number of users can work simultaneously on the same binary. Any modification done by any user is synchronized through git version control. It has been initially released at SSTIC 2017
Zynamics BinDiff: BinDiff is a comparison tool for binary files, that assists vulnerability researchers and engineers to quickly find differences and similarities in disassembled code.
Who took a stand against them at the time?
Generally speaking and especially early on, the white press wrote sympathetically about lynchings and their necessity to preserve order in the south. The Memphis Evening Scimitar published in 1892:
Aside from the violation of white women by Negroes, which is the outcropping of a bestial perversion of instinct, the chief cause of trouble between the races in the South is the Negro’s lack of manners. In the state of slavery he learned politeness from association with white people who took pains to teach him. Since the emancipation came and the tie of mutual interest and regard between master and servant was broken, the Negro has drifted away into a state which is neither freedom nor bondage …
In consequence … there are many negroes who use every opportunity to make themselves offensive, particularly when they think it can be done with impunity …
We have had too many instances right here in Memphis to doubt this, and our experience is not exceptional. The white people won’t stand this sort of thing, and … the response will be prompt and effectual.
The black press, on the other hand, was arguably the primary force in fighting against the phenomenon.
The Memphis journalist Ida B Wells was the most strident and devoted anti-lynching advocate in US history, and spent a 40-year-career writing, researching and speaking on the horrors of the practice. As a young woman she travelled the south for months, chronicling lynchings and gathering empirical data.
Wells eventually became an owner of the Memphis Free Speech and Headlight before being chased out of town by white mobs and relocating to New York and then Chicago.
Eventually many white publications began to turn with overall white attitudes about lynching. “Missouri in Shame” was the headline of the first editorial in the Kansas City Star on the 1931 Maryville Lynching of Raymond Gunn.
The lynching at Maryville was about as horrible as such a thing can be. Lynching in itself is a fearful reproach to American civilization. Lynching by fire is the vengeance of a savage past … The sickening outrage is the more deplorable because it easily could have been prevented.