Information

Buck II DD- 761 - History


Buck II
(DD-761: dp. 2200; 1. 376'6"; b. 40'10"; dr. 19'; s. 34.2
k. ; cpl. 345 ; a. 6 5 ", 10 21 " TT. ; cl. A Ilen M. Sumner)

The second Buck (DD-761) was launched 11 March 1945 by Bethlehem Steel Co., San Francisco, Calif.; sponsored by Miss Mary Nimitz, daughter of Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz; and commissioned 28 June 1946, Commander H. H. Nielsen in command.

After completion of shakedown in September 1946, Buck operated with the Pacific Fleet along the west coast from Acapulco, Mexico, to Ketchikan, Alaska. Between December 1948 and the summer of 1949 Buck made a cruise to the Far East. Upon her return to San Diego she participated in reserve cruises along the west coast and in Operation Miki off the Hawaiian Islands. Buck departed the United States on 11 January 1950 for her second Western Pacific tour and returned to California 25 April 1950. Shortly thereafter, she entered San Francisco Naval Shipyard for overhaul.

Late in 1950, as a unit of Destroyer Division 71, Buck
joined the United Nations Forces in Korea. While there,
she suffered considerable damage in a collision with John
TV. Thomason (DD-760). Buck was ordered back to the
west coast after temporary repairs at Sasebo, Japan. Be
tween January and March 1951 she underwent repairs at
Bremerton, Wash., and then returned to Korean waters,
arriving 30 April 1951. She operated with United Nations
Forces until July when she returned to the west coast. In
January 1952 Buck, with Destroyer Division 71, departed
for another tour in the Western Pacific. She operated
with the shore bombardment forces and with the fast
carrier task force until returning to San Diego 11 July
1952. On her sixth Far Eastern tour, between 21 Febru
ary and 22 September 1953, she operated with TF's 72, 77,
95, 96, and 97 off Korea until the Armistice was declared.

Since that time Buck has continued operations along the western seaboard and has completed three more Far Eastern cruises.

Buck received six battle stars for her Korean service.


Initial operations [ edit | edit source ]

After completion of shakedown in September 1946, Buck operated with the Pacific Fleet along the west coast from Acapulco, Mexico, to Ketchikan, Alaska. Between December 1948 and the summer of 1949 Buck made a cruise to the Far East. Upon her return to San Diego she participated in reserve cruises along the west coast and in Operation Miki off the Hawaiian Islands. Buck departed the United States on 11 January 1950 for her second Western Pacific tour and returned to California 25 April 1950. Shortly thereafter, she entered San Francisco Naval Shipyard for overhaul.


Mục lục

Buck được đặt lườn tại xưởng tàu của hãng Bethlehem Steel Co. ở San Francisco, California vào ngày 1 tháng 2 năm 1944. Nó được hạ thủy vào ngày 11 tháng 3 năm 1945 được đỡ đầu bởi cô Mary Nimitz, con gái Thủy sư Đô đốc Chester W. Nimitz, và nhập biên chế vào ngày 28 tháng 6 năm 1946 dưới quyền chỉ huy của Trung tá Hải quân H. H. Nielsen.

1946 - 1950 Sửa đổi

Sau khi hoàn tất chạy thử máy huấn luyện vào tháng 9 năm 1946, Buck hoạt động cùng Hạm đội Thái Bình Dương dọc theo vùng bờ Tây, trải dài từ Acapulco, Mexico cho đến Ketchikan, Alaska. Từ tháng 12 năm 1948 cho đến mùa Hè 1949, nó được phái sang phục vụ tại Viễn Đông, và sau khi quay trở về San Diego, California, nó thực hiện những chuyến đi huấn luyện cho nhân sự Hải quân Dự bị Hoa Kỳ và cuộc tập trận “Miki” ngoài khơi quần đảo Hawaii. Con tàu lại được phái sang hoạt động tại khu vực Tây Thái Bình Dương lần thứ hai vào ngày 11 tháng 1 năm 1950, và không lâu sau khi quay trở về California vào ngày 25 tháng 4, nó đi vào Xưởng hải quân San Francisco để đại tu.

Chiến tranh Triều Tiên Sửa đổi

Đến cuối năm 1950, trong thành phần Đội khu trục 71, Buck tham gia lực lượng Liên Hiệp Quốc trong cuộc Chiến tranh Triều Tiên. Nó bị hư hại đáng kể do mắc tai nạn va chạm với tàu khu trục chị em John W. Thomason (DD-760), và sau khi được sửa chữa tạm thời tại Sasebo, Nhật Bản, nó phải quay trở về vùng bờ Tây để được sửa chữa tại Xưởng hải quân Puget Sound, Bremerton, Washington từ tháng 1 đến tháng 3, 1951. Sau khi hoàn tất sửa chữa, nó quay trở lại vùng biển Triều Tiên vào ngày 30 tháng 4, và hoạt động cùng lực lượng Liên Hiệp Quốc cho đến tháng 7, khi nó quay trở về vùng bờ Tây. Con tàu lại cùng Đội khu trục 71 khởi hành vào tháng 1, 1952 cho một lượt phục vụ khác tại khu vực Viễn Đông, hoạt động cùng lực lượng bắn phá và hộ tống, cũng như với các tàu sân bay nhanh cho đến khi quay trở về San Diego vào ngày 11 tháng 7. Trong lượt phục vụ thứ sáu tại Viễn Đông từ ngày 21 tháng 2 đến ngày 22 tháng 9, 1953, nó đã hoạt động cùng các lực lượng đặc nhiệm 72, 77, 95, 96 và 97 cho đến khi đạt được thỏa thuận ngừng bắn tại Triều Tiên.

1954 - 1973 Sửa đổi

Trong những năm tiếp theo, Buck tiếp tục hoạt động dọc theo vùng bờ Tây và hoàn tất ít nhất ba lượt hoạt động khác tại khu vực Tây Thái Bình Dương. Trong những chuyến đi này, nó hộ tống cho tàu sân bay, cơ động thực hành chống tàu ngầm và thực hiện các chuyến tuần tra ngoài khơi Trung Quốc và eo biển Đài Loan.

Trong những năm 1961-1962, Buck được cải biến theo Chương trình Hồi sinh và Hiện đại hóa Hạm đội II (FRAM: Fleet Rehabilitation and Modernization), khi những cảm biến và vũ khí chống tàu ngầm được nâng cấp đáng kể. Nó tiếp tục nhiều lần được phái sang Viến Đông, lần đầu tiên tham gia tác chiến trong cuộc Chiến tranh Việt Nam vào năm 1965, khi nó tuần tra để ngăn chặn việc vận chuyển vũ khí bằng đường biển.

Alagoas (D 36) Sửa đổi

Buck được cho xuất biên chế tại San Diego vào ngày 16 tháng 7, 1973 và được chuyển cho Brazil cùng ngày hôm đó. Nó tiếp tục phục vụ cùng Hải quân Brazil như là chiếc Alagoas (D 36) cho đến khi ngừng hoạt động vào ngày 30 tháng 6, 1995, và bị tháo dỡ sau đó.

Buck được tặng thưởng sáu Ngôi sao Chiến trận do thành tích phục vụ trong Chiến tranh Triều Tiên, và thêm sáu Ngôi sao Chiến trận khác trong Chiến tranh Việt Nam.


The Daybook

The Daybook is an authorised publication of the Hampton Roads Naval Museum which currently manages the battleship USS Wisconsin. In Volume 7, No 4 they relate two stories about the incident.

The first of these, part of the article titled 'Freedom Fighter: Battleship Wisconsin in the Korean War', states (on page 16):

"After observing Wisconsin returning the North Korean challenge in dramatic fashion, Duncan signaled to the battleship “Temper, Temper Wisconsin.”

This being a reference to the destroyer USS Duncan (DDR-874), the article having previously noted (on page 14):

"In early March 1952, Wisconsin and the destroyer USS Duncan (DDR-874) steamed north as part of an overall effort by the Navy and Air Force to strike targets deep inside North Korea . "

Unfortunately, since they do not explicitly state their sources for the article, this cannot be considered canonical. However, as their website notes, the Hampton Roads Naval Museum Library "collects materials associated with the battleship Wisconsin", so it seems likely that the story has some evidential basis (which may, of course, be the recollections of men who served on her during the Korean War).

The second reference (on page 12), challenges the claim on many sites on the Internet (although no on the Reddit thread you cited) that the USS Wisconsin was hit by a 155mm shell. They point out that:

"the North Koreans didn’t use the 155-mm howitzer, as it is an American caliber"

"It is a known fact the Soviets handed over a number of 152-mm guns to their North Korean allies."

It is interesting to note that, while I've found while trying to track down the source of this story, most of the sites that state the message was from USS Buck also state that the USS Wisconsin was hit by a 155mm shell.


Ships Built at Pier 70 During World War II

During World War II, the San Francisco yard produced 5 freighters, 36 Destroyers, 12 destroyer escorts, 4 cruisers, and 15 service vessels known as "lighters." In addition, thousands of major ship repairs and refurbishments were carried out here.

Destroyer USS The Sullivans - 1943

Destroyer Escort USS Fieberling - 1944

Cruiser USS Oakland - 1944


A History of Aston Martin's DB Models

Many of Aston Martin's most beautiful cars have worn a DB model name, starting officially with the DB2 in 1950. With the first all-new DB model, the DB11, now on the market, now is a good time to revisit the DB moniker.

DB stands for David Brown, the English businessman who bought Aston Martin in 1947 and Lagonda in 1948. Before World War II, Aston Martin was very much a low-volume sports car maker, with a pre-war high of 170 cars produced in 1937. Brown aided in Aston's transformation into the big-name it is today.

The early DB series cars earned Aston Martin legitimate sporting credentials and with the James Bond favorite DB5, world recognition. Brown sold the company in 1972, the same year the DBS ended production, but when Aston staged its 1990s comeback under Ford's stewardship, it revived Brown's initials for the DB7.

While this limited-production car was never an official DB model, it retroactively became known as the DB1, as it was the first model to be produced during Brown's tenure. Based on Aston Martin's Atom concept car, the 2-Litre Sports used a tubular space frame chassis with Aston's 2.0-liter inline-four. The car won outright at its first ever race, the 1948 Spa 24 Hours. Just 15 were produced in total.

Brown bought Lagonda mainly for its W.O. Bentley-designed 2.6-liter straight-six, knowing that Aston Martin's speciality was chassis, not engines. The marriage of the two produced the DB2, which in many ways, set the template for the modern Aston Martin.

Only 410 were built, but this was a significant amount for the tiny Aston Martin, helping Brown prove his worth as Aston's leader. It also had some competition success with podium finishes at both Le Mans and Sebring.

The DB2/4 continued where the DB2 left off. A lengthened chassis allowed Aston to add two (small) rear seats to the DB2, hence the name. The DB2/4 also received an upgraded 2.6-liter straight-six, first used in the DB2 Vantage, later being enlarged to 2.9-liters.

As was customary at the time, many DB2/4s were made with coachwork bodies, some as two-seat coupes and convertibles. 761 were produced in total.

Rather than come up with an all-new car, Aston Martin took what it had in the DB2/4 and revised it to create the DB Mk III. The venerable Lagonda straight-six was tuned to 178-bhp and front disc brakes were made standard after the first 100 cars were built.

Over the DB2/4, styling was refined, producing what is arguably the first appearance of the now-trademark Aston Martin grille, though previous DB models had a similar design.

For 1958, Aston Martin had an all new model, the DB4. While it wasn't a significant departure in spirit from previous DB cars, it was a huge improvement over its predecessor. It featured a Carrozzeria Touring-designed "Superleggera" body, which used aluminum panels over a tubular space frame. A new 3.7-liter straight-six making 240-bhp was also employed. This helped make the DB4 one of the fastest cars of its day.

The DB4 also gave birth to two unique body styles the lightweight DB4GT, which previewed the DB5 to come, and the stunning DB4GT Zagato. The latter was the first collaboration between Aston and coachbuilder Zagato and was designed to beat Ferrari.

If there was ever a single car to define Aston Martin, it's this, the DB5. Its turn in the James Bond film Goldfinger is arguably the reason Aston still exists today, unlike many of its low-volume British rivals. The DB4's straight-six was enlarged to 4-liters for the DB5, with an impressive 282-bhp on tap. Aston also employed a ZF 5-speed gearbox and front and rear disc brakes from the DB4GT.

As the story goes, Connery's Bond was supposed to drive a Jaguar E-Type, but Jaguar wanted the film's production company to pay for the cars. A call to Aston Martin was placed, sealing the DB5's place in history.

If you're not keen-eyed, it's easy to mistake a DB6 for a DB5 (or DB4GT, for that matter). Indeed, the DB5 and DB6 are mechanically very similar, but the latter featured a longer wheelbase and higher roof to make it a more practical daily driver.

The DB6 adopted a fastback style and a Kamm tail for increased high-speed stability. Despite the increase in size, Aston reportedly managed to keep weight low, adding just 18 lbs over the DB5.

Though the DB6 ended production in 1970, Aston introduced a companion DB model in 1967, the DBS. One somewhat gets the impression that this was a difficult car for Aston to develop: Like the two cars that preceded it Touring was supposed to design the DBS, but it went out of business, forcing Aston to hire William Towns to design it in-house. It was also supposed to get a V8 from launch, but that engine wasn't available until 1969.

In any case, the familiar 4.0-liter six made 325-bhp in Weber-carburetted Vantage specification and Aston claims the V8-equipped car was briefly the world's fastest four-seater. That engine formed the basis of Aston's V8s for years to come.

Features in Bond film On Her Majesty's Secret Service and The Persuaders! helped make the DBS a cultural icon, but Aston was in trouble. The DBS ended production in 1972, the same year David Brown sold the company.

22 years after Brown sold Aston, his initials were invoked once again for Aston's new entry-level model, the DB7. Aston was in bad financial shape when Ford took the helm in the early 1990s, so it directed the company to build a volume seller. Ford's extensive corporate parts bin&ndashwhich included Jaguar at the time&ndashhelped offset the DB7's development cost, but it wasn't as finely pedigreed as its predecessors.

The body was steel the platform, a heavily revised version of the aging Jaguar XJS, which was shared with the Jaguar XK8 the engine, a supercharged straight-six developed by Tom Walkinshaw Racing (TWR). Despite cost-cutting measures, it featured a gorgeous Ian Callum-designed body and helped Aston Martin survive in the 21st century. A worthy bearer of Brown's initials.

The supercharged TWR straight -six was good for 355-bhp, but the DB7 got serious with the launch of the Vantage model. As a replacement for the aging V8 models, the entry-level Aston was given a new 6.0-liter V12 good for 420-bhp.

The DB7 Vantage was a sales success for an ailing Aston Martin, with 6677 coupe, Volante convertible and Zagato-bodied models sold. This helped offset the development cost of the car that truly returned Aston to glory.

The DB7 was a worthy successor, but the DB9 was a true return to form for Aston Martin. The all-new chassis and Ian Callum-designed body used an aluminum-intensive construction and a more powerful version of the DB7 Vantage's V12 was employed.

While this car was a home run for Aston Martin, things took a downturn a few years after its launch in 2003. Ford sold Aston in 2006, which made any future development work extremely difficult. Instead of making an all-new car, Aston has churned out numerous variants based on the DB9's platform and using the same V12.

One of the ultimate variants on the DB9&ndashbefore the launch of the Vanquish&ndashwas the DBS, which brought back the name of the DB6's successor. More aggressive styling, featuring extensive carbon fiber bodywork, paired well with a 510-bhp version of Aston's now-familiar V12.

The DBS appeared in Daniel Craig's first James Bond film, Casino Royale.

I almost hesitate to include the DB10 on this list, as it's actually a V8 Vantage wearing new bodywork for the Bond film Spectre, but it does bare David Brown's initials. Only 10 were built and just one was sold to the public, at a price of $3.2 million.

The DB11 is the DB9's true successor, equipped with turbochargers for the first time in the model line's history. The 5.2-liter V12 joins new looks and a heavily improved interior.

After just 20 months, the normal DB11 was replaced with the DB11 AMR (shown above) in Aston Martin's lineup. It brings 30 more horsepower and a vastly improved suspension geometry.

Here's a short explainer on how the "DB" nameplate came to be, via Carfection.


When Dr. Seuss Went to War

As World War II continued to rage on January 7, 1943, Theodor Geisel reported for duty. Dressed in a size 40-long captain’s uniform, the U.S. Army’s newest volunteer boarded a train for California, leaving behind his New York apartment as well as his budding career writing and illustrating children’s books under his distinctive pseudonym𠅍r. Seuss.

Three years earlier, Geisel had been at work on his fourth children’s book, “Horton Hatches the Egg,” when a news flash on the radio announced that Paris had fallen to the Nazis. Having dabbled in political cartoons during the 1930s, Geisel felt compelled to put his projects for young readers aside and brandish his pen to fire satirical shots at Adolf Hitler and American isolationists such as aviation pioneer Charles Lindbergh who wanted to keep the country out of the war in Europe. “While Paris was being occupied by the clanking tanks of the Nazis and I was listening on my radio, I found that I could no longer keep my mind on drawing pictures of Horton The Elephant. I found myself drawing pictures of Lindbergh The Ostrich,” he said.

Still from a Private Snafu cartoon depicting Hitler as the devil.

In 1941 and 1942, Geisel drew over 400 editorial cartoons for the left-leaning tabloid newspaper PM. Although the cartoons sport his distinctive style and fanciful menagerie of creatures, the subject matter is quite foreign, in more ways than one, to Dr. Seuss readers. One cartoon depicts a “Lindbergh Quarter” with an ostrich sticking its head in the ground in place of an American eagle. Another showed Lindbergh patting the head of a swastika-covered sea serpent that sported Hitler’s trademark mustache.

When Geisel heard news of the bombing of Pearl Harbor, he put down his copy of the Sunday New York Times and went to his drawing board to sketch a Seussian bird labeled “ISOLATIONISM” being blasted high into the sky by an explosion. “He never knew what hit him,” read the caption. With the United States now at war with Japan, Geisel’s cartoons increasingly trafficked in racial stereotypes. He portrayed Japanese leaders as narrow-eyed, buck-toothed caricatures, and one xenophobic cartoon portrays Japanese-Americans on the West Coast waiting in a long line for blocks of dynamite as well as “the signal from home.”

A cartoon drawn for the Treasury Department’s War Tax Program by Dr. Suess. (Credit: Bettmann Archive/Getty Images)

The American government enlisted the illustrator in the war effort by having him draw cartoons that urged the conservation of resources and the purchase of savings bonds and stamps to raise money for the war effort. Wishing to do more to back the war that he had lobbied for, the 38-year-old Geisel joined the U.S. Army and was deployed to the Fox studios in Hollywood𠅍ubbed 𠇏ort Fox”—to serve with some of the country’s top filmmakers, screenwriters, animators and journalists in Oscar-winning director Frank Capra’s Signal Corps unit.

Geisel worked to enliven the typical training manuals with his imaginative characters, such as an anthropomorphized malaria-carrying mosquito named Ann who eschewed whiskey and gin for the blood of soldiers and the “squander bug” who feasted on money that could have been better spent on war bonds.

He also worked alongside famed Warner Bros. animation directors Chuck Jones and Friz Freleng in creating cartoon shorts featuring Private Snafu𠅊 bald, bumbling GI with the looks of Elmer Fudd and the voice of Bugs Bunny (Mel Blanc supplied the voices of both characters). In nearly 30 episodes, the misadventures of the inept soldier both entertained and educated servicemen by demonstrating the pitfalls of doing things exactly as they shouldn’t be done—such as disobeying orders, evading censors and leaking classified information.

1944 Private Snafu cartoon, titled “Going Home,” written by Theodor Geisel. (Video courtesy National Archives)

Geisel wrote rhyme-studded scripts and contributed to storyboards of the cartoon, which was considerably more risqué than even the looniest of Looney Tunes (although the acronym that inspired the character’s name was sanitized to “Situation normal all FOULED up”). Since “Private Snafu” was released to only a military audience, it was not subject to the censors upholding the Motion Picture Production Code and could feature mild profanity, occasional off-color jokes and double entendres such as the hazards of 𠇋ooby traps” posed by buxom spies. One episode even depicted a mosquito named “Malaria Mike” taking aim at Private Snafu’s bare bottom as he bathed in a river.

After being promoted to major in March 1944, Geisel shifted his focus to live-action documentaries, such as “Your Job in Germany,” which explained to American soldiers what their mission would be after an eventual Nazi surrender. The propaganda film came with the ominous message that Germans could not be trusted: “The Nazi Party may be gone, but Nazi thinking, Nazi training and Nazi trickery remains. The German lust for conquest is not dead.” When Geisel traveled to Europe to show high-ranking generals the top-secret film, he suddenly found himself trapped for three days behind German lines at the onset of the Battle of the Bulge before he could be rescued. While General Dwight Eisenhower and others gave their approval to the documentary, the only poor review came from General George Patton, who panned it with a one-word profanity before walking out of the screening.

Geisel with a copy of his book, “The Cat in the the Hat,” in 1957. (Credit: Gene Lester/Getty Images)

Another film for which Geisel wrote a script, “Know Your Enemy—Japan,” was released on the same day the atomic bomb fell on Nagasaki, and General Douglas MacArthur ordered it quickly withdrawn. Another 18-minute film that Geisel produced following Capra’s discharge, “Our Job in Japan,” met a similar fate as MacArthur prevented its release following its completion. All was not lost, however, as Geisel and his wife, Helen, used the film as the basis for their screenplay for the 1947 documentary �sign for Death,” which earned an Academy Award.

After a three-year stint in the military, Geisel finally returned to civilian life, having received the Legion of Merit award for 𠇎xceptionally meritorious service in planning and producing films, particularly those utilizing animated cartoons, for training, informing, and enhancing the morale of the troops.” And with the publication of “McElligot’s Pool” in 1947, Dr. Seuss finally returned from the war effort as well.


Legacy of Argentina's Nazis

In the end, these Nazis had little lasting impact on Argentina. Argentina was not the only place in South America that accepted Nazis and collaborators as many eventually found their way to Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and other parts of the continent. Many Nazis scattered after Peron's government fell in 1955, fearing that the new administration, hostile as it was to Peron and all of his policies, might send them back to Europe.

Most of the Nazis who went to Argentina lived out their lives quietly, fearing repercussions if they were too vocal or visible. This was particularly true after 1960, when Adolf Eichmann, architect of the program of Jewish genocide, was snatched off a street in Buenos Aires by a team of Mossad agents and whisked off to Israel where he was tried and executed. Other wanted war criminals were too cautious to be found: Josef Mengele drowned in Brazil in 1979 after having been the object of a massive manhunt for decades.

Over time, the presence of so many World War II criminals became something of an embarrassment for Argentina. By the 1990s, most of these aging men were living openly under their own names. A handful of them was eventually tracked down and sent back to Europe for trials, such as Josef Schwammberger and Franz Stangl. Others, such as Dinko Sakic and Erich Priebke, gave ill-advised interviews, which brought them to the attention of the public. Both were extradited (to Croatia and Italy respectively), tried, and convicted.

As for the rest of the Argentine Nazis, most assimilated into Argentina's sizable German community and were smart enough to never talk about their past. Some of these men were even quite successful financially, such as Herbert Kuhlmann, a former commander of the Hitler youth who became a prominent businessman.


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