Information

Karl Eibl, 1891-1943


Karl Eibl, 1891-1943

Karl Eibl (1891-1943) was an Austrian who rose to high rank in the German army before being assassinated by an Italian soldier in 1943. Eibl served in the Austrian army before the Anschluss of 1938, having entered the army in 1914 as a Leutnant in Landwehr Regiment 21. After the war he rose to command Infantry Regiment 6.

After the Anschluss he transferred to the German Wehrmacht. He was given command of the 3rd Battalion, 131st Infantry Regiment, 44th Division, rising to command the regiment before the invasion of Poland. He won the Iron Cross First and Second Class during the Polish campaign.

Eibl commanded the 132nd Infantry Regiment during the invasion of France in 1940, and on 15 August 1940 was awarded the Knight's Cross for his actions around Chuignolles, and the defeat of an enemy brigade. He was promoted to colonel, and commanded the same regiment during Operation Barbarossa, where he became the 50th recipient of the Oakleaves to the Knight's Cross (31 December 1941) for actions around Zhitomir and close to the Uman peninsula. Eibl spent the rest of his career fighting on the Eastern Front. He was promoted to command the 358th Infantry Division, and on 19 December 1942 became the 21st recipient of the Swords to the Knight's Cross (and only the 2nd Army officer to receive that award, after Rommel) for his success in stopping part of the Soviet offensive around Stalingrad in the winter of 1942.

Eibl was promoted to Generalleutnant, and on 20 January 1943 became acting commander of the 24th Panzer Corps. His promotion was to be very short-lived, for on the following day an Italian solider serving on the Eastern Front threw a grenade into Eibl's car, mortally wounding him (this may have occurred during an accidental clash between German and Italian troops during a chaotic retreat, although some sources state that it was a deliberate attack). Eibl was posthumously promoted to General of Infantry.


Karl Eibl, 1891-1943 - History

Eibl is de Familiennaam von

    (* 1990), düütschen Germanist un Verleger, (* 1958), öösterrieksche Schoolmeesterin un Ledermakerin, (* 1945), öösterriekschen Karikaturist, (* 1941), düütsche Danzpädagogin un Choreografin, (1882–1958), öösterriekschen Philosoof, Glasmaler un Architekt, (1936–2019), öösterriekschen Kumponist, , düütschen Biochemiker, (1928–2018), öösterriekschen Bioloog un Verhollensforscher, , öösterriekschen Chemiker, (1936–2018), düütschen Boinschenör, (1891–1943), öösterrieksch-düütschen Offzeer un Generaal, (1940–2014), düütschen Literaturwetenschopper, (* 1960), düütschen Politiker, (* 1966), düütsche Inschenörin, (* 1931), öösterrieksche Medizinerin, (* 1934), düütschen Musiker, Kumponist, Musikverleger un Filmmaker, (* 1953), öösterriekschen Fotograaf, Maler un Schriever.
    , Oort in de Gemeen Bad Vigaun, Bezirk Hallein, Salzburg, Öösterriek, , Barg in Niederösterreich, Öösterriek.

Disse Siet is över en mehrdüdigen Begreep un vertellt, wat disse Begreep allens bedüden kann. Disse Siet is sotoseggen en „Gavelsiet“, de Weg gavelt sik hier un du kannst di een Siet utsöken, üm mehr över dissen Begreep to lesen.


Karl Eibl (Germanist) -->

Eibl promovierte 1967 bei Ingrid Strohschneider-Kohrs in Bochum ﲾr die Sprachkritik im Werk von Gustav Sack. 1973 wurde er Ordentlicher Professor für Neuere deutsche Literatur an der Universität Trier. 1990 wurde er nach München berufen. Seit 2008 war er emeritiert.

In den methodologischen Debatten der Literaturwissenschaften während der 1970er Jahre trat Eibl in Anlehnung an Karl Poppers Logik der Forschung (1934) für eine "kritisch-rationale", erklärend vorgehende Literaturwissenschaft ein. In zahlreichen Aufsätzen und zusammenfassend in seiner Monographie Die Entstehung der Poesie von 1995 führte er dieses Programm in die Praxis, die in erster Linie in einer evolutionsbiologisch und ethologisch argumentierenden Erforschung der Grundlagen menschlichen Kunstverhaltens und einer sozialgeschichtlichen Erklärung kulturellen Wandels bestand. Der biologische Ansatz wurde in seinem Buch Animal poeta (2004) erneut aufgegriffen und um neuere Ansätze der Soziobiologie und der Evolutionären Psychologie erweitert. Auch bezüglich der traditionellen philologischen Methoden zeigte er sich als streitbarer Vertreter einer empirisch ausgerichteten Literaturwissenschaft und lieferte sich 1985 eine Diskussion mit seinem T࿋inger Kollegen Jochen Schmidt im Jahrbuch der deutschen Schillergesellschaft.

Neben diesen programmatischen Initiativen trat Eibl durch zahlreiche Einzelstudien zur Literatur der Aufklärung, der Goethezeit und des 19. und frühen 20. Jahrhunderts hervor. Er publizierte insbesondere zu den Autoren Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, Johann Wolfgang Goethe, Friedrich Hölderlin, Johann Nestroy, Franz Grillparzer und Robert Musil. In der Goethe-Ausgabe des Deutschen Klassiker Verlags gab er die Gedichtbände heraus, die seitdem als führende Ausgabe der Goethe-Gedichte gelten. In der Editionsphilologie machte er sich au෾rdem durch frühe Experimente mit elektronischen Editionen auf CD-ROM bemerkbar. Schon 1992 gab er zusammen mit anderen Musils literarischen Nachlass als CD heraus. 1998 folgte eine elektronische Ausgabe der Werke des jungen Goethe mit umfangreichem Material und Kontextinformationen. 1999 war er Mitbegründer des Jahrbuchs für Computerphilologie.

Karl Eibl war bis zu seinem Tod mit seiner Frau Anje Eibl, geborene Heidenreich, Schwester des Schriftstellers und Journalisten Gert Heidenreich verheiratet.


Re: Knight's Cross Holders Photo Database

Post by joerg » 23 Dec 2009, 20:08

Rudolf Bäcker, KC 18.09.1943 (San.Fw., Stab II./GR 36)

Re: Knight's Cross Holders Photo Database

Post by joerg » 23 Dec 2009, 20:10

Engelbert Bockhoff, KC 18.11.43 (Hptm. Kommandeur Pz.AA 9)

Re: Knight's Cross Holders Photo Database

Post by Josef Bremm » 23 Dec 2009, 20:35

General der Infanterie Karl Eibl
° 23/07/1891 - † 21/01/1943

Ritterkreuz : 15.08.1940 ( 184 ) .
Oberstleutnant und Kommandeur des Infanterie-Regiments 132 / 44. Infanterie-Division .

Eichenlaub : 31.12.1941 ( 50 ) .
Oberst und Kommandeur des Infanterie-Regiments 132 / 44. Infanterie-Division .

Schwerter : 19.12.1942 ( 21 ) .
Generalmajor und Kommandeur der 385. Infanterie-Division .

Re: Knight's Cross Holders Photo Database

Post by chris44 » 23 Dec 2009, 21:00

Re: Knight's Cross Holders Photo Database

Post by chris44 » 23 Dec 2009, 21:01

Re: Knight's Cross Holders Photo Database

Post by chris44 » 23 Dec 2009, 21:07

Re: Knight's Cross Holders Photo Database

Post by Josef Bremm » 23 Dec 2009, 21:08

General der Fallschirmtruppe Richard Heidrich
° 28/07/1896 - † 22/12/1947

Ritterkreuz : 14.06.1941 ( 202 ) .
Oberst und Kommandeur des Fallschirm-Jäger-Regiments 3 / 7. Flieger-Division .

Eichenlaub : 05.02.1944 ( 382 ) .
Generalleutnant und Kommandeur der 1. Fallschirm-Jäger-Division .

Schwerter : 25.03.1944 ( 55 ) .
Generalleutnant und Kommandeur der 1. Fallschirm-Jäger-Division .

Re: Knight's Cross Holders Photo Database

Post by Josef Bremm » 23 Dec 2009, 21:36

Hauptmann Alwin Boerst
° 20/10/1910 - † 30/03/1944

Ritterkreuz : 05.10.1941 ( 337 ) .
Oberleutnant und Flugzeugführer in der 3. Staffel / Stukageschwader 2 "Immelmann“ .

Eichenlaub: 28.11.1942 ( 149 ) .
Hauptmann und Staffelkapitän der 3. Staffel / Stukageschwader 2 "Immelmann“ .

Schwerter : 06.04.1944 ( 61 ) posthumously .
Hauptmann und Kommandeur der I. Gruppe / Schlachtgeschwader 2 "Immelmann“ .

Re: Knight's Cross Holders Photo Database

Post by Josef Bremm » 23 Dec 2009, 21:55

Oberst Werner Streib
° 13/06/1911 - † 15/06/1986

Ritterkreuz : 06.10.1940 ( 137 ) .
Oberleutnant und Staffelkapitän der 8. Staffel / Nachtjagdgeschwader 1 .

Eichenlaub : 26.02.1943 ( 197 ) .
Major und Kommandeur der I. Gruppe / Nachtjagdgeschwader 1 .

Schwerter : 11.03.1944 ( 54 ) .
Major und Kommodore des Nachtjagdgeschwaders 1 .

Re: Knight's Cross Holders Photo Database

Post by bake » 23 Dec 2009, 22:08

General Friedrich Karst
* 04.09.1893 † 07.11.1975

Ritterkreuz: 28 August 1942
Oberst und Kommandeur des Infanterie-Regiments 461

Re: Knight's Cross Holders Photo Database

Post by Josef Bremm » 23 Dec 2009, 23:03

Oberst Heinz Georg Lemm
° 01/06/1919 - † 17/11/1994

Ritterkreuz : 14.04.1943 ( 1708 ) .
Hauptmann und Kommandeur des I. Bataillons / Füsilier-Regiment 27 / 12. Infanterie-Division .

Eichenlaub : 11.07.1944 ( 525 ) .
Major und Kommandeur des I. Bataillons / Füsilier-Regiment 27 / 12. Infanterie-Division .

Schwerter : 15.03.1945 ( 137 ) .
Oberstleutnant und Kommandeur des Füsilier-Regiments 27 / 12. Volks-Grenadier-Division .


Born in Vienna, Austria, Eibl-Eibesfeldt studied zoology [1] at the University of Vienna from 1945 to 1949. From 1946 to 1948 he was research associate at the Biological Station Wilhelminenberg near Vienna and became research associate of the Institute for Comparative Behavior Studies in Altenberg near Vienna with Konrad Lorenz in 1949. Between 1951 and 1969 he worked at the Max Planck Institute for Behavioral Physiology (first in Westphalia, from 1957 at Seewiesen, Bavaria). In 1970 he became Professor for Zoology at the University of Munich. Since 1975 he has been the head of the Max Planck Institute for Behavioral Physiology, Department of Human Ethology in Andechs, Germany. He was the co-founder and first president of the International Society for Human Ethology. Since 1992 he has been Honorary Director of the Ludwig-Boltzmann-Institute for Urban Ethology in Vienna.

In the first twenty years of his work as an animal ethologist, he investigated experimentally and descriptively the development of behavior of mammals and compared the behavior of communication of vertebrates. He is the author of many books such as Love and Hate: The Natural History of Behavior Patterns and Human Ethology.

He married Eleonore Eibl-Eibesfeldt in 1950. They had two children, Bernolf and Roswitha.

Eibl-Eibesfeldt died on 2 June 2018 in Starnberg, two weeks before his 90th birthday. [2]

For many years he dived with Hans Hass on his diving boat Xarifa. [3]


A new generation and further growth

Karl Eibl and Helmuth Frisch remained managing directors until 2013. Their retirement was capped by the company being named one of the winners in “Bayerns Best 50” [Bavaria’s Top 50] competition. In order to prepare a succession plan, Eibl, Frisch, Dittrich and Greipl sold their shares as early as in 2011 to Munich-based industrial holding company VTC, which invests in small- and medium-sized enterprises, to facilitate long-term development independent of the group.

Sesotec has since continued on its path to innovation and growth without interruption. In 2015, it established a subsidiary in Canada. That same year, Sesotec purchased ASM Advanced Sorting Machines, which is an Italian company that specializes in food-sorting machines. Another subsidiary joined the ranks in 2016, this time in Thailand.


Карл Айбль

Народився в сім'ї чиновника з будівництва державних доріг. Закінчив Терезіанську академію.

З 1 серпня 1914 року на фронті. Служив у 21-му ландверному полку, коомандував взводом, з 1915 року — командир роти. За бойові заслуги відзначений численними нагородами.

Після війни продовжив службу в армії Австрії. Командував ротою, з 1937 року — командир батальйону. З 15 березня 1938 року, після аншлюсу, на службі в вермахті на тій же посаді.

Як командир батальйону брав участь у Польській кампанії. З січня 1940 року — командир 132-го піхотного полку 44-ї піхотної дивізії. Брав участь у Французькій кампанії.

З 22 червня 1941 року — на Східному фронті (Житомир — Київ — Харків).

З січня 1942 року — командир 385-ї піхотної дивізії на південній ділянці Східного фронт. З 20 січня 1943 року — командир 24-го танкового корпусу.

21 січня 1943 року штабний автомобіль генерал-лейтенанта Айбля був підірваний ручними гранатами із засідки, влаштованої італійськими солдатами: вони помилково прийняли німецьку машину за радянську.


Karl Eibl, 1891-1943 - History

If you have information about this name, share it in the comments area below!

Numerology information Eibl:

Songs about Eibl:

Books about Eibl:

  • Single-Use Technology in Biopharmaceutical Manufacture - Jan 25, 2011 by Regine Eibl and Dieter Eibl
  • The Extracellular Matrix and Ground Regulation: Basis for a Holistic Biological Medicine - Jul 17, 2007 by Alfred Pischinger and Hartmut Heine
  • Human Ethology - Mar 31, 2007 by Irenaus Eibl-Eibesfeldt
  • Art Forms in Nature: The Prints of Ernst Haeckel - Aug 25, 2008 by Ernst Haeckel and Olaf Breidbach
  • Love and Hate: The Natural History of Behavior Patterns - 1972 by Irenaus Eibl-Eibesfeldt and Geoffrey Strachan
  • Love & Hate - Jan 1, 1987 by Irenaus Eibl-Eibesfeldt
  • Cell and Tissue Reaction Engineering (Principles and Practice) - Aug 6, 2009 by Regine Eibl and Dieter Eibl
  • The Money Making Power of Gold: Timeless Strategies for Profits - May 1, 2006 by Christoph Eibl
  • Indoctrinability, Ideology, and Warfare: Evolutionary Perspectives - Nov 1998 by Irenaus Eibl-Eibesfeldt and Frank K. Salter
  • Ethology, the biology of behavior - 1970 by Irenaus Eibl-Eibesfeldt
  • Climate for Collections: Standards and Uncertainties - Jul 16, 2013 by Jonathan Ashley-Smith and Andreas Burmester
  • Ethnic Conflict and Indoctrination: Altruism and Identity in Evolutionary Perspectives - Jan 30, 2001 by Irenaus Eibl-Eibesfeldt and Frank K. Salter

Wiki information Eibl:

Irenäus Eibl-Eibesfeldt is founder of the field of human ethology. In authoring the book which bears that title, he applied ethology to humans by studying them in a perspective more common to volumes studying animal behavior. Born in Vienna, Austria.

Karl Franz Eibl was a German general during World War II and recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords. The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross and its higher grade Oak Leaves and Swords was awarded to recognise.

Christoph Eibl appeared in the 2011 film Raising Resistance.

The Blacktail angelfish, also known as the Red stripe angelfish, Orangelined angelfish, or Eibl dwarf angel is a species of marine angelfish found near reefs in the Indo-Pacific.


ביוגרפיה [ עריכת קוד מקור | עריכה ]

קריירה מוקדמת [ עריכת קוד מקור | עריכה ]

אייבל נולד ב-23 ביולי 1891 בגויזרן, אוסטריה עילית, שהשתייכה לאימפריה האוסטרו-הונגרית. בשנת 1915 במהלך מלחמת העולם הראשונה התגייס לצבא האוסטרו-הונגרי, והצטרף לרגימנט הלאנדווהר ה-21, ולחם בשורותיו במהלך המלחמה. על פעולותיו בקרבות קיבל אייבל עיטורים רבים, ואף הועלה לדרגת האופטמן.

לאחר המלחמה נשאר אייבל בצבא אוסטריה, ומילא בו תפקידי פיקוד ומטה, ואף הועלה לדרגת מיור. לאחר האנשלוס הצטרף אייבל לוורמאכט, ומונה בסתיו 1938 למפקד הגדוד ה-3 ברגימנט הרגלים ה-132, וב-1 בינואר 1939 הועלה לדרגת אוברסט לוטננט.

מלחמת העולם השנייה [ עריכת קוד מקור | עריכה ]

במהלך המערכה בפולין לחם אייבל עם גדודו כחלק מהדיוויזיה ה-44, וקיבל על פעולותיו את עיטור צלב הברזל דרגה ראשונה ושנייה. באביב 1940 מונה אייבל למפקד הרגימנט ה-132, ובמהלך המערכה על צרפת לחם עמו כחלק מהדיוויזיה ה-44 ואף כבש את העיר שיניולה, ועל כך קיבל ב-15 באוגוסט 1940 את עיטור צלב האבירים של צלב הברזל. לאחר מכן נשאר אייבל עם יחידתו בצרפת, ומאוחר יותר הועבר לסלובקיה, וב-1 בפברואר 1941 הועלה לדרגת אוברסט. במהלך מבצע ברברוסה לחם אייבל עם הרגימנט שבפיקודו כחלק מהדיוויזיה ה-44 במסגרת הקורפוס ה-29, ועל פעולותיו בז'יטומיר ובאומן קיבל ב-31 בדצמבר 1941 תוספת עלי אלון לעיטור צלב האבירים של צלב הברזל. ב-10 בינואר 1942 מונה אייבל למפקד הדיוויזיה ה-385, ולחם עמה באזור פולוצק ורוסלאבל, כחלק מהארמייה הרביעית. הדיוויזיה לחמה במתקפת הקיץ הגרמנית, כחלק מהארמייה השנייה ומארמיית הפאנצר הרביעית לסירוגין באזור וורונז', ובדצמבר 1942 הועברה הדיוויזיה לאזור סטלינגרד, שם לחמה כחלק מקורפוס הפאנצר ה-24. ב-19 בדצמבר 1942 הועלה אייבל לדרגת גנרל לוטננט, וקיבל על פעולותיו תוספת חרבות לעיטור צלב האבירים של צלב הברזל. ב-1 בינואר 1943 הועבר אייבל לעתודת המילואים, וב-20 בינואר מונה למפקד קורפוס הפאנצר ה-24 שלחם באותה עת בקרבות קשים באזור הדון. הקורפוס ספג אבדות כבדות, ומשום כך יצא אייבל למחרת לסייר בקווים הקדמיים של הקורפוס. במהלך סיורו נתקל אייבל בחיילים איטלקים, ובגלל הערפל הכבד הם חשבו אותו לרוסי ופתחו עליו באש. אייבל נפצע קשות מרסיסי רימון יד שהוטל עליו, וכעבור כמה שעות מת בכפר ניקולאייבקה, כתוצאה מאובדן דם. לאחר מותו הועלה אייבל ב-1 במרץ 1943 לדרגת גנרל חיל הרגלים.


Knight's Cross Holders Identification

Post by Daniel L » 20 Aug 2003, 23:55

Due to the very common request of identifying Knight's Cross holders it has been decided to try to gather all these requests in one thread. This thread is therefore dedicated to identify photos of unidentified knight's cross holders.


INDEX / update : 12 Dec / Bernd

part 1 : not identified / zbV,various,confirmation / fakes / unofficial RKT / group photographs
part 2 : A - F
part 3 : G - L
part 4 : M - R
part 5 : S - Z
part 6 : AHF KC Holders photo / id threads outside this sticky

part 1
Not identified

page 3 : series of small pics gathered
series 1-20 : # 3 , 5 , 14 , 16
series 21-40 : # 24 , 27
series 41-55 : # 50 , 51

page 16 : starting with : unk.1.jpg / unk.2.jpg / unk.5.jpg / unk.6.jpg

page 126 : Capturar_4.jpg
sg1qu1.jpg
top : left , right ?? bottom : Peter Gassmann ? - Johannes Meinicke ? - Heinz Frank

page 129 : series: Teil 3.jpg - top , gdrkt1op7.jpg and gdrkt2my1.jpg
first pic : middle : Ernst-Albrecht Hückel confirmation
second pic : Bernhard Klemz confirmation - right : ?

z.b.V. / various / further confirmation ?

Biblio 10 group pic (better quality) , same pic, with persons numbered down the page

Karl Nicolussi-Leck or Willi Hein ?
latest discussion : The man on the pic in question is wearing a HJ badge. None of the three Hein pics we have already shows that badge. ?? . Also, doesn't the (sloppy) cap style speak for Nicolussi-Leck ? - I agree that Nicolussi-Leck/Hein case is still debatable

Post by Daniel L » 21 Aug 2003, 00:23

I'll start off with a few unidentified knight's cross holders. The knight's cross holder with the glasses is taken from Breyette's book 'Tank Killers' and the Leibstandarte officer is a detail from a photo with Jochen Peiper. Any information about the following men would be appreciated.

INDEX / part 2 : A - F

Post by Daniel L » 22 Aug 2003, 00:47

Here's another one. I think it comes from a Signal magazine.

INDEX / part 3 : G - L

Post by _The_General_ » 22 Aug 2003, 00:52

A picture i bought recently. the seller said that it came from a gebirdsjager vet and that the picture was made in norway

INDEX / part 4 : M - R

Post by Martin Månsson » 22 Aug 2003, 00:53

The Waffen-SS KC holder is Werner Wolff.

INDEX / part 5 : S - Z

Post by Daniel L » 22 Aug 2003, 00:58

INDEX / part 6 : AHF KC Holders photos / id threads outside this sticky

Post by Jacek » 22 Aug 2003, 16:18

On the color picture there is Uffz. Walter Pape (RK 7.03.1941)

Post by Martin Månsson » 22 Aug 2003, 19:45

I can add that the photo with Wolff was taken in August 1943 in Reggio, Italy. Also present on the photo but not shown here is Jochen Peiper in center and Paul Guhl on far right. Wolff served at the time as battalion adjutant to Peiper who were the commander of III./(Gep.)Pz.Gren.Rgt.2 "LSSAH".

Wolff were later to be company commander of 7./SS-Pz.Rgt.1 "LSSAH".

Post by Daniel L » 22 Aug 2003, 23:29

Thank you Jacek and Martin, your help is invaluable.

Post by Elwyn W » 23 Aug 2003, 18:36

Post by Elwyn W » 23 Aug 2003, 18:38

Post by Elwyn W » 23 Aug 2003, 18:40

Post by Elwyn W » 23 Aug 2003, 18:42

Post by Elwyn W » 23 Aug 2003, 18:43

Gen.d.Inf. Hans Jordan (RK m. EL u. Schw. / DKiG)

Post by Michael Miller » 23 Aug 2003, 20:45

RK1 is future General der Infanterie Hans Jordan

Born: 27 December 1892 in Scheueren / Kreis Rastatt / Baden.
Killed: 20 April 1975 in Muenchen (auto accident)

Ritterkreuz (57): 5 June 1940 as Oberst, Kommandeur of Infanterie-Regiment 49 / 28.Infanterie-Division

Eichenlaub (59.): 16 January 1942 as Oberst, Kommandeur of Infanterie-Regiment 49 / 28.Infanterie-Division / VIII.Armee-Korps / 9.Armee / Heeresgruppe Mitte

Schwertern (64.): 20 April 1944 as General der Infanterie, Kommandierender General VI.Armee-Korps

1914 Eisernes Kreuz II. Klassse: 23 September 1914
1914 Eisernes Kreuz I. Klasse: 15 April 1916
1939 Spange zum 1914 Eisernes Kreuz II. Klasse: 14 May 1940
1939 Spange zum 1914 Eisernes Kreuz I. Klasse: 24 May 1940
Deutsches Kreuz in Gold (501/1): 23 December 1943


Landsteiner's legacy

Landsteiner's discovery that red cells from some people are agglutinated by serum from others was the beginning of the haematological revolution.

Blood had always been regarded as the essence of life and fascinated Western ancient philosophers and medical thinking. The English physician William Harvey (1578–1637) wrote that, ‘blood acts above all the powers of elements and is endowed with notable values and is also the instrument of the omnipotent creator’. ‘It is’, he believed, ‘the fountain of life and the seat of the soul’.

The full advantage of blood as a source for medicinal products, from labile blood products to stable blood products, i.e. therapeutic concentrates, was made possible through Landsteiner's discoveries. In 2001, the pharmaceutical industry processed more than 12 million litres of plasma for manufacturing therapeutic factor concentrates, immunoglobulins, hyperimmunoglobulins, albumin and protease inhibitors.

Landsteiner made a significant contribution to the progress of medicine. He studied the antigenic properties of chemically modified proteins, revealing new specificities, and added to protein antigens by linking small organic molecules, which he named ‘haptens’ ( Landsteiner & Jagic, 1904 Landsteiner, 1921 ). The introduction of haptens to immunological research opened the investigation into the issues of antibody combining sites, antigenic determinants and antibody–antigen binding forces. In 1904, only 3 years after his publication on the blood groups, Landsteiner, together with Donath, made a key contribution to the pathogenesis of paroxysmal haemoglobinuria ( Donath & Landsteiner, 1904 ). Landsteiner began research work on syphilis in 1905, which led to the introduction of dark-field microscopy for the detection of Treponema pallidumand extensively studied human-to-animal syphilis transmission with the ultimate goal of developing antibodies for diagnostic purposes as well as explaining immunity ( Landsteiner et al, 1907 Luger, 1991 ).

His concept of the specificity of serological reactions was summarized in his textbook. The English edition of this textbook became a ‘bible’ for many immunologists ( Landsteiner, 1936 ).

Landsteiner's extensive discoveries were made without the tools used today in genomics and proteomics. His contributions were the basis for enormous progress in medicine for the benefit of humanity in the 20th century (Fig 2). A bright mind, driven by intellectual curiosity, is sufficient to make discoveries, even in meagre circumstances devoid of luxuries.

(A and B) A 1000 Schilling note featuring Dr Karl Landsteiner. (B) The 1000 Austrian Schilling note (€72·7), in circulation until the introduction of the Euro, 1 January 2002, depicted the areas of physiology and medicine to which Landsteiner devoted his work: 1. Landsteiner seated behind a microscope. 2. Landsteiner introduced dark-field microscopy to visualize the spirochetes of syphilis. 3. A model of a virus: Landsteiner successfully experimentally transmitted poliomyelitis from humans to monkeys and showed that the agent causing polio belongs to a group of filterable microorganisms. 4. A model of an immunoglobulin molecule, for his contributions to immunity. He was amongst the first to prepare partially purified antibodies by dissociating antigen–antibody complexes. 5. Human blood groups ABO. 6. Red cells: apart from the discovery of blood groups, a major constituent of his experimental immunization studies. The facsimile of the 1000 Schilling note was kindly provided by Peter Buchegger, Austrian National Bank.