March 7, 2014 Day 46 of the Sixth Year - History

March 7, 2014 Day 46 of the Sixth Year - History

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10:00AM THE PRESIDENT receives the Presidential Daily Briefing
Oval Office

11:05AM THE PRESIDENT and THE FIRST LADY depart the White House en route Joint Base Andrews
South Lawn

11:20AM THE PRESIDENT and THE FIRST LADY depart Joint Base Andrews

1:40PM THE PRESIDENT and THE FIRST LADY arrive Homestead, Florida
Homestead Air Reserve Base

2:25PM THE PRESIDENT and THE FIRST LADY visit a Coral Reef High School classroom
Coral Reef High School, Miami, Florida

2:40PM THE PRESIDENT delivers remarks
Coral Reef High School, Miami, Florida

Historical Events on January 7

Event of Interest

1618 Francis Bacon becomes Lord Chancellor of England

    Germany & Transylvania sign Peace of Nikolsburg Fire after heavy storm destroys two thirds of De Rijp Netherlands, 1 person dies

Event of Interest

1698 Russian Tsar Peter the Great departs Netherlands for England

    Typewriter patented by Englishman Henry Mill (built years later) 1st US commercial bank, Bank of North America, opens in Philadelphia 1st US seed business established by David Landreth, Philadelphia

Event of Interest

1842 Gioachino Rossini's cantata "Stabat Mater" premieres in Paris

Event of Interest

1862 Romney Campaign: Stonewall Jackson march towards Romney, WV

    Arkansas constitutional convention meets in Little Rock Mississippi constitutional convention meets in Jackson African American inventor William Purvis receives a patent for the fountain pen Mine explosion kills 100 in Krebs, Oklahoma blacks trying to help rescue white survivors, driven away with guns Hermann Sudermanns "Heimat" premieres in Berlin

Event of Interest

1894 William K.L. Dickson captures "Fred Ott's Sneeze" as a motion picture at Thomas Edison's Black Mariah Studio, West Orange, New Jersey [1]

    Fannie Farmer publishes her first cookbook "The Boston Cooking-School Cook Book" Walter Camp publishes his 1st All-American football team in Collier's

Music Premiere

1903 Vincent d'Indy's opera "L'etranger" premieres in Brussels

Event of Interest

1904 Marconi Co establishes "CQD" as 1st international radio distress signal

Event of Interest

    England beat Australia by one wicket at the MCG Stanley Cup, Dey's Arena, Ottawa, ON: Ottawa Senators beat Galt (ON), 3-1 for a 2-0 sweep of challenge series Dutch Scouts Organization established in Amsterdam William M Burton patents a process to "crack" petroleum World War I: Germany's Kaiser Wilhelm approves strategic bombing of Britain, but forbids bombing London, fearing his relatives in the royal family might be killed

Event of Interest

1916 In response to pressure from President Woodrow Wilson, Germany notifies the US State Department that it will abide by strict international rules of maritime warfare

    The Industrial and Commercial Workers' Union of South Africa is founded, led by Clements Kadalie Montenegrin guerrilla fighters rebel, but fail to prevent Serbia's annexation of Montenegro Five duly elected Socialist assemblymen are denied by the New York State Assembly

Anglo-Irish Treaty

1922 The Anglo-Irish Treaty is ratified by Dail Eireann by a 64-57 vote

    Baltimore Sun warns of Ku Klux Klan Musical "Big Boy" with Al Jolson premieres in NYC Commercial transatlantic telephone service inaugurated between New York & London Harlem Globetrotters play their 1st game in Hinckley, Illinois "Buck Rogers" sci-fi comic strip's 1st appearance in a newspaper "Tarzan", one of the 1st adventure comic strips, 1st appears

Event of Interest

1929 Croatian nationalist movement, Ustaša founded by Ante Pavelić in exile in Italy

    French inventor Robert Bureau launches the 1st radiosonde - a battery-powered telemetry instrument carried into the atmosphere to measure various parameters and transmit them by radio to a ground receiver

Agreement of Interest

1935 French Foreign minister Pierre Laval and Benito Mussolini sign the Franco-Italian Agreement

    Tennis champs Helen Moody & Howard Kinsley volley 2,001 times (1h18m) US worker's union leader Tom Mooney freed (jailed since 1916) Winter War: The Finish 9th Division defeats the Soviet forces on the Raate-Suomussalmi road despite being significantly outnumbered

Event of Interest

1941 Chinese Kuomintang forces under orders from Chiang Kai-shek open fire on the surrounded Communist New Fourth Army at Maolin, Anhui Province, killing or capturing 7,000 troops

Event of Interest

1945 Lord Haw-Haw (William Joyce) reports total German victory in the Ardennes

    The last surface engagement between Allies and Japanese in the Pacific campaign, World War II Cambodia becomes autonomous state inside French Union Australia v England at MCG drawn in 6 days, 1st cricket draw in Australia since 1882

Event of Interest

1948 US President Harry Truman raises taxes for the Marshall Plan

Event of Interest

1955 Marian Anderson becomes the 1st African American to perform with the New York Metropolitan Opera

Boxing Title Fight

1955 20 year-old future world heavyweight boxing champion Floyd Patterson scores a 5th-round TKO of Willie Troy in a non-title super middleweight bout at New York’s Madison Square Garden

    Vinoo Mankad scores 231 v NZ, 413 opening stand with Roy Algerian militant and National Liberation Front member Djamila Bouhired sets off a bomb in an Algiers cafe killing 11 civilians, precipitating the Battle of Algiers Gibson issued US patent for the Flying V Guitar USSR reduces army to 300,000

Event of Interest

1959 US recognizes Fidel Castro's Cuban government

Event of Interest

1959 American gangster Meyer Lansky flees Cuba for the Bahamas due to the Cuban Revolution and rise of Fidel Castro

    The Polaris missile is tested 1st NFL Playoff Bowl (runner-up bowl)-Detroit beats Cleveland 17-16 Trucial States (now UAE) issue their 1st postage stamps 1st AFL All Star Game, Balboa Stadium, SD: Western Division beats Eastern Division, 47-27 MVP Cotton Davidson, Dallas Texans, QB

Assassination Attempt

1962 Assassination attempt fails on Indonesian President Sukarno

    Bollingen Prize for poetry awarded to John Hall Wheelock 1st class postage raised from 4 cents to 5 cents

Event of Interest

1963 The rift between Cleveland Browns owner Art Modell and head coach Paul Brown reaches a boiling point, and Brown is fired

    Bahamas becomes self-governing Dick Weber rolls highest bowling game in air (Boeing 707) France announces it will convert $150 million of its currency to gold Twin brothers are in held in custody in London charged with abduction and murder Dance Theatre of Harlem debuts

Event of Interest

1966 Gene Kiniski beats Lou Thesz in St Louis, to become NWA wrestling champion

    "GE College Bowl" quiz show premieres on NBC TV 1st class US postage raised from 5 cents to 6 cents Surveyor 7, the last spacecraft in the Surveyor series, lifts off US Congress doubles president salary

Woodstock Music and Art Fair

1970 Farmers sue Max Yasgur for $35,000 in damages caused by "Woodstock"

    -40°F (-40°C) in Hawley Lake, Arizona (state record) Iberian Airlines 'plane crashes into 800ft peak on island of Ibiza, 104 die Los Angeles Lakers defeat the Atlanta Hawks, 134-90 for their 33rd straight win, the longest winning streak in major professional sports Lewis F. Powell Jr. becomes a US Supreme Court Justice William Hubbs Rehnquist sworn in as US Supreme Court Justice

Event of Interest

1980 American President Jimmy Carter authorizes legislation to bail out the Chrysler Corporation with a 1.5 billion dollar loan

NHL Record

1982 Islander's Bryan Trottier's 10th career hat trick

Event of Interest

1983 President Reagan ends US arms embargo against Guatemala

    Brunei becomes the sixth member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). "King & I" opens at Broadway Theater NYC for 191 performances Japanese space probe Sakigake launched to Halley's comet KHQ-AM in Spokane WA changes call letters to KLSN (now KAQQ) Lou Brock & Hoyt Wilhelm are elected to Baseball's Hall of Fame Netherlands Bank issues 250 guilder notes STS 61-C mission scrubbed at T -9m because of weather problems US President Reagan announces economic sanctions against Libya French airplanes harass Libyan positions in Duadi Doum

Event of Interest

1987 Kapil Dev takes his 300th Test wicket, at 28 the youngest

Event of Interest

1989 Akihito becomes the 125th Emperor of Japan after the death of his father Horohito

    International Conference on Limitation of Chemical Weapons opens in Paris NBA's Cleveland Cavaliers longest win streak (11) Cleve Cavs block 21 NY Knick shots tying NBA regulation game record Lynn Jennings runs world record indoor 5km indoor at 15:22.64 Tower of Pisa closed to the public after leaning too far "Nia Peeples Party Machine" premieres on TV

Event of Interest

1991 Saddam Hussein prepares his troops for what he says will be a long violent war against the US

Event of Interest

1992 Last day of Test cricket for Imran Khan

Hall of Fame

1992 Tom Seaver & Rollie Fingers elected to Baseball's Hall of Fame

    The Fourth Republic of Ghana is inaugurated with Jerry Rawlings as President. Bosnian War: Bosnian Army launches a surprise attack on Kravica, a village in Srebrenica South Africa beat Australia in the Sydney Test by 5 runs

Event of Interest

1994 US female Figure Skating championship won by Tonya Harding

    United Express commuter plane crashes in Ohio, killing 5 Hopman Cup Tennis, Perth: Petr Korda defeats Bernd Karbacher of Germany 6-3, 6-3 for an unassailable 2-0 lead (ends 2-1) and the Czech Republic's first title "Christmas Carol" closes at Richard Rodgers Theater NYC after 18 performances "Passion" closes at Plymouth Theater NYC after 280 performances

Event of Interest

1995 Hopman Cup Tennis, Perth: Boris Becker beats Andrei Medvedev of the Ukraine 6-3, 6-7, 6-3 for a 2-0 win, and Germany's second title

    Larry Brown posts his 500th career NBA coaching victory, following the Indiana Pacers' 88-83 road win at the Houston Rockets "Crazy after You" closes at Shubert Theater NYC after 1622 performances "Fool Moon" closes at Ambassador Theater NYC after * performances 16th United Negro College Fund raises $12,600,000

Election of Interest

1997 Newt Gingrich narrowly re-elected speaker of the US House of Representatives

Event of Interest

1998 Former White House intern Monica Lewinsky signs affidavit denying she had an affair with President Bill Clinton

Event of Interest

1998 Los Angeles Lakers center Shaquille O'Neal blocks 3 shots in a 114-102 win over Milwaukee to bring his career total to 1,002

Impeachment Trial of Bill Clinton

1999 President Bill Clinton's Impeachment trial begins in the US Senate after the House voted to impeach him for lying about his affair with Monica Lewinsky

    NBA Board of Governors unanimously ratifies a new 6-year collective bargaining agreement between the league and the National Basketball Players Association Former UK Cabinet minister Jonathan Aitken released from prison after 9 months of a 18-month sentence

Film and TV Awards

2001 27th People's Choice Awards: Mel Gibson & Julia Roberts win (Dramatic Motion Picture) and Drew Carey & Jennifer Aniston win (TV)

    "In Da Club" single is released by 50 Cent (MTV Video Music Award Best Rap Video and Best New Artist 2003, Billboard Song of the Year 2003)

Event of Interest

2007 Phil Jackson wins his 900th game as a head coach, becoming the fastest coach to reach 900 career wins

    Danish TV drama "The Killing" created by Søren Sveistrup and starring Sofie Gråbøl premieres on DR1 13th Critics' Choice Movie Awards: No Country for Old Men wins Best Film

Film and TV Awards

Film Release

2011 "The King's Speech", starring Colin Firth, Geoffrey Rush, and Helena Bonham Carter, is released in United Kingdom

    Hot air balloon crashes in Carterton, New Zealand, killing 11 Hopman Cup Tennis, Perth: Tomáš Berdych beats Frenchman Richard Gasquet 7-6, 6-4 for an unassailable 2-0 lead 2nd title for Czech Republic

Football Awards

2013 FIFA Ballon d'Or: Barcelona forward Lionel Messi wins award for a record 4th consecutive year US forward Abby Wambach wins women's award

Event of Interest

2015 Terrorist attack on the offices of satirical newspaper "Charlie Hebdo" in Paris kills 12 (including Jean Cabut and Stéphane Charbonnier), injures 11

Film and TV Awards

2015 41st People's Choice Awards: Robert Downey & Jennifer Lawrence win (movie star), Patrick Dempsey, Ellen Pomero (TV dramatic)

    A car bomb explodes in Sana'a, the capital of Yemen, killing 38 people and injuring more than 63 Hopman Cup Tennis, Perth: French pair Kristina Mladenovic & Richard Gasquet beat Americans Coco Vandeweghe & Jack Sock 4-1, 4-3 to clinch 2-1 win 2nd French title

Golden Globes

2018 75th Golden Globes: "Ladybird", "The Handmaid's Tale", Elisabeth Moss, Sterling K. Brown among the winners, Oprah Winfrey accepts Lifetime award with powerful speech


The earliest purported Women's Day observance, called "National Woman's Day", [13] was held on February 28, 1909, in New York City, organized by the Socialist Party of America [14] at the suggestion of activist Theresa Malkiel. [15] There have been claims that the day was commemorating a protest by women garment workers in New York on March 8, 1857, but researchers have alleged this to be a myth intended to detach International Women's Day from its socialist origin. [16] [17] [18]

In August 1910, an International Socialist Women's Conference was organized ahead of the general meeting of the Socialist Second International in Copenhagen, Denmark. [19] Inspired in part by the American socialists, German delegates Clara Zetkin, Käte Duncker, Paula Thiede, and others proposed the establishment of an annual "Women's Day", although no date was specified. [7] [16] [20] The 100 delegates, representing 17 countries, agreed with the idea as a strategy to promote equal rights, including women's suffrage. [21]

The following year, on March 19, 1911, the first International Women's Day (IWD) was marked by over a million people in Austria, Denmark, Germany, and Switzerland. [14] In the Austria-Hungary alone, there were 300 demonstrations, [16] with women parading on the Ringstrasse in Vienna, carrying banners honoring the martyrs of the Paris Commune. [16] Across Europe, women demanded the right to vote and to hold public office, and protested against employment sex discrimination. [3]

IWD initially had no set date, though it was generally celebrated in late February or early March. Americans continued to observe "National Women's Day" on the last Sunday in February, while Russia observed International Women's Day for the first time in 1913, on the last Saturday in February (albeit based on the Julian calendar, as in the Gregorian calendar, the date was March 8). [22] In 1914, International Women's Day was held on March 8 for the first time in Germany, possibly because that date was a Sunday. [22] As elsewhere, Germany's observance was dedicated to women's right to vote, which German women did not win until 1918. [22] [23] Concurrently, there was a march in London in support of women's suffrage, during which Sylvia Pankhurst was arrested in front of Charing Cross station on her way to speak in Trafalgar Square. [24]

Adoption by socialist and communist movements Edit

On March 8, 1917 in Petrograd, women textile workers began a demonstration that eventually engulfed the whole city, demanding "Bread and Peace"—an end to World War I, to food shortages, and to czarism. [22] This marked the beginning of the February Revolution, which alongside the October Revolution, made up the Russian Revolution. [3] [25] Revolutionary leader Leon Trotsky wrote, "23 February (8th March) was International Woman's Day and meetings and actions were foreseen. But we did not imagine that this 'Women's Day' would inaugurate the revolution. Revolutionary actions were foreseen but without a date. But in the morning, despite the orders to the contrary, textile workers left their work in several factories and sent delegates to ask for the support of the strike… which led to mass strike. all went out into the streets." [22] Seven days later, Tsar Nicholas II abdicated, and the provisional Government granted women the right to vote. [14]

In 1917, following the October Revolution, Bolsheviks Alexandra Kollontai and Vladimir Lenin made IWD an official holiday in the Soviet Union. [26] On May 8, 1965, the USSR Presidium of the Supreme Soviet decreed International Women's Day a non-working day in the USSR, "in commemoration of the outstanding merits of Soviet women in communistic construction, in the defense of their Fatherland during the Great Patriotic War, in their heroism and selflessness at the front and in the rear, and also marking the great contribution of women to strengthening friendship between peoples, and the struggle for peace. But still, women's day must be celebrated as are other holidays." [ citation needed ]

After its official adoption in Soviet Russia, IWD was predominantly celebrated in communist countries and by the communist movement worldwide. Communist leader Dolores Ibárruri led a women's march in Madrid in 1936 on the eve of the Spanish Civil War. [16] Chinese communists observed the holiday beginning in 1922, [16] though it soon gained traction across the political spectrum: In 1927, Guangzhou saw a march of 25,000 women and male supporters, including representatives of the Kuomintang, the YWCA, and labor organizations. [27] After the founding of the People's Republic of China on October 1, 1949, the State Council proclaimed on December 23 that March 8 would be made an official holiday, with women given a half-day off. [28]

Adoption by United Nations Edit

IWD remained predominantly a communist holiday until roughly 1967 when it was taken up by second-wave feminists. [16] The day re-emerged as a day of activism, and is sometimes known in Europe as the "Women's International Day of Struggle". In the 1970s and 1980s, women's groups were joined by leftists and labor organizations in calling for equal pay, equal economic opportunity, equal legal rights, reproductive rights, subsidized child care, and the prevention of violence against women. [29] [30]

The United Nations began celebrating International Women's Day in 1975, which had been proclaimed the International Women's Year. In 1977, the United Nations General Assembly invited member states to proclaim March 8 as an official UN holiday for women's rights and world peace. [31] It has since been commemorated annually by the UN and much of the world, with each year's observance centered on a particular theme or issue within women's rights.

International Women's Day sparked violence in Tehran, Iran on March 4, 2007, when police beat hundreds of men and women who were planning a rally. (A previous rally for the occasion was held in Tehran in 2003.) [32] Police arrested dozens of women and some were released after several days of solitary confinement and interrogation. [33] Shadi Sadr, Mahbubeh Abbasgholizadeh and several more community activists were released on March 19, 2007, ending a fifteen-day hunger strike. [34]

Adoption by corporations Edit

By the twenty-first century, IWD has been criticized as heavily diluted and commercialized, particularly in the West, where it is sponsored by major corporations and used to promote general and vague notions of equality, rather than radical social reforms. [35] A @[email protected] website was established in 2001 it sets out a yearly theme and hashtags, unconnected with the UN project. [36] In 2009, the website was being managed by the British marketing firm Aurora Ventures with corporate sponsorship. [37] [38] The website began to promote hashtags as themes for the day, which became used internationally. [39] The day was commemorated by business breakfasts and social media communications that were deemed by some social critics as reminiscent of Mother's Day greetings. [35] [29]

IWD 2010 Edit

On the occasion of 2010 International Women's Day the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) drew attention to the hardships displaced women endure. The displacement of populations is one of the gravest consequences of today's armed conflicts. It affects women in a host of ways. [40]

IWD 2011 Edit

Though the celebration in the West was low-key, events took place in more than 100 countries [10] on March 8, 2011, to commemorate the 100th anniversary of International Women's Day. [41] In the United States, President Barack Obama proclaimed March 2011 to be "Women's History Month", calling Americans to mark IWD by reflecting on "the extraordinary accomplishments of women" in shaping the country's history. [10] Secretary of State Hillary Clinton launched the "100 Women Initiative: Empowering Women and Girls through International Exchanges", on the eve of IWD. [42] In the run-up to 2011 International Women's Day, the Red Cross called on States and other entities not to relent in their efforts to prevent rape and other forms of sexual violence that harm the lives and dignity of countless women in conflict zones around the world every year. [43]

Australia issued an IWD 100th anniversary commemorative 20-cent coin. [44]

In Egypt, in Tahrir Square, Cairo, hundreds of men came out not to support, but to harass the women who came out to stand up for their rights as the police and military stood by watching, doing nothing to stop the crowds of men. [45]

IWD 2012 Edit

Oxfam America invited people to celebrate inspiring women in their lives by sending a free International Women's Day e-Card or honoring a woman whose efforts had made a difference in the fight against hunger and poverty with Oxfam's International Women's Day award. [46]

On the occasion of International Women's Day 2012, the ICRC called for more action to help the mothers and wives of people who have gone missing during armed conflict. The vast majority of people who go missing in connection with conflict are men. As well as the anguish of not knowing what has happened to the missing husband or son, many of these women face economic and practical difficulties. The ICRC underlined the duty of parties to this conflict to search for the missing and provide information to the families. [47]

IWD 2013 Edit

The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) drew attention to the plight of women in prison. [48]

The theme for International Women's Day 2013 was "A promise is a promise: time for action to end violence against women." [49]

It was reported the 70% of women worldwide experience some sort of physical and/or sexual violence in their life. Irina Bovoka, UNESCO Director General on International Women's day 2013, stated that in order "to empower women and ensure equality, we must challenge every form of violence every time it occurs." [50] In view of the increase in violence against women and following the brutal attack on Malala Yousafzai in October 2012, the UN focussed their attention on ending violence against women and made this the central theme for International Women's Day 2013. UNESCO acknowledged that violence against young girls was one of the major reasons for girls not attending school and subsequently collaborated with governments around the globe to support women's rights in providing a quality education in a safe environment. [51]

For a more cultural and artistic celebration, UNESCO also held a concert in Paris as a "Tribute to Women in Music: from the romantic to the electronics". [52]

IWD 2014 Edit

American singer Beyoncé also posted an International Women's Day video to her YouTube account. Throughout the video, her song "Flawless" plays, which includes a portion of the "We Should All Be Feminists" speech given by author Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie. [53]

IWD 2015 Edit

Governments and activists around the world commemorated the 20th anniversary year of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, an historic roadmap that set the agenda for realizing women's rights. [54]

IWD 2016 Edit

The President of India, Shri Pranab Mukherjee, said: "On the occasion of International Women's Day, I extend warm greetings and good wishes to the women of India and thank them for their contributions over the years in the building of our nation." [55] The ministry of women and child development announced the setting up of four more one-stop crisis centers on March 8, in addition to the eight already functioning across the country. [56] Ahead of Women's Day, the national carrier Air India operated what it claimed to be the world's longest non-stop flight where the entire flight operations were handled by women, as part of International Women's Day celebrations. The flight, from Delhi to San Francisco, covered a distance of around 14,500 kilometers in around 17 hours. [57]

IWD 2017 Edit

In a message in support of International Women's Day, the UN Secretary-General António Guterres commented on how women's rights were being "reduced, restricted and reversed". With men still in leadership positions and a widening economic gender gap, he called for change "by empowering women at all levels, enabling their voices to be heard and giving them control over their own lives and over the future of our world". [58]

IWD 2018 Edit

The UN theme for International Women's Day was: "Time is Now: Rural and urban activists transforming women’s lives”.

Global marches and online campaigns such as #MeToo and #TimesUp, which originated in the United States but became popular globally, allowed many women from different parts of the world to confront injustice and speak out on issues such as sexual harassment and assault and the gender pay gap. [59]

IWD 2019 Edit

The UN theme for International Women's Day was: 'Think equal, build smart, innovate for change'. The focus of the theme was on innovative ways in which to advance gender equality and the empowerment of women, particularly in the areas of social protection systems, access to public services and sustainable infrastructure. [60]

The federal state of Berlin marked International Women's Day as a public holiday for the first time.

IWD 2020 Edit

The UN theme for International Women's Day was: 'I am Generation Equality': Realizing Women's Rights'. [61] Despite the COVID-19 pandemic, street marches occurred in London, Paris, Madrid, Brussels, Moscow and other European cities. [62] [63] [64] [65] The Aurat March in Islamabad was marred by attacks from stone throwers, after a failed attempt to have it banned as un-Islamic. In Bishkek, the capital of Kyrgyzstan, police detained dozens of marchers shortly after masked men reportedly attacked the march. [62]

Wikispore has a related page: Event:International Women's Day 2020

IWD 2021 Edit

The 2021 UN theme for International Women's Day is "Women in leadership: Achieving an equal future in a COVID-19 world", highlighting the impact that girls and women worldwide had as health care workers, caregivers, innovators and community organizers during the COVID-19 pandemic. [66] The theme this year is: #ChooseToChallenge.

Wikispore has a related page: Event:International Women's Day 2021

IWD is an official holiday in several countries worldwide, including Afghanistan, [67] Angola, Armenia, [68] Azerbaijan, [69] [70] Belarus, [71] Burkina Faso, [72] Cambodia, [73] China (for women only), [74] Cuba, [75] Georgia, [76] Germany (Berlin only), [77] Guinea-Bissau, Eritrea, Kazakhstan, [78] Kyrgyzstan, [79] Laos, [80] Madagascar (for women only), [81] Moldova, [82] Mongolia, [83] Montenegro, Nepal, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, [84] Uzbekistan, [85] and Zambia. [86]

In some countries, such as Australia, [87] Cameroon, [88] Croatia, [89] Romania, [90] Bosnia and Herzegovina, [91] Bulgaria, [92] Vietnam, [93] and Chile [94] IWD is not an official public holiday, but is widely observed nonetheless.

Regardless of legal status, in much of the world, it is customary for men to give female colleagues and loved ones flowers and small gifts. In some countries (such as Bulgaria and Romania) it is also observed as an equivalent of Mother's Day, where children also give small presents to their mothers and grandmothers. [90] In the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, huge Soviet-style celebrations were held annually. After the fall of Communism, the holiday, generally considered to be one of the major symbols of the old regime, fell into obscurity. International Women's Day was re-established as an official "important day" by the Parliament of the Czech Republic in 2004 [95] on the proposal of the Social Democrats and Communists. This has provoked some controversy as a large part of the public as well as the political right see the holiday as a relic of the nation's Communist past. [95]

IWD is widely celebrated in France as Journée internationale des femmes. In Italy, the holiday is observed by men giving yellow mimosas to women. [96] [97] This originated with communist politician Teresa Mattei, who chose the mimosa in 1946 as the symbol of IWD because the predominant symbols of the day, violets and lily-of-the-valley, were too scarce and expensive to be used effectively in Italy. [98]

In the United States, actress and human rights activist Beata Pozniak worked with the Mayor of Los Angeles and the Governor of California to lobby members of the US Congress to propose official recognition of the holiday. In February 1994, by Beata Pozniak suggestion, the H. J. Res. 316 was introduced by Representative Maxine Waters, along with 79 cosponsors, in an attempt to officially recognize March 8 of that year as International Women's Day. The bill was subsequently referred to, and remained in, the House Committee on Post Office and Civil Service. No vote of either house of Congress was achieved on this piece of legislation. [99] In Pakistan, the Aurat March has challenged misogyny since 2018. [100]


Apple based the initial release of iTunes on SoundJam MP, a program developed by Bill Kincaid and released by Casady & Greene in 1999. [1] Apple purchased the program from Casady & Greene in 2000. At the time of the purchase, Kincaid, Jeff Robbin and Dave Heller left Casady & Greene to continue development of the program as Apple employees. At Apple, the developers simplified SoundJam's user interface, added the ability to burn CDs, and removed the program's recording feature and skin support. [2]

Apple released version 1.0 of the program under a new name "iTunes" on January 9, 2001 at Macworld San Francisco. Macintosh users immediately began poking through iTunes's resource fork, where they discovered numerous strings and other resources that indicated that iTunes was a re-engineered Sound Jam MP. Casady & Greene ceased distribution of SoundJam MP on June 1, 2001 at the request of the developers. [3]

Originally a Mac OS 9-only application, iTunes began to support Mac OS X with the release of version 1.1 in March 2001. Release 2.0 added support for the then-new iPod. [4] Version 3 dropped Mac OS 9 support but added smart playlists and a ratings system. [5] In April 2003, version 4.0 introduced the iTunes Store in October, version 4.1 added support for Microsoft Windows 2000 and Windows XP. [6] Introduced at Macworld 2005 with the new iPod Shuffle, Version 4.7.1 introduced the ability to convert higher-bitrate songs to 128kbit/s AAC automatically, as these devices did not natively support audio encoded in AIFF or Apple Lossless formats, also improving the value proposition of the Shuffle's limited flash-only storage. [7] Version 7.0 introduced gapless playback and Cover Flow in September 2006. [8] In March 2007, iTunes 7.1 added support for Windows Vista, [9] and 7.3.2 was the last Windows 2000 version. [10]

iTunes lacked support for 64-bit versions of Windows until the 7.6 update on January 16, 2008. iTunes is currently supported under any 64-bit version of Windows, although the iTunes executable was still 32-bit until version 12.1. The 64-bit versions of Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 are not supported by Apple, but a workaround has been devised for both operating systems. [11] Version 8.0 added Genius playlists, grid view, and a new default visualizer. [12]

iTunes 9 added "Home Share" enabling automatic updating of purchased items across other computers on the same subnet and offers a new iTunes Store UI . Genius Mixes were added, as well as improved App synchronization abilities, extending the iPod Shuffle 128 kbit/s down-convert feature to all of Apple's AAC-capable devices. [13] It also adds iTunes LPs to the store, which gives additional media with an album. Apple added iTunes Extras as well to the store, which adds content usually reserved for films on DVD and Blu-ray discs. [14] Both iTunes LPs and Extras use web-standards HTML, JavaScript, and CSS. [15]

On September 1, 2010, Apple held their annual music press event where they unveiled an updated version: iTunes 10. The new version was available for download later that day. One major feature includes the integration of "iTunes Ping", which brings a social factor to the iTunes experience. Apple CEO Steve Jobs also announced a new logo, one without a CD in the background because of the increasing popularity of iTunes digital downloads.

In October 2012, Apple announced the launch of the iPhone 5 and iPad Mini, the refresh of the iPod and Mac lines, and the upcoming release of iTunes 11. Slated for release by the end of October, the launch was pushed back to November 29, 2012. This version included tighter integration with iCloud, and a new user interface. Users' libraries now include all media they have stored in their iCloud account, along with any media unique to the device they are using. Media files stored in the cloud don't need to be downloaded before playing, allowing a larger collection to be accessible without increased disk usage. The new user interface includes a refreshed grid view, which replaces Cover Flow as the default layout method. With this change, Cover Flow is no longer available within the application. With the release of this software, the iTunes Store was redesigned to remain consistent with the new interface, and the stores available on iOS devices. The social element Ping was also removed and replaced by increased Twitter and Facebook integration. Other minor changes included disabling the sidebar by default, and slightly altering the icon to match that of the Mac App Store better.

On October 16, 2014, Apple released iTunes 12, with a redesigned icon and interface, inspired by OS X Yosemite. With iTunes 12.1 and later, there is a new widget for notification center in OS X Yosemite, which allows the user to see what's playing, skip ahead, and even buy songs from iTunes Radio, right from notification center. It also improves performance when syncing to an iOS device.

iTunes has been credited with accelerating shifts within the music industry. The pricing structure of iTunes encouraged the sale of single songs, allowing users to abandon the purchase of more expensive albums. This hastened the end of the Album Era in popular music.

On April 26, 2018, Apple released iTunes 12 for Windows 10 via the Windows Store. The Universal Windows Platform app retains all features available in the desktop version, but will be updated and available through the Windows Store. [16]

On June 3, 2019, Apple stated that they would no longer include iTunes with future Mac computers. Starting with the operating system macOS Catalina, Apple instead split iTunes into separate apps: Apple Music, Apple TV, and Apple Podcasts. [17] [18] iTunes continues to be available on Windows and on macOS operating systems prior to Catalina. [18] [17] Users can also still install iTunes versions 10, 11, and 12 on macOS Catalina and macOS Big Sur using the Retroactive app. [19]

2014 Holidays

The most common (Federal) holidays of the United States (USA) in 2014 are listed below.

DateHolidayDayDays to go
January 1, 2014New Year's DayWednesday-
January 20, 2014Martin Luther King DayMonday-
January 24, 2014Belly Laugh DayFriday-
February 2, 2014Groundhog DaySunday-
February 12, 2014Lincoln's BirthdayWednesday-
February 14, 2014Valentine's DayFriday-
February 17, 2014Presidents Day and Washington's BirthdayMonday-
March 4, 2014Mardi Gras Carnival

See more holidays in other years, click on one of the links below or view the 2014 calendar.

January 1 Becomes New Year’s Day

The early Roman calendar consisted of 10 months and 304 days, with each new year beginning at the vernal equinox according to tradition, it was created by Romulus, the founder of Rome, in the eighth century B.C. A later king, Numa Pompilius, is credited with adding the months of Januarius and Februarius. Over the centuries, the calendar fell out of sync with the sun, and in 46 B.C. the emperor Julius Caesar decided to solve the problem by consulting with the most prominent astronomers and mathematicians of his time. He introduced the Julian calendar, which closely resembles the more modern Gregorian calendar that most countries around the world use today.

As part of his reform, Caesar instituted January 1 as the first day of the year, partly to honor the month’s namesake: Janus, the Roman god of beginnings, whose two faces allowed him to look back into the past and forward into the future. Romans celebrated by offering sacrifices to Janus, exchanging gifts with one another, decorating their homes with laurel branches and attending raucous parties. In medieval Europe, Christian leaders temporarily replaced January 1 as the first of the year with days carrying more religious significance, such as December 25 (the anniversary of Jesus’ birth) and March 25 (the Feast of the Annunciation) Pope Gregory XIII reestablished January 1 as New Year’s Day in 1582.

The Birthstone(s) for March is the aquamarine and the bloodstone.

  • 1933 – Barbara Feldon, American actress and model (Get Smart)
  • 1938 – Johnny Rutherford, American auto racer (Won the Indianapolis 500 in 1974, 1976 and 1980)
  • 1946 – Liza Minnelli, American singer and actress
  • 1947 – Mitt Romney, American politician, 70th Governor of Massachusetts
  • 1948 – James Taylor, American singer-songwriter (You've Got a Friend)
  • 1957 – Marlon Jackson, American singer and actor (The Jackson 5)
  • 1962 – Darryl Strawberry, American baseball player
  • 1968 – Aaron Eckhart, American actor (Erin Brockovich, Thank You For Smoking, The Dark Knight)

Bumble Information, Statistics, Facts and History

Bumble with their Beehive logo was launched in December of 2014 by founder Whitney Wolfe Herd. Whitney originally had co-founded Tinder but left after suing Tinder for sexual discrimination which was settled for over $1 million in September 2014. After leaving Tinder Whitney had met with the founder of Badoo, Andrey Andreev and the 2 eventually struck a deal where Andrey would invest $10 million and offer the use of Badoo's infrastructure for a new dating service while receiving a 79% stake, and Whitney would serve as CEO of the service and receive 20% ownership. Since launch Bumble has also started several other services including BFF (mode in Bumble for finding friends - in 2016), The Hive (dating events - in 2017), and Bumble Bizz (business networking - in 2017).

Users are required to use their mobile phone number or Facebook when they login and create an account on the Bumble dating app (iOS and Android). As of 2018 users can also now access the Bumble service from the website. When using Facebook, photos and other information is pulled (with the users permission) to create a basic profile. Bumble is one of the first female friendly dating apps. Bumble displays a profile and the user must either swipe left or right before they can see a new match. Both members must mutually swipe right on each other before a conversation can begin. The main difference with Bumble is that female members must initiate the conversation (males cannot for heterosexual relationships). Males then must continue the conversation within 24 hours or the match disappears.

In 2016 Bumble added a paid subscription service called Bumble Boost which offers enhancements (see who already likes you, rematches, add additional time for matches) over the free service. One time payments for Bumble Coins was also added so users could purchases features like the Super Swipe (shows extra interest in someone).

In 2019 Bumble surpassed 55 million registered members and was #2 on the list of revenue earned on Google Play for all dating brands. Bumble also became part of Magic Lab, a new holding company for dating brands that Andrey Andreev has either founded or is in partnership with their founders.

In a little over a year Bumble surpassed 100 million registered users. In 2020 Magic Labs was also rebranded to Bumble Inc.

March 7, 2014 Day 46 of the Sixth Year - History

The oldest of Iranian traditions, Nowruz (also referred to as eyd-i sar-i sal and eyd-i sal-i now ) recalls the cosmological and mythological times of Iran. Its founder is a deputy of Ahura Mazda on earth, a position that imparts to him and the celebration a spiritual dimension and a particular sense of secular authority. The celebration is organized according to the dynamics of love between the Creator and his creation, the material world. The annual return of the spirits of the departed to their homes is celebrated by their offsprings according to primordial rites of which only a faint trace remains among the Persians and the Parsees of today. But that in no way diminishes the importance of the bond which is refreshed at every Nowruz.

The word " Nowruz " is a compound of two Persian words, " now " which has the same etymology as the English word "new" and means new, and the word " ruz " which means both "day" and "time." Literally meaning the "new day," nowruz is usually translated as "new year." The Persian Nowruz begins on the first day of spring (usually the 21st of March). The 21st of March, therefore, is equal to the 1st day of Farvardin of the Islamic solar calendar.

In the mind of Iranians, the word nowruz invokes colorful images which are sumptuous, elegant, and opulent as well as delightfully simple, refreshing, and cordial. Although colored with vestiges of Iran's Mazdian and Zoroastrian past, the Nowruz celebration is neither religious or national in nature, nor is it an ethnic celebration. Jewish, Zoroastrian, Armenian and Turkish Iranians and Central Asians celebrate the Nowruz with the same enthusiasm and sense of belonging. Perhaps it is this very universal nature of the message of Nowruz that speaks to its wealth of rites and customs as well as to its being identified as the unique fount of continuity of the Iranian culture.

Preparation for the Nowruz begins early in March with sprouting of sabzeh (lentil, wheat, or barley seeds) and a thorough khane tekani (house cleaning). The former harks back to the agrarian background of the Iranian tribes that celebrated the main transitions in the climate that dictated the dynamics of their lives. The latter, which entails washing carpets, painting the house, and cleaning the yard and the attic, stems from the Zoroastrians' preoccupation with cleanliness as a measure for keeping Evil away from the kingdom of Good.

Symbolically, khane tekani signals to the spirits of the ancestors that their kin are ready and willing to entertain them. In other words, they are invited to descend on their previous homes to help them nourish the growth of the sabzeh, the main source of their sustenance which has been depleted during the long and cold days of winter.

The sprouting of seeds and house cleaning are followed by kharid-i Nowruz i ( Nowruz shopping). Nowruz shopping, a family affair performed mostly to engage the children in the celebration, must include all the members. Everyone must be measured and outfitted with new clothes, shoes, hats, and the like. In addition, as we shall see below, the sofreh ( Nowruz display cloth) requires certain items--sweetmeats, confectioneries, candles, fruits, and nuts--which are also bought at this time. In addition to what is bought, women of the household bake various types of sweet breads and sew special clothes for the little ones. At the end a trip must be made to the bank for acquiring shiny, new coins and crisp, fresh banknotes to give out as eydi (gift) and for the sofreh.

Known as the traditional herald of the Nowruz , Haji Firuz is a black-faced character clad in bright red clothes and a felt hat playing a tambourine and singing, " haji firuze, sali ye ruze. " (It is Haji Firuz time. It happens one day a year!). People of all ages gather around him and his troupe of musicians and listen to them play the drum, saz or kamancheh and dance. Those who are impressed with the troupe's performance shower it with coins and paper money.

Often, well-to-do Iranians invite Haji Firuz to their home to perform for their wife and daughters who would otherwise never see Haji Firuz in action on the street. Here the group plays popular folk music, performs a variety of comic routines, and tells jokes. At the end of the performance the members are invited to a nice Nowruz meal and are handsomely compensated for their contribution with an eydi ( Nowruz gift).

The actual Nowruz ceremonies begin on the eve of the last Wednesday of the out-going year. Early in the evening of that day, referred to as charshanbe souri or "Red Wednesday," several rather large bonfires are made every member of the family jumps over the fire and says, " sorkhi-e to az man, zardi-e man az to, " which literally means "Give me your redness and take away my wintry sallow complexion). The jumping over the fire is followed by a get together in which nuts and fruits are served. This party is mostly for the benefit of the children of the family who are entertained, long into the night, with stories that they will remember with joy throughout their lives.

While the party goes on the fire dies out. The ashes are gathered and, as the symbol of the bad luck imposed by winter, are taken out of the house and buried in the fields. When the person in charge of burying the ashes returns and knocks on the door, those who are in the house ask, "Who is it?"

"It is I," says the person returning.
"Where are you coming from?"
"From a wedding," is the response.
"What are you bringing with you?" is the last question.
"Happiness and mirth," is the response.

Only then the door is opened and the herald of the new life, who has warded off the bad omen and the evil eye, is ushered in.

Fire is of particular significance in ancient Iranian cultures. The charshanbe souri fire might have been related to the signals sent to the spirits of the departed to guide them to their previous abodes to enjoy the prayers that their descendants perform for their benefit. The fact that traditionally the fires were lit on the roofs of houses speaks directly the necessity of the fire to be distinct and visible.

As part of the charshanbe souri festivities, and very much like Halloween, children--sometimes accompanied by adults--visit their neighbor's houses in disguise. The disguise is usually something like a veil ( chador ) covering the entire body. Each member of the party carries an empty metal bowl and a metal spoon. At the neighbor's door, they create a chorus with banging the spoons on the bowl and on the door. The neighbor opens the door and places a treat in each visitor's bowl. The party then proceeds to the next house. As a rule, the members of the party must remain silent and anonymous throughout the process. Often boys and girls who otherwise would have no occasion to see each other, meet across the threshold.

A more culturally interesting aspect of the charshanbe souri celebration is the falgush performed by girls in their teens and young unmarried women. For this, the teenagers or the unmarried women huddle in the corners of dark alleys and listen to the conversations of passersby. The contents of the first sentence of a conversation exchanged is regarded as an omen ( fal ) or portent for the future. For instance, if a young girl hopes to get married sometime during the next year and hears the following, "There is no way that any sane person would say no to such an offer. " she would be elated. Conversely, if she hears some thing like, "Do you think we didn't try? It's like talking to a brick wall. " she would be utterly disappointed.

Tup-i morvari or pearl cannon was a large cannon kept at the Arg (citadel) of Tehran. Studded with pearls, the cannon was rolled out on charshanbe souri night. Tehrani women, wishing to get married in the coming year, climbed on the cannon and walked under it hoping that their wish would come true.

Those who have encountered problems for which there has been no solution often stop the first passerby crossing their path and ask him or her to undo a knot they have tied in a shirt tale. The willingness or unwillingness of the strange passerby to undo the knot is an omen for the resolution of the problem in the coming year.

Still as a part of the charshanbe souri festivities the family places several low-denomination coins ( pul-i siyah ), a piece of charcoal, seeds of the wild rue, and a piece of rock salt in a new earthen water jar. The jar then is taken up to the roof and from the edge of the roof, the content of the jar is tossed off into the street. While filling the jar the person says, "My pains and misfortunes into the jar!" and when tossing the contents, says, "My pains and misfortunes onto the street!" Serving as a preventative measure, the items in the jar have the power to foil any attempt by Evil at harming the family during the coming year. Often water is also added to the contents to aid the absorption of evil and to make it sink deeper into the ground.

The dinner for the Thursday before Nowruz must include pilau and chicken. Fulfilling this ritual would assure a similar dinner at least once in a week for the entire duration of the coming year.

Sofreh-i Nowruz

A few days before the arrival of Nowruz , a rather large table cloth is spread on the floor of the main room of the house and the following items are placed on it:

Lighted candles, which represent the goodness and warmth that enters life with the coming of spring and the dissipation of evil that has had the world in its cold grip, are placed on the sofreh . In a large setting, an open fire would replace the candles. The number of the candles must be the same as the number of the offspring in the household. Often an egg accompanies each candle. It should be mentioned that the candles on displays must be allowed to burn themselves out. It is bad luck to blow out a candle.

Holy Book
A copy of family's holy book (i.e, Avesta, Torah, Injil (Bible), or Qur'an - depending on the faith to which the family belongs) is placed in a prominent place on the sofreh . The holy scripture refreshes the bond between the faithful and the source of good emanating from the light.

Haftsin or seven edible things the names of which in Persian begin with the letter " sin " or "s" are placed in a tray or otherwise placed next to each other on the sofreh . Sib (apple), somaq (sumac), sir (garlic), samanu (a paste made with wheat sprouts), senjed (jujube fruit), sohan (a candy made with honey and nuts), siyahdane (sesame seeds), serke (vinegar), and sangak (bread baked on a bed of rocks) are the usual edible items from among which seven are chosen. Since the edible items on the haft-sin are not to be eaten until after the change of seasons, often non-edibles such as sekke (coins), sonbol (hyacinth), spand (the wild rue), sepestan (sebestens), samovar (samovar), or sabzeh (wheat or lentil sprouts) are substituted. The seven "sin"s symbolically recall Ahura Mazda and the six Amesha Spentas who help him regulate the affairs of man according to the " din " or order prescribed by Ahura Mazda's Ahuric Order. It should be added that today the seven " sin "s are interpreted rather differently, as the following example illustrates:

sweetness, fertility, having many children

medicine for recovering from evil

health, natural beauty, fragrance

color of the sun at sunrise

age and patience wards off bitterness in life

purity, opulence, and good fortune

Needless to say, these interpretations are not sanctioned by any particular authority or based on any overall analysis of the theological and/or cosmological values that ancient Iranians might have had for them. What else can be an apt interpretation of sekke (coin) in this context but affluence, wealth, and prosperity? Ironically, this is one of the "s's" that comes into fruition right after the tahvil-i sal. The coins which equal the number of family members, are distributed among the members by the family patriarch (grandfather or father).

Additionally, it should be mentioned that haft-sin could have been haft-shin -- shir (milk) , shekar (sugar) , shahd (nectar) , sharbat (compote) , shane (comb) , sharab (wine) , and sham' (candle )--in pre-Islamic times. " Shin " has been changed to " sin " to accomodate Islam's disapproval of sharab or wine. Why that one item could not have been replaced with a different item befinning with " shin " is not known.

Other traditions relate haft-sin or haft-shin to seven trays ( sini ) filled with seven delicious food items or seven different growing seeds, or seven varieties of nuts offered to the king. Others consider the seven "s's" to have been Life, Health, Happiness, Prosperity, Joy, and Beauty, all forming the seventh "s" which, according to Zoroastrian traditions, represents Truth.

Still others contend that while the first tray to Ahura Mazda was empty (Truth is a combination of things with no substance of its own), the other six trays were filled with flowers, sugar, milk, cheese, yogurt, butter, cream, eggs, water, mirrors, candelabra, burning coal, silver, and gold. These items, according to this belief, represent Truth, Good thought, Dominion, Piety, Prosperity, Immortality, and Obedience.

A mirror placed on the sofreh face up with a plain hard-boiled egg placed on it in the middle.

A bowl of clear water with an orange and a leaf of a rose bush floating in it.

Live goldfish in a bowl of clear water

The barley, lentil, or wheat sprouts that had been growing since early March decorated with a red ribbon around the outside and an orange seated in the center.

In addition to these there are representatives of the other kingdoms sustaining life on earth, i.e., products from the animal kingdom in the form of cheese and yogurt, the plant kingdom in the form of flour, vegetables, rice, and of the water kingdom in the form of the goldfish are also placed on the sofreh . Pomegranates and pussy willows also are sometimes seen. The latter is especially important as it blossoms at this very time of the year.

An upright mirror and plenty of colored eggs, cookies, and various types of fruits and sweets, candies, and nuts are added to decorate the sofreh.

Sa'at-i tahvil Sa'at-i tahvil means the hour during which the old year ends and the new year begins. In an Iranian house, during the Nowruz celebration, sa'at- tahvil is a most crucial moment in the life of the family, especially with regard to forgiving past failings, putting away petty frictions that would otherwise fester into conflicts, and looking forward to more constructive relations. And, of course, this is the moment when the egg rolls on the mirror and the orange flips over in the bowl of water. The moment is announced by the resounding boom of cannons fired in the square, by a brief speech delivered by the leader of the nation, and by the debut of a popular song contributed by a popular favorite artist.

Just before the change of the year, all members of the family, in their new clothes and holding a new coin in their hand for good luck, gather around the haft-sin display and, quietly and patiently, watch the solitary white egg on the mirror. Each one imagines a huge bullfish in the ocean of time carrying the world on one of its horns. Any moment now, the bullfish will toss the world over to the other horn, resulting in a tremor that will dislodge the egg and send it rolling to the side of the mirror.

As soon as the egg rolls, the members of the family, rejoicing, kiss each other, exchange Nowruz greetings, eid-i shoma mobarak! (May you have an auspicious new year!), and proceed, especially in the case of children, to make the rounds of the elders of the family first and of the neighborhood. Adults, too, have a set schedule of visits and of receiving visitors.

As a rule, the patriarch of the house stays home until all those younger, and lower in rank, than him come and pay their respects, then he would return those visits. Visits are short. Sweets and tea are the most often served items. The rounds of visitations might last as long as thirteen days.

Beliefs attached to Sa'at-i tahvil

Several beliefs related to sa'at-i tahvil are interesting. The first thing to eat, for instance, should be an egg because it is believed that eggs ensure good fortune. In fact, in some traditions, the patriarch of the family must eat all the eggs that have accompanied the candles placed for each offspring on the sofreh ! The first person who enters the house after sa'at-i tahvil might decide the good or bad fortune that would visit the house in the next year. Often a member of the family known to be blessed with good fortune is sent out to become the first visitor. Things brought into the house, especially their color, also have the potential of influencing the course of the future of the family. The color white is regarded auspicious. Black is believed to be associated with grief and strife. Even the place where the individual is at sa'at-i tahvil is significant in that he or she might be stuck to that or a similar location for the entire duration of the coming year. In this context, therefore, one tends not to be anywhere near schools, offices, or the bazaar.

The Nowruz ceremonies end on the thirteenth day of the first month of the new year. On that day almost all the people leave the towns and villages and spend a day in the countryside enjoying the beautiful weather that accompanies the change of seasons. During this outing the sabzeh that had been displayed and with it, all the sins, worries, and concerns of the past are thrown into running water. The new year then begins with a fresh slate on the 14th of the month.

With regard to the sabzeh, it should be noted that some rural folk might plant the sabzeh rather than throw it into running water. It should also be noted that one should not touch other peoples' sabzeh on that day. Before the sabzeh is thrown, girls at the age of being married and unmarried women often tie the blades of the sabzeh saying , "sal-i digar, khane-i showhar, bachcheh dar baghal! " (Let next year find me in my husband's house with a baby in my arms!"

Monthly Holidays and Observances

  • Academy Awards Month
  • Adopt a Rescued Guinea Pig Month
  • Alport Syndrome Awareness Month
  • American Diabetes Alert Month
  • American Red Cross Month
  • Bell Peppers and Broccoli Month
  • Berries and Cherries Month
  • Bleeding Disorders Awareness Month
  • Brain Injury Awareness Month
  • Child Life Month
  • Colic Awareness Month
  • Colorectal Cancer Education and Awareness Month
  • Credit Education Month
  • Deaf History Month - March 13 - April 15
  • Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) Awareness Month
  • Dolphin Awareness Month
  • Employee Spirit Month
  • Endometriosis Month 
  • Exotic Winter Fruit & Leeks and Green Onions Month
  • Expanding Girls' Horizons in Science and Engineering Month
  • Gardening, Nature and Ecology Books Month
  • Gender Equality Month
  • Hemophilia Month
  • Honor Society Awareness Month
  • Humorists are Artists Month
  • International Ideas Month
  • International Listening Awareness Month
  • International Mirth Month
  • International Rescue Cat Awareness Month
  • Irish-American Heritage Month
  • Kidney Month
  • Mad for Plaid Month
  • Malignant Hyperthermia Awareness and Training Month
  • Mental Retardation Awareness Month
  • Middle Level Education Month
  • Music in our Schools Month
  • National Athletic Training Month
  • National Breast Implant Awareness Month
  • National Caffeine Awareness Month
  • National Celery Month
  • National Cerebral Palsy Awareness Month
  • National Cheerleading Safety Month
  • National Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Awareness Month
  • National Clean up Your IRS Act Month
  • National Color Therapy Month
  • National Colorectal Cancer Awareness Month
  • National Craft Month
  • National Crochet Month
  • National Developmental Disabilities Awareness Month
  • National Endometriosis Awareness Month
  • National Essential Tremor Awareness Month
  • National Ethics Awareness Month
  • National Eye Donor Month
  • National Flour Month
  • National Flower Month
  • National Frozen Food Month
  • National Kidney Month
  • National March Into Literacy Month
  • National Multiple Sclerosis Education and Awareness Month
  • National Noodle Month
  • National Nutrition Month 
  • National On-Hold Month
  • National Optimism Month
  • National Peanut Month
  • National Poison Prevention Awareness Month
  • National Problem Gambling Awareness Month
  • National Professional Social Worker's Month
  • National Sauce Month
  • National Social Work Month
  • National Umbrella Month
  • National Women Inventors Month
  • National Women's History Month
  • Play the Recorder Month
  • Preschool Education Month
  • Read an E-Book Month
  • Red Cross Month
  • Rosacea Awareness Month
  • Save Your Vision Month
  • Sing with Your Child Month
  • Small Press Month
  • Spiritual Wellness Month
  • Supply Management Month
  • Trisomy Awareness Month
  • Vascular Anomalies Awareness Month
  • Workplace Eye Healthy and Safety Awareness Month
  • Youth Art Month

Free Printable 2014 Calendars

Free 2014 calendars that you can download, customize, and print. Calendars are available in PDF and Microsoft Word formats.

Here are the 2014 printable calendars:

2014 Calendar with Large Dates

2014 Calendar on one page (vertical)

2014 Calendar on one page (horizontal)

2014 Calendar (vertical, descending)

2014 Calendar (horizontal, descending)

2014 Calendar on one page (vertical grid)

2014 Calendar on one page (horizontal grid)

2014 Calendar (vertical grid)

2014 Calendar (horizontal grid, descending)

2014 Calendar on one page (vertical, shaded weekends)

2014 Calendar on one page (vertical, shaded weekends, notes)

2014 Calendar on one page (horizontal, shaded weekends)

2014 Calendar on one page (vertical, week starts on Monday)

2014 Calendar on one page (horizontal, week starts on Monday)

2014 Calendar on one page (vertical, holidays in red)

2014 Calendar on one page (horizontal, holidays in red)

2014 Calendar (vertical, descending, holidays in red)

2014 Calendar (horizontal, descending, holidays in red)

2013-2014 Academic Calendar

2014-2015 Academic Calendar

2014 Computer Monitor Calendar

2014 Cute Scallop Calendar

2014 Horizontal Scrapbook Calendar Cards

2014 Morning Afternoon Night Calendar

2014 One Page Calendar With Flowers

2014 Vertical Scrapbook Calendar Cards

2014 Calendar Three Months Per Page

2014 Calendar Vertical List

2014 Weekly Calendar (vertical)

If you don't see a calendar design or category that you want, please take a moment to let us know what you are looking for.

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These calendars are easy to download and print, for free.

All of the calendars are available in your choice of PDF or DOC format: just download one, open it in a PDF reader or Word and print. The Word version can be edited, adding your own events, for instance.

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