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Corcyra Bronze Coin

Corcyra Bronze Coin


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I’ve gotten most of my dirty coins from eBay. Search for “uncleaned Roman coins” and you’ll get a couple hundred results. Things to consider when evaluating listings:

  • Most display an image of a pile of dirty coins. That does not mean you’re buying the entire pile. Frequently the price is PER COIN. This is mentioned in the listing, but I’m highlighting it regardless.
  • Look at the pictures. While, yes, these coins are dirty, if all the coins in the picture are just flat, featureless disks, I fear there may not be much left under the dirt (although I’ve never purchased coins from such listings.)
  • Some sales flat out say their coins are in “poor condition.” I suspect they’re so poor as to not be fun, but, again, I’ve never purchased them.
  • “Culls” are coins in very poor condition.
  • Ignore it when sellers say their coins are “very rare.” They’re not.
  • Coins will almost assuredly be from the 4th century, regardless what span of dates the sellers claim.
  • Some sellers will describe their coins as AE1, 2, 3, or 4. AE3 coins are 17-21mm, which is comparable in size to American dimes, pennies and nickels. AE4s are smaller, and I’m not a fan of them. You’re not likely to see A1s advertised, although there might be some AE2s, which are comparable to nickels and quarters. I aim for AE3s.

My favorite dealer is ivlla because I always get some good coins from their lots and they show the specific coins for sale. If it’s ten coins, the picture will be of the ten coins you’re going to get. Unfortunately, at the time of this posting, the store is closed due to the owner having had a stroke. I mention it here in the hopes the store will open in the future.

You can also go to Dirty Old Coins, which sells coins individually.

I strongly suggest buying more than one (regardless of seller). Some coins will suck. You’ll clean them off and find they really are just lumpy bronze disks. Buying several will greatly improve your chances of enjoying coin cleaning.


United States Mint Announces First Two Honorees in American Women Quarters Program

WASHINGTON – The United States Mint (Mint) is pleased to announce the names of the first two women to be honored on coins issued under the American Women Quarters Program. Famed writer Maya Angelou and trailblazing astronaut Dr. Sally Ride will be the first distinguished American women celebrated on the reverse of the program’s circulating quarters.

As authorized by Public Law 116-330—the Circulating Collectible Coin Redesign Act of 2020—the Mint will issue circulating and numismatic quarter-dollar coins with reverse (tails) designs emblematic of the accomplishments and contributions of a prominent American woman beginning in January 2022. Contributions may come from a wide spectrum of fields including, but not limited to, suffrage, civil rights, abolition, government, humanities, science, space, and the arts. The women honored will come from ethnically, racially, and geographically diverse backgrounds. As the Public Law requires that no living person be featured in the coin designs, all of the women honored must be deceased. The Mint will annually issue up to five different reverse designs over the four-year period beginning in 2022 and continuing through 2025.

The obverse (heads) of coins in this program will continue to feature a likeness of George Washington designed in a manner to distinguish it from the current image.

The public is invited to submit recommendations for women to be honored via the following web portal established by the National Women’s History Museum: https://forms.gle/3BgR3BLbFfJ69XdYA.

In accordance with the Public Law, the Secretary of the Treasury selects the women to be honored following consultation with the Smithsonian Institution’s American Women’s History Initiative, the National Women’s History Museum, and the Congressional Bipartisan Women’s Caucus.

The Mint will announce additional information about the American Women Quarters Program in the coming months.

About the United States Mint
Congress created the United States Mint in 1792, and the Mint became part of the Department of the Treasury in 1873. As the Nation’s sole manufacturer of legal tender coinage, the Mint is responsible for producing circulating coinage for the Nation to conduct its trade and commerce. The Mint also produces numismatic products, including proof, uncirculated, and commemorative coins Congressional Gold Medals silver and bronze medals and silver and gold bullion coins. Its numismatic programs are self-sustaining and operate at no cost to taxpayers.

  • Visit https://www.usmint.gov/learn/coin-and-medal-programs/american-women-quarters to learn more about the American Women Quarters Program.
  • Visit https://www.usmint.gov/about for information about the United States Mint.
  • Visit https://catalog.usmint.gov/email-signup to subscribe to United States Mint electronic product notifications, news releases, and public statements.
  • Sign up for RSS Feeds from the United States Mint and follow us on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Pinterest.

United States Mint – Connecting America through Coins


Bithynia

Anadolu Selçuklu Devleti’nin yıkımın eşiğine gelmesini müteakip, 699/1300’de Batı Anadolu’daki pek çok Türkmen beyi ile birlikte istiklâlini ilân etmiş olan Osman Gâzî, bağımsızlığını kazandıktan sonra Bithynia’da gerçekleştirdiği ilk fetihler dizisi olan Bilecik, Yarhisar, İnegöl ve Köprühisar fetihlerinden sonra rotasını doğrudan İznik’e çevirmiş ve büyük oğlu Orhan’ı akıncılarıyla bu bölgeye göndermiştir. Uzun süre devam edecek olan İznik kuşatması sırasında, Osman Gâzî’nin oğlu Şehzâde Orhan’la birlikte Sakarya, Bolu ve İzmit üzerine de peşpeşe akınlar düzenlediği ve bu şehirlerin önemli bir kısmını fethettiği Osmanlı kroniklerinde açıkça belirtilmişse de, çağdaş kaynak ve belge sayısının azlığı ve şimdiye kadar bunlara dayalı ciddî bir çalışmanın ortaya konulamaması nedeniyle fethedilen kale ve bölgelerin yerleri ve kronolojisi belirlenememiş daha da önemlisi Sakarya’nın tam olarak hangi tarihte fethedildiği tespit edilememiştir.

Bu araştırmamızda Osmanlı kuruluş döneminin en karanlık devrelerinden biri olduğu zannıyla kimi modern araştırmacılar tarafından “kara delik” (black hôle), ya da -tarihî gerçekliği yansıtmadığı savından hareketle- “Osmanlı tarihöncesi” (The Ottoman Prehistory) olarak nitelendirilen Osman Gâzî dönemi fetihleri arasında, istiklâli izleyen ikinci fetihler dizisinin önemli bir ayağını oluşturan “Sakarya fethi”nin gerçek mâhiyeti ve bilinmeyen tarihi, rivâyetlerdeki kısa ve kesik bilgiler üzerinden yürütülen yüzeysel tahminlerin hilâfına ilk kez çağdaş Osmanlı rivâyetleri, belgeleri ve Bizans kroniklerinde yer alan ipuçları ışığında tespit edilmeye çalışılacaktır.


Upsetting means to “upset” the edge of a coin to create a raised rim. The upsetting mill feeds the blank into a groove slightly narrower than its diameter. This pushes the metal up around the edge to form a rim. The rim protects the final coin from wear and makes it stackable.

A blank with a rim is called a planchet. Some people continue to use ‘blank’ as a general term for a coin before it’s struck.

Most of the blanks that the Mint buys are planchets ready for striking. When the Mint receives a shipment of planchets, inspectors check them carefully to ensure they meet the required specifications. After that, penny planchets go directly to the presses for striking.

Special proof and uncirculated planchets go through a cleaning process called burnishing. They are placed in a drum with cleaning agents and small metal pellets to smooth and polish the surface. They are then rinsed and hand-dried with towels.


Confiscated coins at Canadian border become opportunity

Original image courtesy of Homeland Security Investigations.

All images courtesy of Homeland Security Investigations.

All images courtesy of Homeland Security Investigations.

The 2017 seizure of 51 Greek Hellenistic and early Islamic coins by Customs and Border Patrol agents and a subsequent probe by Homeland Security Investigations led to the coins being transferred to the University of Washington Libraries Special Collections.

The ancient coins were seized at the port of entry in Blaine, Washington, when an individual traveling into Canada was refused entry to that country. Upon his attempt to return to the United States, a request was made by the U.S. government for the individual to prove the coins were lawfully acquired and legally imported to the United States. According to the U.S. government, a consensual interview determined the individual in possession of the coins could not provide documentation of ownership. Some of the coins were determined to appear similar to coins found on the Red List of Afghanistan Antiquities at Risk.

Homeland Security consulted with subject matter experts, a press release from the agency states, who determined the coins were authentic and showed signs of bronze disease, which officials said is an indication the coins were taken from the ground illegally. Based on the authentication of the experts, Customs and Border Patrol began the forfeiture process.

Following additional investigation, the suspect signed an abandonment agreement and the coins were legally forfeited to the United States government.

The University of Washington Libraries petitioned Customs and Border Patrol in 2019 for donation of the coins. Faculty plan to use the coins to highlight awareness of illegal excavation and the antiquities trade discuss the societies in which they were created and circulated and illuminate the complex issues of cultural heritage raised by modern antiquities trade.

&ldquoThe coins provide a look at historical materials from an area of the world underrepresented in our Libraries&rsquo historical resources and signify the importance of expanding our commitment to inclusion of all possible cultures throughout history within our collections,&rdquo said Sandra Kroupa, Book Arts and Rare Book Curator for University of Washington Libraries Special Collections.

&ldquoWe are grateful for the opportunity to add these very unique coins to our collections,&rdquo Kroupa said. &ldquoUW Special Collections holds many historically significant artifacts that have been found and come to us from donors who want the items to be shared and studied for the public good. Beyond their value as currency, ancient coins like these represent the beginning of communication and bookmaking. They reveal important historical information that help us understand the culture and politics from a specific time period. When a student can hold 3,000 years of history in their hand, there is no substitute for that in the learning environment.&rdquo

The Cultural Property, Art and Antiquities Program is unique to Homeland Security Investigations&rsquo portfolio. According to U.S. officials, returning a nation&rsquos looted cultural heritage or stolen artwork, promotes goodwill with foreign governments and citizens, while significantly protecting the world&rsquos cultural heritage and knowledge of past civilizations.

&ldquoWhen coins like these are illegally excavated and smuggled into the U.S., we lose the context of what they meant and the rich history they hold. But, thanks to the strong partnership between HSI, CBP and UW Libraries, the history held within these rescued artifacts will be passed along to inspire future students and academic research,&rdquo concluded special agent in charge Robert Hammer, who oversees Homeland Security Investigations operations in the Pacific Northwest.

&ldquoOur first choice is to repatriate these artifacts to their point of origin and return history home where it belongs,&rdquo Hammer said. &ldquoWhen cultural property like this is seized and HSI is unable to determine rightful ownership, the next best thing is to find them appropriate institutional custodians, such as with the University of Washington.&rdquo

Homeland Security Investigations has recovered and returned over 12,500 artifacts to more than 30 countries since 2007, including paintings from France, Germany, Poland and Austria cultural artifacts from China and Cambodia dinosaur fossils from Mongolia an illuminated manuscript from Italy a pair of royal Korean seals, ancient Peruvian ceramics, and very recently, an ancient gold coffin which was repatriated to Egypt.


The Widow’s Mite

In the New Testament in both Mark and Luke there are stories told about the widow giving her mites. Although there is much controversy as to which actual coins these referred to, it is more than likely that themites were the lepton and prutah coins minted by the Jewish King Alexander Jannaeus who ruled from 103-76 BC and were the lowest denomination coins still in circulation in Jerusalem during Christ’s lifetime. “Widow’s Mites” refers to two different yet similar coins, the smaller lepton and the larger prutah, both coins share the same images of the anchor on one side and the star image on the other. The lepton is the very smallest denomination and is probably the true “widow’s mite.”

The word “mite” is from the 1611 King James Version Bible translation, lepton being the word used in the original Greek language. So while scripture references only the lepton, due to the commonalities of these two coins, today both coins are commonly referred to as ‘Widow’s Mites’. In fact, the lepton is probably the lowest denomination coin ever struck by any nation in all of history! The value of these coins during the time of Christ was typically based on combined weight with other coins and not on the individual coin’s value.

Ancient Jewish coins were produced only during a 268 year period and then not continuously. This period began during the Hasmonean dynasty in 134 BCE and ended with the conclusion of the Bar Kochba revolt in 135 CE. The lepton and prutah coins of Alexander Jannaeus were probably minted after the conquest of the coastal cities in 95 B.C. (with the exception of Ashkelon), the anchor probably publicizing the annexation of these areas, until his death in

These coins were carelessly and crudely struck, usually off center and on small flans and because they circulated for such a long period they are usually worn. They are rarely well enough struck or preserved to allow reading of the tiny Hebrew letters between the spokes of the wheel.

Where in the Bible:

In Mark 12:41-44

And Jesus sat over against the treasury, and beheld how the people cast money into the treasury and many that were rich cast in much. And there came a certain poor widow, and she threw in two mites, which make a farthing. And he called unto him, his disciples, and said unto them, “Verily I say unto you, this poor widow hath cast more in, than all they which have cast into the treasury, for all they did cast in of their abundance, but she of her want did cast in all that she had, even all her living”.

And he looked up, and saw the rich men casting their gifts into the treasury. And he saw also a certain poor widow casting in thither two mites. And he said, “Of a truth I say unto you, that this poor widow hath cast in more than they all: For all these have of their abundance cast in unto the offerings of God: but she of her penury hath cast in all the living that she had”.

Lepton and Prutah Coin Descriptions:

Alexander Jannaeus was the first of the Jewish kings to introduce the eight-ray star symbol, in his bronze “Widow’s mite” coins, in combination with the wide-spread Seleucid numismatic symbol of the anchor. He was also the first Jewish ruler to use the title “King” on his coins and was the first to mint Bi-lingual Jewish coins. The obverse is in Greek and the reverse in Hebrew. The coinage of Alexander Jannaeus is characteristic of the early Jewish coinage in that it avoided human or animal representations, in opposition to the surrounding Greek, and later Roman types of the period. Jewish coinage instead focused on symbols, either natural, such as the palm tree, the pomegranate or the star, either an-made, such as the temple, the Menorah, trumpets or cornucopia.

Bronze Prutah, 103 – 76 B.C.

Obverse: BASILEWS ALEXANDROU (in Greek)

(of King Alexander), around anchor.

Reverse: Star with eight rays, surrounded by diadem.

“Yehonatan the King” between rays (in Hebrew)

Bronze Lepton, 103 – 76 B.C.

Obverse: BASILEWS ALEXANDROU

(of King Alexander), around anchor.

Reverse: Star with eight rays,

Most references describe the reverse of these coins as a wheel with eight spokes, but Ya’akov Meshore, in ANCIENT JEWISH COINAGE, Volume 1, demonstrates that this is really an eight-pointed starwithin a diadem. He goes on to point out that the diadem is a Hellenistic symbol of Kingship, and that the star may derive from the Song of Balaam which states “There shall come a star out of Jacob and a scepter shall rise out of Israel” (Num. 24:17), so the iconology makes perfect sense for this coin.

The anchor was adopted from the seleucids, who used it to symbolize their naval strength. Anchors are depicted upside down, as they would be seen hung on the side of a boat ready for use.

Since both the larger prutah and the smaller lepton have the same images, the best way to tell the difference is that the prutah has writing around the anchor and the lepton just has a solid circle around the anchor.

How were they made?

These coins were made by first producing a long, thin strip of metal between two dies. The end of the strip was placed between two striking dies, and hit with a hammer. Then the strip was pulled quickly, about the length of one coin, hit again, and the process is repeated until the end of the strip is reached. After all the impressions had been made onto the metal, the coins were individually cut out. The two striking dies were not fixed in place very well, so many of the coins have the pattern on one or both sides off-center. The coins are from about 11mm to 17mm in diameter (about half an inch), and weigh from .8g to 3.5g.

A Short History

These bronze prutahs were Judean coins that were minted during a portion of the inter-testamental period of Jewish history when Israel was a self-governing nation. Israel had previously been self ruling during most of itsOld Testament history up to the time of the Babylonian captivity under King Nebuchadnezzar in 450 BC. Israel remained under Persian rule till 330 BC when Israel was concurred by Alexander the Great and came under the Greek Hellensitic rule. Alexander’s influence introduced the Greek language and culture into Israel.

Following Alexander the Great’s death, the Hellenistic Ptolemies Dynasty who maintained the area of Egypt also ruled Israel. The Ptolemies were considerate of Jewish religious sensitivities. However, the Hellenistic Seleucid Dynasty under Antiochus took control of Israel in 198 BC, introducing atrocities aimed at the eradication of the Jewish religion. This triggered the Maccabean revolt and the 24 year war which resulted in the final independence of Israel as an independent nation in 166 BC.

The Jewish independent “Hasmonian Dynasty” ruled Israel from 142 – 63 BC, a short 79 years. John Hyrcanus was king over Israel from 134-104 BC. During this time, he minted Israel’s first currency, known as the “Cornucopias” coins.After his death, Alexander Janneus ruled from 103-76 BC. and under his rule, minted the lepton and prutah coins which are most likely and widely believed to be the widow’s mite coin later given by the widow and noticed by Jesus Christ in the Temple. It is easy to understand that the Jews who despised the Roman occupation after 63 BC would continue to use these small coins, representing Israel’s independence, well into the time of Christ.

Alexander Jannaeus (also known as Alexander Jannai/Yannai), king of Judea from (103 BC to 76 BC), son of John Hyrcanus, inherited the throne from his brother Aristobulus, and appears to have married his brother’s widow, Shlamtzion or Shlomtzion or “Shelomit”, also known as Salome Alexandra, according to the Biblical law of Yibum or levirate marriage, the custom of marriage by a man with his brother’s widow, such marriages as required in Biblical law if the deceased was childless. Deut. 25:5–10.

His likely full Hebrew name was Jonathan he may have been the High Priest Jonathan, rather than his great-uncle of the same name, who established the Masada fortress. Under the name King Yannai, he appears as a wicked tyrant in the Talmud (the collection of Jewish law and tradition consisting of the Mishnah and the Gemara and being either the edition produced in Palestine a.d. c400 or the larger, more important one produced in Babylonia a.d. c500), reflecting his conflict with the Pharisee party. He is among the more colorful historical figures yet little is known about him, however, the impact of him on the subsequent development of Judaism and Christianity is substantial.

“The Widow’s Mite”
Painting by Gustave Doré 1870

Gustave Doré (1832-1883) was one of the foremost illustrators of his time. He illustrated a huge number of classic works from the Bible through to Dante and Don Quioxte. This Widow’s Mite print is from Doré’s illustrations for The Bible. It was in his Bible illustrations that Doré was thought to have created some of his greatest work.

As you can see, these historic coins possess an interesting and compelling past. If you are a believer in the teachings of the bible, these coins will serve as a treasured relic from this significant time in biblical history. If you are a coin collector they will enhance any coin collection. That they are available and in existence today is truly amazing, but to be able to hold one of these coins in your very own hand is beyond amazing to me.

Definitions

Seleucid – Of or relating to a Hellenistic dynasty founded by Seleucus I after the death of Alexander the Great. It ruled much of Asia Minor from 312 to 64 B.C. The Hellenistic period of Greek history was the period between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the annexation of the Greek peninsula and islands by Rome in 146 BC. Although the establishment of Roman rule did not break the continuity of Hellenistic society and culture, which remained essentially unchanged until the advent of Christianity, it did mark the end of Greek political independence.

Hasmonean (haz-muh-nee-uhn) – a member of a priestly family of Jewish leaders


1864-1909 INDIAN HEAD CENT BRONZE

The shots at Fort Sumter that launched the Civil War didn’t ring out until April 12, 1861, but preparations for war were under way well before that, including economic preparations. Anticipating the conflict, jittery Americans on both sides of the Mason-Dixon Line began hoarding gold and silver coins. The pace of this activity accelerated following the election of Abraham Lincoln to the presidency in November of 1860, for he was perceived as a hard-line Unionist unlikely to compromise with southern politicians. It reached fever pitch after Dec. 28, 1861, when New York banks suspended specie payments. At that point, precious-metal coins all but disappeared from circulation.

Not being made of precious metal, cents continued to circulate. In fact, it seemed inconceivable that Americans would hoard cents. The large, intrinsically valuable copper cents used since the start of the nation’s coinage were replaced in 1857 by the smaller copper-nickel Flying Eagle cents, fiat issues, worth less as metal than as money. That was unusual in the mid-19th century most U.S. coins had high intrinsic value, and Americans had come to expect and even demand this in their coinage. Nonetheless, the public had welcomed the large cents’ demise, considering the coins too cumbersome for ordinary use.

The new small cents, known as “white cents” because of their pale color, became even more popular in 1859 when, due to striking problems, the Mint replaced the original Flying Eagle design with a new one depicting a female clad in a feathered Indian headdress. This “Indian Head” portrait, not a native American profile but apparently modeled after the Greco-Roman statue Venus Accroupie, had widespread appeal, reinforcing the acceptance the white cents already enjoyed because of their handy size.

Production levels were high, far higher than those of the large cents they replaced, and it was common knowledge that the metal in each coin was worth less than one cent. But the Civil War shattered many accepted beliefs, including the perception that small-size, low-value cents were immune from hoarding.

Initially, bags of cents served as one of the primary means of payment for harried merchants. Before long, however, they also became a target for hoarders. They were, after all, government-issue coins, and as such were preferable to the all-but-irredeemable “shinplasters” (scrip and wildcat bank notes) being widely offered. Furthermore, the price of nickel, fueled by wartime demand, was rising quickly, giving these nickel-alloy coins greater intrinsic value. By December 1862, cents had joined gold and silver coins on the shelf.

That was when necessity gave birth to invention, not by Uncle Sam but by private entrepreneurs. To fill the vacuum left by the departure of federal coinage, merchants and promoters began producing cent-sized bronze tokens, generally bearing an implied or even explicit promise of redemption in goods, services or money. These “Civil War tokens” gained broad acceptance as a money substitute. Mint officials were duly impressed, and in 1864 they reshaped the cent in these tokens’ image, replacing the copper-nickel “white cent” with a slimmed-down version made of bronze.

Besides being darker in color, the new Indian Head cent was one-third lighter in weight. Its diameter was unchanged, however, and it still bore the same Indian Head obverse design and simple wreath and shield reverse fashioned for its predecessor by the Mint’s chief engraver, James B. Longacre. The new coin’s components were less expensive than nickel, and this combined with its lower weight made it much cheaper to produce. It was also easier to strike, as bronze is much softer than nickel. And like the tokens it successfully replaced, it enjoyed ready acceptance from the public, effectively ending the shortage of cents in circulation. Both kinds of cents were issued in 1864, with the bronze outnumbering the copper-nickel by about 3-to-1. Despite its higher mintage, the bronze cent provided the year’s scarcest variety: one on which Longacre’s initial “L” appears on the ribbon of the Indian’s bonnet. The designer didn’t add this until late in the year, so relatively few 1864 cents have it. Apparently, a large quantity of these “L” cents went to England, for many pieces were recovered from there in the 1950s and 60s.

Bronze Indian Head cents remained in production without interruption for nearly half a century before giving way to the Lincoln design in 1909. The design remained the same for the entire run except for minute changes in 1886, when the then Chief Engraver, Charles Barber, slightly lowered the relief and made a small change in the position of the last headdress feather. For all but the last two years, Indian Heads were struck only at the main mint in Philadelphia in 1908 and 1909, the San Francisco branch struck cents, both times in very limited quantities. On these, the “S” mint mark appears below the wreath on the reverse.

Total mintage for the series reached almost 1.6 billion, along with 96,848 proofs. Annual production topped 100 million only once, in 1907, and sank below one million for just two issues: 1877 and 1909-S. At 309,000, 1909-S has the lowest mintage, but the 1877 at 852,500 is more valuable, because fewer examples were set aside. Other scarce issues include the 1869 with a doubled 9, 1872 and 1908-S. Proofs were struck every year, usually in the thousands, except for the earlier years which saw mintages under 1,000. The 1864 coins had the smallest proof mintages: 150 for the no “L” variety and only 20 for the with “L” coin, making it a major rarity. Counterfeits exist, particularly of coins dated 1877 and 1909-S, and to a lesser extent, the 1864 “L”, the 1866 to 1878 issues and 1908-S. Questionable pieces should always be authenticated. When grading Indian Head cents, the first places to show wear on the obverse will be the hair above the ear and the curl to the right of the ribbon on the reverse, check the bow knot.

Mint state examples exist in substantial quantities in grades up to MS-65, but their population drops sharply in MS-67 and above. Full red coins, of course, are rarer still. Although the series is relatively long, it encompasses just 51 pieces, even including 1864 L, 1869/9 and the open-3 and closed-3 cents of 1873, because there are only two branch-mint issues. Given this, and the limited number of high-priced rarities, many collectors assemble complete date-and-mint sets. The series remains one of the most popular of all United States issues.

PHOTO PROOF – Copyright © 1994-2014 Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. All rights reserved.


Mexican coins catalog


1000 pesos 1989 (1988-1992)

aluminum-bronze
$1000 1989 / JUANA DE ASBAJE / Bust 1/4 left
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value -


500 pesos 1987 (1986-1992)

copper-nickel
$500 / 1987 / MADERO / Bust 1/4 right
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value -


100 pesos 1977 (1977-1979)

silver
CIEN PESOS / 1977 / PLATA PURA 20 GR. LEY .720 / Bust facing
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $20-25


100 pesos 1989 (1984-1992)

aluminum-bronze
$100 1989 / M.CARRANZA / Bust 1/4 right
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value -


50 pesos 1982 (1982-1984)

copper-nickel
COYOLXAUHQUI / TEMPLO MAYOR DE MEXICO / $50 1982 / Aztec goddess Coyolxāuhqui
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $2-3


50 pesos 1985 (1984-1988)

copper-nickel
$50 1985 / JUAREZ / Bust 1/4 left
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - <$1


50 pesos 1990 (1988-1992)

stainless steel
$50 1990 / JUAREZ / Bust 1/4 left
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - <$1


20 pesos 1981 (1980-1984)

copper-nickel
CULTURA MAYA / $20 1981 / Figure with headdress facing left within circle
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $1-2


20 pesos 1985 (1985-1990)

brass
$20 1985 / Bust facing
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - <$1


10 pesos 1956 (1955-1956)

silver
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / DIEZ PESOS / 28.888 G / 1956 / LEY .900 / National arms
HIDALGO / INDEPENDENCIA Y LIBERTAD / Head left
Coin value - $30-40


10 pesos 1976 (1974-1977)

copper-nickel
10.00 g., thin flan
DIEZ PESOS 1976 / Head left
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $1-2


10 pesos 1980 (1978-1985)

copper-nickel
11.50 g., thick flan
DIEZ PESOS 1980 / Head left
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $1-2


10 pesos 1987 (1985-1990)

stainless steel
$10 1987 / Head facing
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - <$1


5 pesos 1948 (1947-1948)

silver
CINCO PESOS / 30 GRAMOS LEY 0.900 1948 / Head with headdress left
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $25-27


5 pesos 1953 (1951-1954)

silver
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / PESO 27-6 / LEY 0.720 / CINCO PESOS 1953
HIDALGO / Head left inside the wreath
Coin value - $18-20


5 pesos 1956 (1955-1957)

silver
CINCO PESOS / 18.055 G 1956 LEY .720 / ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
INDEPENDENCIA Y LIBERTAD / HIDALGO / Head left
Coin value - $15-20


5 pesos 1972 (1971-1978)

copper-nickel
CINCO PESOS 1972 / Uniform bust right
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $1-2


5 pesos 1980 (1980-1985)

copper-nickel
5$ / QUETZALCOATL / 1980 / Native sculpture left
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - <$1


5 pesos 1985 (1985-1988)

brass
1985 $5 / Value and date
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - <$1


1 peso 1910 (1910-1914)
silver
UN PESO / ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
1910 / Horse and rider facing left among sun rays
Coin value - $70-90


1 peso 1919 (1918-1919)
silver 0.800
UN PESO 1919 / Value and date within 3/4 wreath with Liberty cap above
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $100-150


1 peso 1923 (1920-1945)
silver 0.720
UN PESO 1923 / Value and date within 3/4 wreath with Liberty cap above
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $12-15


1 peso 1948 (1947-1949)
silver
UN PESO 1948 14 Gr 0.500 / HIDALGO / Head with headcovering right
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $12-15


1 peso 1950
silver
1 PESO 1950 / Armored bust 3/4 left
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $8-12


1 peso 1964 (1957-1967)
silver
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / UN PESO 1964 / National arms
Armored bust right within wreath
Coin value - $5-7


1 peso 1971 (1970-1983)

copper-nickel
UN PESO 1971 / Armored bust left
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - <$1


1 peso 1986 (1984-1987)

copper-nickel
1$ 1986 / Armored bust right
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - <$1


50 centavos 1906 (1905-1918)

silver
50 CENTAVOS 1906 / Value and date within 3/4 wreath with Liberty cap above
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $10-15


50 centavos 1919 (1918-1919)

silver 0.800
50 CENTAVOS 1919 / Value and date within 3/4 wreath with Liberty cap above
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $10-20


50 centavos 1920 (1919-1945)

silver 0.720
50 CENTAVOS 1920 / Value and date within 3/4 wreath with Liberty cap above
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $7-10


50 centavos 1935

silver 0.420
50 CENTAVOS 1935 / Value and date within 3/4 wreath with Liberty cap above
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $10-15


50 centavos 1950 (1950-1951)

billon
1950 / 50 CS / Head with head covering right
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $6-9


50 centavos 1956 (1955-1959)
bronze
CINQUENTA CENTAVOS / 1956 / Head with headdress left
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $1-2


50 centavos 1968 (1964-1969)

copper-nickel
CINQUENTA CENTAVOS / 1968 / Head with headdress left
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - <$1


50 centavos 1975 (1970-1983)

copper-nickel
another eagle and snake
CINQUENTA CENTAVOS / 1975 / Head with headdress left
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - <$1


50 centavos 1983

stainless steel
50C 1983 PALENQUE / Head with headdress left
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $3-4


25 centavos 1953 (1950-1953)

silver
25 CS /Mo 1953 / Scale below Liberty cap
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $2-3


25 centavos 1964 (1964-1966)

copper-nickel
VENTICINCO CENTAVOS / 1964 / Bust at 3/4
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value -


20 centavos 1907 (1905-1914)

silver
20 CENTAVOS 1907 / Value and date within 3/4 wreath with Liberty cap above
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $10-12


20 centavos 1919

silver
3.6250 g., 0.800 silver
20 CENTAVOS 1919 / Value and date within 3/4 wreath with Liberty cap above
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $10-12


20 centavos 1920 (1920-1943)

silver
3.3333 g., 0.7200 silver
20 CENTAVOS 1939 / Value and date within 3/4 wreath with Liberty cap above
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / 0720
Coin value - $6-8


20 centavos 1935 (1920, 1935)
bronze
20 C 1935 / Value and date within wreath
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $10-12


20 centavos 1945 (1943-1955)
bronze
20 CENTAVOS 1945 / Liberty cap divides value above Pyramid of the Sun at Teotihuacán, volcanos Ixtaccihuatl and Popocatepet in background
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value -


20 centavos 1971 (1955-1971)
bronze
changed coat of arms
20 CENTAVOS 1971 / Liberty cap divides value above Pyramid of the Sun at Teotihuacán, volcanos Ixtaccihuatl and Popocatepet in background
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value -


20 centavos 1974 (1971-1974)
bronze
another eagle and snake
20 CENTAVOS 1974 / Liberty cap divides value above Pyramid of the Sun at Teotihuacán, volcanos Ixtaccihuatl and Popocatepet in background
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $2-3


20 centavos 1982 (1974-1983)

copper-nickel
1982 / 20 C / Bust 3/4 facing
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - <$1


20 centavos 1983 (1983-1984)

bronze
1984 / CULTURA OLMECA / 20 C / Cultura Olmeca mask
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - <$1


10 centavos 1905 (1905-1914)

silver
10 CENTAVOS 1905 / Value and date within 3/4 wreath with Liberty cap above
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $6-8


10 centavos 1919

silver 0.800
10 CENTAVOS 1919 / Value and date within 3/4 wreath with Liberty cap above
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $20-25


10 centavos 1920 (1919-1921, 1935)
bronze
10 C 1920 / Value and date within wreath
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $10-12


10 centavos 1925 (1925-1935)

silver 0.720
10 CENTAVOS 1925 / Value and date within 3/4 wreath with Liberty cap above
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $6-8


10 centavos 1936 (1936-1946)

copper-nickel
10 CENTAVOS 1936/ Value and date within ornament circle
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $1-3


10 centavos 1967 (1955-1967)
bronze
DIEZ CENTAVOS 1967 / Bust left
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - <$1


10 centavos 1977 (1974-1980)

copper-nickel
10 CS 1977 / Upright ear of corn
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - <$1


5 centavos 1906 (1905-1914)

nickel
5 CENTAVOS 1906 / Value and date within ornament circle
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $3-4


5 centavos 1927 (1914-1935)

bronze
5 C 1927 / Value and date within wreath
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $7-10


5 centavos 1936 (1936-1942)

copper-nickel
5 CENTAVOS 1936 / Value and date within ornament circle
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value -


5 centavos 1954 (1942-1955)
bronze
CINCO CENTAVOS 1954 / Head left
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value -


5 centavos 1950

copper-nickel
5 CENTAVOS 1950 / Bust right
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $5-8


5 centavos 1956 (1954-1969)
brass
CINCO CENTAVOS 1956 / Bust right
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - <$1


5 centavos 1974 (1970-1976)

brass
CINCO CENTAVOS 1974 / Bust right
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - <$1


2 centavos 1939 (1905-1941)

bronze
2 C 1939 / Value and date within wreath
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $5-6


1 centavo 1939 (1905-1949)
bronze
1 C 1939 / Value and date within wreath
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $2-4


1 centavo 1964 (1959-1969)

brass
1 C 1964 / Oat sprigs
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value -


1 centavo 1970 (1970-1973)

brass
1 C 1970 / Oat sprigs
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $10-20

Reform 1992Mexican Peso=100 centavos


50 new pesos 1993 (1993-1995)

bi-metallic - silver/brass
N$50 1993 / NINOS HEROES / Six heads facing within 1/2 wreath
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $25-30


20 new pesos 1993 (1993-1995)

bi-metallic - silver/aluminum-bronze
N$20 1993 / HIDALGO / Head left
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $15-20


10 new pesos 1994 (1992-1995)

bi-metallic - silver/aluminum-bronze
N$10 1994 / DIEZ NUEVOS PESOS / Aztec design of Tonatiuh with the Fire Mask
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $8-10


10 pesos 2016 (1997- )

bi-metallic - copper-nickel/brass
current circulating coin
$10 2016 Mo / DIEZ PESOS / Aztec design of Tonatiuh with the Fire Mask
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - $2-3


2 new pesos 1994 (1992-1995)
bi-metallic - aluminum-bronze/stainless steel
1994 / N$2 / Value and date within ornamental circle
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - <$1


2 pesos 2016 (1996- )

bi-metallic - aluminum-bronze/stainless steel
current circulating coin
2016 / $2 / Value and date within ornamental circle
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - <$1


1 new peso 1992 (1992-1995)

bi-metallic - aluminum-bronze/stainless steel
1992 / N$1 / Value and date within ornamental circle
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - <$1


1 peso 2016 (1996- )

bi-metallic - aluminum-bronze/stainless steel
current circulating coin
2016 / $1 / Value and date within ornamental circle
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - <$1


50 centavos 1997 (1992-2009)

aluminum-bronze
1997 50 C / Value, ornament
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - <$1


50 centavos 2016 (2009- )

stainless steel
current circulating coin
2016 50 C / Value, ornament
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - <$1


20 centavos 2002 (1992-2009)

aluminum-bronze
2002 20 C / Value and date within 3/4 wreath
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - <$1


20 centavos 2016 (2009- )

stainless steel
current circulating coin
2016 20 C / Value and date within 3/4 wreath
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - <$1


10 centavos 1999 (1992-2009)

stainless steel
1999 10 C / Value, ornament
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - <$1


10 centavos 2016 (2009- )

stainless steel
current circulating coin
2016 10 C / Value, ornament
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - <$1


5 centavos 1994 (1992-2002)

stainless steel
1994 5 C / Value, ornament
ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS / National arms
Coin value - <$1


Corcyra Bronze Coin - History

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Yannis Stoyas (Γιάννης Στόγιας, Ioannis Stogias)
Researcher, numismatist, PhD candidate in History.
Born at Ioannina.
BA in Archaeology, University of Ioannina.

I worked for many years (1992-2009) in the Archaeological Service of the Hellenic Ministry of Culture for a major period I was employed in the Numismatic Museum, Athens (1996–2007). Participated, among else, in a joint digital exhibition organized by the Numismatic Museum, Athens, and the Department of Coins & Medals of the British Museum, London, and realized in 1999: "The ‘Presveis’ Project: One Currency for Europe. Common Coinage from Antiquity to the Modern Age".
http://presveis.epizy.com/
Participation/contribution in exhibitions since 2001, among else in the development of the (2nd floor) permanent exhibition of the Numismatic Museum, Athens, realized in 2007.

Current appointment: Keeper/Researcher, KIKPE Numismatic Collection.
KIKPE (Social and Cultural Affairs Welfare Foundation) is a private, public-benefit, non-profit foundation based at Athens.
Involved in this collection as researcher/curator since 2009 as a first installment, published the "Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Greece 7: The KIKPE Collection of Bronze Coins, Vol. I", Athens: Academy of Athens, 2012 (co-authored with V. Penna).
Scientific supervision of the series of essays “Memoranda Numismatica Atheniensia” (MNA) co-published by the Benaki Museum and the KIKPE Foundation.
Additionally, participation in the development of periodical exhibitions.
A major project was a temporary exhibition held at the Fondation Martin Bodmer (Cologny - Geneva), jointly with the above Foundation and the Benaki Museum: "Les mots et les monnaies, de la Grèce ancienne à Byzance" (24 November 2012 – 31 March 2013).
More recently, the temporary exhibition "Heads and Tails – Tales and Bodies: Engraving the Human Figure from Antiquity to the Early Modern Period" took place at the Pushkin Museum (Moscow, 5 July – 31 October 2016).

Furthermore, from 2004 onward, I have been teaching in the "Historical Sciences Seminar", which takes place at the National Hellenic Research Foundation, Athens.
Topics: Byzantine Numismatics (2006–2010, 2018–2020) Coinage & History (2004–2013) Ancient Greek Numismatics (2011–2013) Themes from the History of Money (2014–2017) Numismatics of the Latin East, 12th–15th century (2018).

PhD candidate, University of the Peloponnese. Thesis in progress:
H καταλανο-αραγωνική παρουσία στην ανατολική Μεσόγειο, 1261–1460: Μια πολιτικο-οικονομική, νομισματική και στρατιωτική θεώρηση
[The Catalan-Aragonese presence in the eastern Mediterranean, 1261–1460: A political, economic, monetary and military overview]

Main research interests: Medieval/Byzantine History, Ancient History, History of Money. Specialization: Numismatics.

‘The correspondence of Pope Gregory XI for the defence of Latin Greece: The Duchies of Athens and. more ‘The correspondence of Pope Gregory XI for the defence of Latin Greece: The Duchies of Athens and Neopatras in the face of the Ottoman peril’

In November 1372, responding to a dramatic appeal made by Franciscus, the Latin archbishop of Neopatria, Pope Gregory XI (1370-1378) addressed a bulla to a series of Christian kingdoms, feudal states and cities. The main goal in the papal correspondence was to call a Council next year (1 October 1373) at Thebes, in an attempt to deal with the Ottoman threat.
This was a turning point in the history of the Catalan Duchies of Athens and Neopatras, as well as of the broader area. Viewed through time, the policy of the Holy See towards the Catalan Company started gradually to change already during the 1340s. A decisive factor for this development was the impact of the increasing Turkish attacks in the Aegean. After the crossing of the Ottomans to Europe (Gallipoli, 1354) it would shortly become evident that haphazard efforts by Christian forces could not repel the menace coming from the East. The Ottoman successes in Thrace (from 1361 onwards) made clear that they constituted a permanent danger, while the Turkish infiltration in Greece made quite an impression in the West. Gregory XI followed the steps of his predecessors and made several attempts to orchestrate a crusade which might be able to restrain the Turkish flood, however during that period the resources of Papacy and of the Christian Levant were quite limited a glance is also taken at the cost of crusading for the Holy See.
Regarding Franciscus of Neopatras, the person responsible for the "lamentable report" of the situation, only a few pieces of information can be gathered. The study of certain letters of Gregory XI ― among else a formerly unpublished letter from the Vatican Archive (Reg. Vat. 264, ff. 76v-77r 17 November 1372) ― yields more clues for persons and events of that time, for the innate weaknesses of the papal plans, as well as for the reasons that led to the failure of the strategy of the Avignon Papacy. By 1393, within twenty years, many of the Latin strongholds in Greece (Neopatras included) had eventually collapsed under the Ottoman offensive.
A posteriori, the efforts of Gregory XI can be viewed within the ‘failure of tradition’ of the papal strategy of that period.

‘The correspondence of Pope Gregory XI for the defence of Latin Greece: The Duchies of Athens and. more ‘The correspondence of Pope Gregory XI for the defence of Latin Greece: The Duchies of Athens and Neopatras in the face of the Ottoman peril’

In November 1372, responding to a dramatic appeal made by Franciscus, the Latin archbishop of Neopatria, Pope Gregory XI (1370-1378) addressed a bulla to a series of Christian kingdoms, feudal states and cities. The main goal in the papal correspondence was to call a Council next year (1 October 1373) at Thebes, in an attempt to deal with the Ottoman threat.
This was a turning point in the history of the Catalan Duchies of Athens and Neopatras, as well as of the broader area. Viewed through time, the policy of the Holy See towards the Catalan Company started gradually to change already during the 1340s. A decisive factor for this development was the impact of the increasing Turkish attacks in the Aegean. After the crossing of the Ottomans to Europe (Gallipoli, 1354) it would shortly become evident that haphazard efforts by Christian forces could not repel the menace coming from the East. The Ottoman successes in Thrace (from 1361 onwards) made clear that they constituted a permanent danger, while the Turkish infiltration in Greece made quite an impression in the West. Gregory XI followed the steps of his predecessors and made several attempts to orchestrate a crusade which might be able to restrain the Turkish flood, however during that period the resources of Papacy and of the Christian Levant were quite limited a glance is also taken at the cost of crusading for the Holy See.
Regarding Franciscus of Neopatras, the person responsible for the "lamentable report" of the situation, only a few pieces of information can be gathered. The study of certain letters of Gregory XI ― among else a formerly unpublished letter from the Vatican Archive (Reg. Vat. 264, ff. 76v-77r 17 November 1372) ― yields more clues for persons and events of that time, for the innate weaknesses of the papal plans, as well as for the reasons that led to the failure of the strategy of the Avignon Papacy. By 1393, within twenty years, many of the Latin strongholds in Greece (Neopatras included) had eventually collapsed under the Ottoman offensive.
A posteriori, the efforts of Gregory XI can be viewed within the ‘failure of tradition’ of the papal strategy of that period.

The international Colloquium "Memory and impression: A walk-through in the Peloponnese" took plac. more The international Colloquium "Memory and impression: A walk-through in the Peloponnese" took place at Tegea on December 12–13, 2019.
The event was set to function as a herald of the temporary exhibition "Memory and impression: A walk-through in the Peloponnese using ancient coins as a guide" (to open in 2021 at the Archaeological Museum of Tegea).
The contributions to the Colloquium included perspectives by historians, numismatists, archaeologists, art historians, and so on, broadening the spectrum of the approaches employed.

Organisers: KIKPE – Stassinopoulos-Viohalco Foundation – Ephorate of Antiquities of Arkadia

Coordination: Yannis Stoyas (KIKPE Numismatic Collection) and Anna Vasiliki Karapanagiotou (Ephorate of Antiquities of Arkadia).

Paper online: http://archaeologia.eie.gr/archaeologia/Gr/chapter_more_7.aspx Μια επισκόπηση τ. more Paper online:
http://archaeologia.eie.gr/archaeologia/Gr/chapter_more_7.aspx

Μια επισκόπηση της νομισματοκοπίας των Αθηνών κατά τους αρχαίους χρόνους (6ος αι. π.Χ. - 3ος αι. μ.Χ.), με παράθεση πηγών και επιμέρους σχολίων, καθώς και εποπτικού υλικού.

Paper online: http://archaeologia.eie.gr/archaeologia/En/chapter_more_7.aspx An overview of t. more Paper online:
http://archaeologia.eie.gr/archaeologia/En/chapter_more_7.aspx

An overview of the coinage of Athens during the antiquity (6th century BC - 3rd century AD), quoting several literary and other sources and amply illustrated.

Digital exhibition: http://presveis.epizy.com/ “The ‘Presveis’ Project: One Currency for Europ. more Digital exhibition: http://presveis.epizy.com/

“The ‘Presveis’ Project: One Currency for Europe. Common Coinage from Antiquity to the Modern Age” was a EU-funded project realized in early 1999 jointly by the Numismatic Museum, Athens, and the Department of Coins & Medals of the British Museum, London. The three-year project (1996-1998) focused on the development of a digital exhibition online, aiming to raise awareness for an international public regarding powerful coinages used as common currency and various monetary unions that came into being through the ages, as well as to the circumstances which led to their creation.
Scientific supervision: Ioannis Touratsoglou (Numismatic Museum, Athens) – Ute Wartenberg (British Museum, London)
Full credits:
http://presveis.epizy.com/Pages/Main/trib.html

• Money before Coinage and the invention of Coinage
by Ute Wartenberg and Kenneth Sheedy
http://presveis.epizy.com/Pages/museum/02/sec0201.html

• Common Coinage from Antiquity to the Modern Age: An introduction
by Kenneth Sheedy
http://presveis.epizy.com/Pages/museum/03/sec0301.html

• Coinage and Colony in Antiquity: The coinage of Corinth
by Kenneth Sheedy
http://presveis.epizy.com/Pages/museum/06/sec0601.html

• The impact of Philip II’s coinage in the N Balkans
by Kenneth Sheedy
http://presveis.epizy.com/Pages/museum/10/sec1001.html

• The coinage of Alexander the Great
by Ioannis Touratsoglou and Yannis Stoyas
http://presveis.epizy.com/Pages/museum/11/sec1101.html

• The impact of Alexander the Great’s coinage in the E and N Balkans
by Yannis Stoyas
http://presveis.epizy.com/Pages/museum/12/sec1201.html

• The impact of Alexander the Great’s coinage in E Arabia
by Yannis Stoyas
http://presveis.epizy.com/Pages/museum/13/sec1301.html

• Ancient coinages in an international financial system
by Yannis Stoyas
http://presveis.epizy.com/Pages/museum/16/sec1601.html

• The impact of Roman-controlled Hellenic coinages in the Balkans
by Yannis Stoyas
http://presveis.epizy.com/Pages/museum/18/sec1801.html

• The internationalization of the Roman Republican denarii
by Yannis Stoyas
http://presveis.epizy.com/Pages/museum/19/sec1901.html

• Imperial coinages in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages
by Ioannis Touratsoglou and Yannis Stoyas
http://presveis.epizy.com/Pages/museum/20/sec2001.html

• The coinage of the Byzantine Empire
by Vasso Penna and Yannis Stoyas
http://presveis.epizy.com/Pages/museum/22/sec2201.html

• The impact of the Byzantine coinage in the West
by Yannis Stoyas
http://presveis.epizy.com/Pages/museum/23/sec2301.html

• The impact of the Byzantine coinage in the North
by Yannis Stoyas
http://presveis.epizy.com/Pages/museum/24/sec2401.html

• The impact of the Byzantine coinage in the East
by Yannis Stoyas
http://presveis.epizy.com/Pages/museum/25/sec2501.html

• ‘Presveis’ Reference – Glossaries, etc.
by Ute Wartenberg, Yannis Stoyas and Ioannis Touratsoglou
http://presveis.epizy.com/Pages/info/info-index.html

• Materials for coining, techniques and coin production
by Yannis Stoyas and Constantina Vlachou
http://presveis.epizy.com/Pages/info/info-index.html

Among the coin issues produced by Tegea in the 4th century BC there is a short issue of silver he. more Among the coin issues produced by Tegea in the 4th century BC there is a short issue of silver hemidrachms bearing the head of Athena on the obverse and a warrior in fighting stance on the reverse. Such a male figure appears also on later bronze issues of the polis (late 3rd – early 2nd century BC). The question of the identity of the warrior had been posed from early on in research, with the answer remaining in doubt gradually there has been a tendency to identify the figure with Kepheus, a mythical king of Tegea. Kepheus is shown on bronze issues of a later dating (third quarter of the 1st century BC), receiving with his daughter a lock of Medusa’s hair from Athena. It is arguable, however, if there are substantial reasons to support the linkage of the fighting combatant to Kepheus once more. On the other hand, the coin type under discussion bears a close iconographic resemblance with a marble relief figure that is on display in the Archaeological Museum of Tegea (similar weapons, heroic nudity and fighting stance) the relief is dated in 4th century BC and bears the name ΕΧΕΜΟC, which was inscribed much later in the 1st or the 2nd century AD.
The identification of the warrior on the coins with Echemos, another mythical king of Tegea, is put forward as more plausible, while at the same time several aspects of the matter are examined. Quite importantly, the probable dating of the initial silver issue based on numismatic criteria, as well as its interpretation as carrier of a tale reified within a given historical context. Moreover, the possible connection to a historical event as raison d’être for the re-emergence of the coin type on Hellenistic bronzes of the city. The whole approach attempts to largely deal with the coined identity as a reflection of monumental memory and a component of ‘intentional’ story-telling. Case in point, functioning as assertions of identity and alterity, the Tegeatan coins project a message conveying a narrative of the past through a perspective of the collective imaginaire in the present.

Ανάμεσα στις νομισματικές κοπές που εξέδωσε η Τεγέα κατά τον 4ο αι. π.Χ. υπάρχει μία βραχεία κοπή αργυρών ημιδράχμων που φέρει κεφαλή Αθηνάς ως εμπροσθότυπο και έναν πολεμιστή σε στάση μάχης ως οπισθότυπο. Μια ανάλογη ανδρική μορφή εμφανίζεται επίσης σε υστερότερες χάλκινες κοπές της πόλεως (τέλη 3ου – αρχές 2ου αι. π.Χ.). Το ερώτημα ως προς την ταυτότητα του πολεμιστή είχε τεθεί από νωρίς στην έρευνα, με την απάντηση να παραμένει εν αμφιβόλω· σταδιακά επικράτησε μια τάση να ταυτίζεται η μορφή με τον Κηφέα, μυθικό βασιλέα της Τεγέας. Ο Κηφεύς εμφανίζεται σε μεταγενέστερες χάλκινες εκδόσεις (γ´ τέταρτο του 1ου αι. π.Χ.) να λαμβάνει μαζί με την κόρη του έναν βόστρυχο της Μέδουσας από την Αθηνά. Είναι συζητήσιμο ωστόσο αν υπάρχουν βάσιμοι λόγοι που να υποστηρίζουν τη σύνδεση του μαχόμενου πολεμιστή επίσης με τον Κηφέα. Από την άλλη πλευρά, ο εν λόγω νομισματικός τύπος παρουσιάζει μεγάλη εικονογραφική εγγύτητα με τη μορφή ενός μαρμάρινου αναγλύφου που βρίσκεται εκτεθειμένο στο Αρχαιολογικό Μουσείο Τεγέας (παρόμοια όπλα, ηρωική γυμνότητα και στάση)· το ανάγλυφο χρονολογείται στον 4ο αι. π.Χ. και φέρει το όνομα ΕΧΕΜΟC, το οποίο χαράχθηκε πολύ αργότερα, μέσα στον 1ο ή στον 2ο αιώνα μ.Χ.
Η ταύτιση του πολεμιστή στα νομίσματα με τον Έχεμο, έναν άλλο μυθικό βασιλέα της Τεγέας, προτείνεται ως περισσότερο εύλογη, ενώ ταυτόχρονα εξετάζονται επιμέρους πτυχές του θέματος. Ιδιαίτερης σημασίας είναι η πιθανή χρονολόγηση της αρχικής αργυρής κοπής βάσει νομισματικών κριτηρίων, καθώς και η ερμηνεία της ως φορέα ενός αφηγήματος που γίνεται εμπράγματο μέσα σε ένα συγκεκριμένο ιστορικό πλαίσιο. Επιπλέον, ανιχνεύεται η δυνατότητα διασύνδεσης με ένα ιστορικό γεγονός που μπορεί να λειτούργησε ως γενεσιουργό αίτιο για την επανεμφάνιση του νομισματικού τύπου σε ελληνιστικά χάλκινα νομίσματα της πόλεως. Η όλη προσέγγιση επιχειρεί κατά βάση να πραγματευθεί τη χάραξη της ταυτότητας ως αντανάκλαση μιας μνημειακής μνήμης και ως συστατικού μιας «αποβλεπτικής» διήγησης ιστοριών. Στην περίπτωσή μας τα τεγεατικά νομίσματα, μεταχειριζόμενα προβαλλόμενες πεποιθήσεις ταυτότητας και ετερότητας, εκπέμπουν ένα μήνυμα που μεταφέρει μια αφήγηση του παρελθόντος, μέσω μιας οπτικής του συλλογικού φαντασιακού, στο παρόν.

The present paper attempts to present a particular aspect of Medieval Mediterranean History, conc. more The present paper attempts to present a particular aspect of Medieval Mediterranean History, concerning the role of women in the political scene and how this is reflected through the numismatic evidence. It is an attested fact that in the period between the 13th and the 15th century women apart from their traditional role as wifes and mothers acquired also the status of a ruler. The question that arises is what kind of leadership they had and under which circumstances they took over power.
There are presented specific case studies of women in power, in Latin Greece, Cyprus and the Crusader states. Each case has a special interest from the numismatic point of view, reflecting the historical circumstances under which these women held their rulership. It is also of great importance to understand the impact and the perception of their power, in order to reconstruct the image of female authority in the Latin East in general.
The focus is turned on the case studies of
• Marguerite of Sidon,
• Helena Angelina, dame of Karytaina,
• Isabelle of Villeharduin, princess of Achaia,
• Thamar Angelina Komnene of Epirus,
• Matilda of Hainaut, princess of Achaia,
• Charlotte of Lusignan, queen of Cyprus, and
• Catherine Cornaro, queen of Cyprus.

Interesting conclusions are drawn from the seven case studies and the respective coin issues discussed.
The numismatic evidence is examined with the assistance of primary literary sources in an attempt to understand if they confirm each other, if there is a “silence” of the sources concerning specific political parameters or if the latter can enlighten us on “reading” the archaeological/numismatic testimony in the right way. Thus we can have a picture on how women fared and acted in the Medieval Mediterranean, what kind of influence they exercised (if they exercised any) and how they perceived the authority given to them.