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I'm continuing to read about the history of toys.
The U.S. imports between 50%-75% of its toys from Chinese manufacturers (depending on the year), and my understanding is that they many western countries follow similar practices. I've been trying to nail down the earliest origins of this trend, and how it developed historically, but have had little luck separating the history of toy making from the long history of U.S.-Chinese economic relations in general. Any help would be appreciated; thanks for your time.
Bonus Question: I'm guessing the answer to this question begins with China being reopened in the 70s, but was there ever any significant toy trade prior to the revolution of 1949?
Bonus Bonus Question: Based on comments made below, if anyone wants to expand their answer to also include more general information on the history of toy imports from east to west, that would also be great, and possibly worth a bounty. But as per site rules the original question stands as is.
Bounty Edit: The bounty is already reserved, when the 24 hour requirement is up I'm giving it to J Asia for providing such an extensive answer. All of the answers were great however, so thanks to all three of you.
Growth of China's Toy industry
Toy making in China began to take shape with the arrival of tin-can manufacturing around Shanghai in the 1920s and 1930s. Western influences in the area led to the manufacture of Western tin-plate toys that became quite popular. War-related toys, such as fighter planes, tanks,and soldiers, dominated the market around the time of the Japanese invasion of China in the mid- 1930s. After the Communist Revolution of 1949, toys became a vehicle for propaganda, especially during the Cultural Revolution (1966- 1976) when dolls in Mao suits and cars painted with political slogans flourished.
By the early 1980s, Hong Kong had become the world's largest toy exporter, but rising labor and land costs pushed the colony's toy manufacturers to relocate across the border to China. In 1984, China designated Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, its first special economic zone (SEZ), offering foreign investors a tariff- free environment with low- cost labor and cheap factory space. Hong Kong toy manufacturers moved more and more production into China while leaving in Hong Kong the value- added work, such as product design, production planning, quality control, management, and marketing.
Drawn by the incentives of the SEZs, multinational toy companies began to set up shop in China, especially in the Pearl River delta region of Guangdong. China developed a solid network of supporting industries and services, such as logistics, communications, and component manufacturing, which helped international companies to strengthen productivity, reliability, and delivery.
By 1993, China had become the world's largest toy manufacturer and leading exporter, reaching an export volume of $8 billion. China's accession to the World Trade Organization in 2001 strengthened its domestic industry, and its exports rose sharply. In 2006, China exported 22 billion units of toys worth $7.5 billion. By the end of the year, Chinese toys accounted for 75 percent of world output.
Source: Berkshire Encyclopedia of China (2009), pp. 2305-6.
Critical success factors for new product development in the Hong Kong toy industry
The toy industry is one of Hong Kong's oldest and largest export industries, and it is generally agreed that Hong Kong is the world's leader in toy exporting. In 1996, its production output had reached HK$ 2.5 billion (HKTDC, 1999). One of the strengths of Hong Kong's toy industry lies in its ability to incorporate technology and skills from other industries such as clothing, electronics, and metal industries. Building on their base in plastic moulded toys, Hong Kong's toys manufacturers have added production skills from such industries. As a result, they have been able to upgrade the quality of their goods and obtain good profits. The second advantage of Hong Kong toy companies has been the movement of their locations of production to Mainland China and other Asian countries such as Thailand, Malaysia and the Philippines, so that product costs can be dramatically reduced. As a result, Hong Kong's role is shifting towards quality control, management, marketing, and new product design.
As well as their leadership in toy exporting, Hong Kong's toys manufacturers have also become some of the most efficient toy production managers in the world, particularly when toy production involves components made of different materials. Through their Original Engineering Manufacturing (OEM) contracts, Hong Kong's toy manufacturers are also well informed about the market trends in the major toy markets of the US, Western Europe, and Japan.
Source: Technovation, Volume 25, Issue 3, March 2005, Pages 293-303, p.293.
To end, here is a good explanation of Deng Xiaoping's open door policy, Economic Reform and Growth in China (Department of Economics, Princeton University, 2004) (pdf).
A good, but basic, overview of how US-China trade developed in early years - U.S.-China Trade, 1971-2012: Insights into the U.S.-China Relationship 米中貿易 1971〜2012年, The Asia-Pacific Journal, June 16, 2013, Volume 11 | Issue 24 | Number 4 (pdf available).
Finally, any mention of toys from Asia (Hong Kong) should always involve Li Ka Shing - for instance, Thoughts Of Li Ka-Shing (Forbes, 2006). This press release by HKDTC might be useful, 2011 - Toy Town.
The main driver was China's open door policy, which started in 1978.
Before that, China had no material commercial relationships with the US. The latter didn't even have diplomatic relationships with mainland China (they treated Taiwan as the legitimate China) until Nixon visited China in 1972.
In the mid 1980s private sector began to be a thing again in some areas, and things quickly picked up from there - it naturally helped that the US was the world's largest consumer market and that China had a cheap workforce.
Per the comments to your question there was already a trend to manufacture toys in Asia in the 60s and 70s, but the real inflection point occurred when production moved from Hong Kong (and Taiwan) to - much cheaper - China in the late 1980s.
These aren't exactly "toys," but bicycles, a recreational vehicle, were first made in China in the 1930s and 1940s. That is, they were first assembled from foreign made parts in the 1930s, but manufactured "locally" in the 1940s. Presumably, some of these goods were for export or re-export.
This occurred after China was able to raise tariffs in 1928 against competition from Hong Kong. Even in Hong Kong, large manufacturing firms did not appear until about 1900, and large scale mechanized processes not until the 1920s.
China was late to the manufacture of "toys" because of its subsistence economy, but there was a spurt of production of "non-serious" goods (such as cinema) in the early 1930s, and then again in the late 1940s, that is around the Sino-Japanese War of 1937-45, before the Communist takeover. It might be noted that mass-produced items for amusement did not become common even in the western world until the late 19th or early 20th century.
In fact, the history East-West trade suggests that it was the concepts behind toys, e.g. porcelain dolls, went from east to west, but the toys themselves, went from west to east. As Denis and others pointed out, toy manufacturing went from Hong Kong (a western outpost), where it grew rapidly in the 1960s, to China in the late 1970s. At that time, the standard of living in Hong Kong, while below the British standard of living, was already (and still is today) higher than China's
When did toys first become &ldquoMade in China&rdquo? - History
Azure Stream Analytics and user properties on Azure ServiceBus Queues
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Using Azure ServiceBus Message properties on Azure Functions in .net 5
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Crafts & Hobbies
Recently, by Zhejiang agriculture and forestry University Bao Binfu Professor by lead of team, after more than 10 years of research research, success research and development out three large series new wood bamboo protection agent, overcome has bamboo very easy mildew of worldwide challenges, and from fundamentally solution has existing wood bamboo protection agent toxicity large, and easy loss, common challenges, implementation has wood bamboo protection area of major technology innovation and breakthrough, promote has wood bamboo resources of efficient value-added processing and using.
beginning in 2000, Bao Binfu and project team members, national natural science foundation of China and 6 international scientific Fund projects funded by began his scientific research for the relevant technology. To academician Zhang Qisheng as identification of the Director, Deputy Director of academician Song Zhan-besides as the Committee considers that the project has a significant innovation in theory and technology, on an important role in promoting wood and bamboo industry science and technology progress, the wide application prospect of, and the results reached the international advanced level of similar studies, part of the contents reached the international advanced level.
incomplete statistics, nearly three years, the results added output of about 470 million Yuan, export 62.14 million dollars. The outcome of the implementation and promotion, promotion of wood-bamboo processing to process and high value-added direction, effectively promoting the progress of science and technology of bamboo wood processing industry, for the construction of resource-saving and environment-friendly society has played an active role.
Japan study tours Weaving Craft
Japan &ldquo travel &rdquo has been a lot of support and participation of enterprises. In order to expand the students ' view of knowledge and hands-on experience, Kyoto Nishijin weaving Center, is concentrated to civil, Fujitake weaving of traditional crafts of textile processing technology, for students coming to study tours provide on-site services for learning and experience.
In the Hall, reeling, spinning and weaving brocaded and the production and processing and garment and various types of travel accessories, utilizing traditional woven rattan, bamboo, and other processing equipment the scene, attracts a large number of students stop watching, learning records, first-hand experience.
Some skilled workers, not only in field production, but also warm, detailed &ldquo travel &rdquo student presentations and display processing technology.
Simple bamboo creative PileIsle bamboo benches
simple bamboo ideas more naturally, people's eyes light up. Sometimes simple design will become a classic, NIKE, for example, the check, for example, to introduce to members of the bench at the moment.
PileIsle are tied with four metal pieces from a bamboo pole, and then cut out shapes, edges and no into a plane, but kept the varying nature, Park, River, the green belt put on a bench, in addition to make people feel naturally comfortable, can help you find the treasures of feeling. &Ampmdash&mdash bamboo short growth cycle, is the best alternative to wood, so quite environmental. And it does not need to be fixed with screws and glue or paint, simplicity behind the smooth appearance and highlighting awareness of environmental protection.
Zhejiang created bamboo shopping bags can be GUCCI
From &ldquo made in Zhejiang &rdquo &ldquo Zhejiang created &rdquo, constructed of shopping bags can be GUCCI:? Expo Brazil the Pavilion's main architect, Benz, Renault's top designer appearance, is also the founder of one of the world's top ten design companies. The morning of April 27, in a small office in Hangzhou City, brought together 35 in 18 countries of the world's top designers in the world. They were the first international industrial designer Forum on fuchunjiang honour guest, were caught up in a discussion with each &ldquo Zhejiang element &rdquo, pearls, bamboo, silk &hellip&hellip
&ldquo " made in Zhejiang " " Zhejiang created ", you should use every element of Zhejiang. &Amprdquo Li Qi, President of the Association of industrial design in Hangzhou City said, &ldquo we strong " Zhejiang created " has been too long, we used Foundry process has been too long, Crow-" Zhejiang created ", mainstream customers remain in the low-end consumers. &Amprdquo
Li Qi's argument, and the artistic director of the Forum of Luca Zordan said similar: &ldquo no matter which corner of the world we live in, clothing of the body, many of the facilities, tools, is the origin of Zhejiang. Zhejiang is " manufacturing gold ", but in design, creative and idea, do not go far enough. &Amprdquo
&ldquo made in Zhejiang &rdquo &ldquo created &rdquo,&ldquo, Zhejiang missing is not a chance, but talent. &rdquo Keqiao, Luca had visited over Cixi, and the Huangpu River, he was surprised to discover that each region is the production of different products, Zhejiang enterprises and large companies in the world, and inextricably linked. &Ampldquo, while Zhejiang natural scenery is very beautiful, in the last few centuries, beautiful geographical landscape created inspiration for many famous artists and authors. It can be said that Zhejiang is a " to create treasure ". &rdquo Prospect Luca optimistic about the future design of Zhejiang, &ldquo the Forum of talents, both sides will build bridges. To the road of creating in the process of taking, Zhejiang should select the right direction, referred to by many designers opened with Zhejiang element visibility is a good idea. &Amprdquo
in Aranjuez, just get Germany Federal design award for best newcomer Sebastian spent a week, a &ldquo is made with bamboo bamboo bags &rdquo. &Ampldquo bamboo gives me a lot of inspiration in Anji free to walk into a farmers will be able to see piles of a bamboo chair, bamboo mats. But I still feel very traditional, lack of design, integration to be fashion. &Amprdquo after Sebastian modification of bamboo bag, can be sold in the European market than a bamboo chair 10 times the price, but the cost is less than a bamboo chair one-tenth. &Ampldquo this is the power of design and creative charm. &rdquo Sebastian looked forward to cooperation and enterprise in Zhejiang Province, and the exchange of local designers, &ldquo maybe we can build out a rival the likes of GUCCI brand.
Traditional rattan craft full of vitality
&Ampnbsp a group of teachers and students from the Sichuan fine arts Institute, full of rattan industry spring on the ground. Elegant chaise-lounge single chair, clam shells and petal shape rattan sofa &hellip&hellip placed on the South Coast eight kilometres Kane international furniture city a CANY art in the image store. These outstanding modeling exquisite, process the CANY art furniture products from Congzhou huaiyuan town in Sichuan province earthquake.
rattan craft full of youth
&ldquo makes Congzhou rattan products are Chongqing assistance out of the country. &Amprdquo bamboo wood-rattan craft business owner Li Jiankang in Chengdu, Mao Xiang introduced, 5·12 Wenchuan after the earthquake, all his factories destroyed.
Health said Lee, the 3rd month after the earthquake, came to Congzhou undergraduate volunteers from the school of Sichuan fine arts Institute, make psychological counselling for the local people. During a students who learn arts and crafts to huaiyuan town, found a lot of people on the ground will rattan, but made out of furniture is very rustic. He then and many students and teachers visited local rattan factories, were found the same problem, and help local rattan factories designed a number of styles.
&ldquo, as long as they design it, we came out arranges. &Amprdquo health say Lee, huaiyuan rattan has a history of more than 200 years, 2007 successful Declaration for non-material cultural heritage in Sichuan province. Many people from the local primary school rattan, but lack of innovation, product form a single. The guidance of the teachers and students for more than six months after the United States, huaiyuan rattan in the original on the basis of more than 30 varieties, developed a number of brands, more than 180 kinds of elegant products, on the complete upgrade. In early 2009, huaiyuan rattan sells to Canada and the United States, and Korea also signed a purchase and sale agreements with more than 20 countries. In August 2009, Lee health image of CANY art furniture store in Chongqing eight kilometers Kane opened the international furniture market, products are sold by the Sichuan Academy of fine arts furniture design students and teachers of the Department of art and design, &ldquo a beautifully designed luxury rattan sofa technology, export to sell $ 3 per cent. &Amprdquo health Li said. Now, he's factory output of millions of Yuan each year.
3 year after the expiry of the aid, local rattan company signed an agreement in the following months chuanmei, employed by us-directed design, marketing personnel, and received the US practice graduates to the factory. At present, huaiyuan town 48 rattan company, driving the local employment of 10,000 people, the town of one-third people in rattan-related work.
Congzhou technician College branch in Chengdu is a school in August 2008 the new. Prior to teaching teachers to schools in Chongqing, in terms of practice and training of students is basically blank. Chongqing supporting teacher Xia Dong to assist college students ' practice management system developed, organized students hands-on training. In his efforts, the school machinery professional locksmith, lathe machining workshop soon used up, electrical, construction, furniture, shoes, and other professional training are carried out.
chongzhou Education Committee in charge, starting from 2008, according to the Chongqing Municipal Education Commission to deploy, use 3 years time to &ldquo please come in, send &rdquo, for backbone teachers in chongzhou and 1720, implementing disaster assistance free special skills training in full.
medical to raise standards in villages and towns
donates Yang Peiyong is Chongqing health medical staff, after the earthquake, he came to the town of chongzhou street children hospitals. In hospitals, while Yang Peiyong daily rounds, diagnosis to the patient, doctors will follow next to several hospitals, patience to listen to his explanation. Some towns in the diagnosis of doctors with their own record of questions to ask. A medical practitioner who received training an exclamation mark: after Chongqing expert explanation, where previously do not understand will soon understand.
chongzhou Health Bureau official responsible, Congzhou 772 medical personnel has been training of experts in Chongqing, Congzhou medical and health undertakings to enhance the soft power, this is a band does not take the medical team.
Foreign investors bullish on the trade fair Bobai mount series
&Ampldquo I fame of the bobaimang series, bobaimang series woven craft form of fancy, is sold in a foreign country! &Amprdquo,4 25th, a foreign businessman in male and Yulin of Guangxi Bobai County arts and crafts company Liang Jialin when manufacturing and marketing contracts signed on the trade fair, to be held in Guangzhou said.
Bobai, in August 2006 by the Chinese arts and Crafts Association &ldquo &rdquo of weaving handicraft in China the honorary title, at present, the County has more than more than 400 weaving enterprise, become the country's large weaving handicrafts production and export base, products are exported to Southeast Asia, Europe and America markets.
&Ampnbsp why Awn grass for a small one, in dexterous hands of woven into baskets of flowers fruit tray, Aquarium, and other variety, beautiful handicrafts, also traverse the sea exported to Southeast Asia, Europe and more than more than 60 countries? The Bobai County party Committee and Government and business sectors supporting development of knitting industry inseparable.
In recent years, Bobai County as a key industry to weaving industry, and dedicated arts and Crafts Center, multi-channel multiform attracts knitting technology of professional and technical personnel at home and abroad to Bobai promoted development of knitting industry, forming an elongated series industry raw materials, processing, information, marketing, human resources industry chain.
Bobai County industrial and commercial sectors the weaving industry support with greater intensity, lower threshold and simplify procedures, for weaving Enterprise provides one-stop application, acceptance, registration services, reduced speed by 15 working days according to 1 working day, especially when you go through the registration of names of the pre-approved by a statutory reduction in 5 business days to settles on the spot, a liberal market access for weaving enterprise environment. At present, the County knitting enterprises soared to more than 400 enterprises, which has the right to export management right from the development of private enterprises to the more than more than 70.
Bobai County industry and Commerce Bureau also actively guide weaving enterprises take the form of company + base + farmers, so that both addresses weaving Enterprise recruitment challenges, also providing more employment opportunities for local farmers. Earlier this year, the portion of weave industries facing recruitment challenges, after the local business sector understand the situation, opportunities to take full advantage of the law, send a data to the countryside, encouraging farmers at the door business.
Bobai County Valley town boss Fung said, working for many years it is difficult to look after the family, at present, guided in the industrial and commercial sectors, in their bid for a weaving factory, industrial and commercial sectors also provide him with free contract-related information, guiding when he signed a contract with a customer should pay attention to what issues. The company started, he also learned to change &ldquo waste &rdquo &ldquo Po &rdquo, banana leaf, water hyacinth and door mount on mountain grass, vines used for weaving arts and crafts materials, thereby reducing investment and capital costs.
Today, Mount series has grown into one of the pillar industries of Bobai, knitting crafts of Bobai also gradually became the largest export base. Mount variety development of knitted products quickly, when mount series has gradually developed to the present to mount, bamboo, rattan, wood, straw, paper cord, metal as the main raw materials of mixed arts and crafts, variety up to thousands of species.
Last year, the County knitting industry output value amounted to $ 1.09 billion, farmers engaged in weaving processing industry reached more than 400,000 people, woven per capita income of more than 1000 Yuan, become farmers ' &ldquo &rdquo flying a short moment of wealth.
Linshu Wicker fair popular double turnover growth
109 session of Canton fair, the reporter specifically visited was known as &ldquo &rdquo of Chinese Wicker linshu Wicker enterprises. Visiting reporters learned, benefited from the excellent trend of warming of the global economy, &ldquo linshu Wicker &rdquo recovered in good condition, showing good gratifying scene of the popular double turnover growth.
In the 23rd day of the main Museum, journalist with the crowd go times weaving crafts area of the main Museum building 8th. According to journalist observation, from Europe and the United States rise in the number of merchants, which is also a sign of warming of the global economy improves. But the most striking remains are from the Middle East, Russia and Eastern European countries of buyers increased sharply. Exhibit 41 Wicker enterprises in the County, compared with the 108th Canton, as companies focus on new product development, preparation, increasing booth at the main Museum, demonstrating the &ldquo China &rdquo of Wicker overall image, negotiate more atmosphere, exhibitor confidence. See on reporter in linshu booths of fine arts and crafts limited, foreign heels, small booth is crowded. According to the company's salesman said, a salesman at noon to nearly 20 foreign. That is, they four sales an average of close to 100 customers a day. An increase in the number of orders, in previous sessions on the basis of small single, short, single, single, long, single significant improvement. Journalists feel, this pick up signs of a clear fair, most Wicker enterprises surveyed are reflected merchants increased, order than 108 intersection has increased markedly in the process of communication with the buyer, you can clearly feel the previous common pessimistic tone in the past has been a lot harder to find. Great increase in EU, America and other merchants. Merchants purchasing strength of will to, buyer levels higher than the previous fairs, prices generally remained stable. According to the introduction of wicker and County Chamber of Commerce, in the current session of Canton fair, general strengthening in linshu Wicker enterprise transformation and upgrading, building brand awareness and protection of intellectual property rights, increase investment in a wicker product development, improve product quality and safety and brand awareness, thereby enhancing the bargaining power of the wicker products.
According to understanding, in recent years, linshu in accordance with the characteristics economic scale, and scale economic brand of of development thought, adhere to boot enterprise around international market demand, timely adjustment export products structure, increased suit varieties, boot levels starting point low of export Enterprise constantly improve products quality, and grade and market occupies share, by &ldquo volume of expansion &rdquo to &ldquo mass of improve &rdquo do actively change, by industry structure adjustment to improve foreign trade cooperation quality, increased Wicker products added value, promoting technology innovation, expanded high added value products production, will export focus gradually to high-tech products, and energy saving environmental of products, and products of processing and fine processing, change, while, will low carbon economic as new a wheel industry development of focus.
Canton fair in Europe and America on Christmas orders rise
On April 23, the 109th session of Canton fair officially opened the second period. Two exhibits are mainly concentrated in the period of daily consumer goods, toys, gifts and gifts are particularly affected by concern. Reporter part exhibitors understand that due to rising production cost and unit price of products, this year's Christmas orders generally occur around 15% per cent.
Manager Huang Tao told reporters of a handicraft company in Qingdao, &ldquo due to surge in raw material prices, labor costs, the renminbi and other factors, 10% prices rise, this Christmas orders turnover has increased by about 20%, almost 1 million dollars. Huang Tao said the price increases have been industry generally is the case, increase in the cost of just one of the reasons, can also lead to a price increase of product innovation. &rdquo
Cultural reveals the rural characteristics of culture
To demonstrate the creation of the grassroots and the masses to stimulate their creative passion, April 23, huzhou wuxing district with the district's brand mass cultural activities &ldquo wuxing star &rdquo entered the provincial capital, which starts on March 16 the province &ldquo culture &rdquo after the first &ldquo of rural culture into the provincial capital &rdquo visiting performances.
&Ampnbsp visiting missions in the area for the people of Hangzhou took 10 programs, all programs are one, full of features. Child charm of Chinese children's clothing children's wear performance of model team, with the Wu dialect form of antiphonal singing folk songs in huzhou of the repeated 12 lang, music and dance the wicker Express East Wicker process of songs as well as a program won the applause of the audience.
It is understood that the area in recent years to &ldquo wuxing star &rdquo brand cultural activities for the hand, in the village &ldquo happiness stage &rdquo, sprouted on realization of grass-roots cultural activities have emerged a number of new cultural era trends.
&Ampldquo culture &rdquo is derived from the huzhou city in primary &ldquo cultural &rdquo forms an innovation carrier, through &ldquo culture &rdquo makes the rich features of the local village culture was communication and publicity.
Linan 3 works by non heritage fair gold medal
Recently, from in Yiwu International Expo Center held of 2011 China (Zhejiang) non-material culture heritage Expo Shang came news, by themed Qian Jianren sent of Queen Mother travel under, and Lin Min sent of Fo Guang shines under, and Qian Youjie sent of group cents party under 3 pieces Chang of chicken blood stone works get gold, Ling Donghui carving of 18 Bachelor under, and Pan Hanbin carving of 18 Lohan under, and Hu Wujie carving of happy under and Chang of bamboo, 27 pieces works get silver.
It is understood that this non-heritage fair by the Chinese intangible cultural heritage protection Center, Zhejiang Provincial Department of culture unit organized, from 24 provinces (cities) nearly 400 national and provincial &ldquo non-leaving &rdquo quality project exhibition.
The city of Changhua chicken blood stone, Chang bamboo, thousands flood peach paper paper production techniques 3 project participated in the exhibition.
Handicraft weaving co36unication platform
To promote Sino-foreign cultural exchanges, recently, by the Dai autonomous prefecture and China Radio International jointly organised, Russia, and Ukraine GA Lok media and Belarus association with the the people newspaper in &ldquo I'm going to Xishuangbanna &rdquo talent competition was successfully held, and awards ceremony on April 16.
It is learnt that the talent contest from January 1 to March 15, this activity through competitions, enhanced Russia, and Ukraine, and Belarus and other countries people know about the cultural customs of ethnic minorities in China, and promote special culture tourism resources development and exchanges with foreign countries. Notable characteristics of this competition is languages, media, platforms, over more than 500 listeners and China Radio International Russian network, Wu Wen network, Belarus network theme users through online quizzes, writing, painting, photography, handicrafts, including participation in the contest. Layer by layer and selecting from Russia journalist Yitzhak Rabin · Edward · Victorovici, column writer Svitlana · keermake and from Ukraine of geological engineers Pivovarov · Vladimir get the Grand Prize winner.
&ldquo &lsquo miles away &rsquo to describe Russia, and Ukraine, and Belarus and other CIS countries and the border region of Xishuangbanna, Southwest China distance is not too much, but the friendship, if adjacent. &Amprdquo Department of Chinese radio international broadcasts in Russian audience and outreach Director Chen Jiadi remember unforgettable story: Russia today audience Nadjie · yemeiliyanuowa learned talent contest news, sleep through the night, repeatedly thinking about what kind of works can express one Russia girl wanted to Xishuangbanna dream? She thought Russia traditional souvenirs &ldquo matryoshka &rdquo coupled with the theme of Xishuangbanna, baby in her arms a symbolic peacocks, elephants, Xishuangbanna Dai nationality's bamboo floor also has a blue sky, she hope to experience beautiful and singular in the book, read.
&ldquo of hand-woven Dai Peacock and Easter egg &rdquo colorful, lifelike, it is Ukraine girls malinina · aoliesita meticulously crocheted works. Her story of Peacock Princess Dai as its theme, created to &ldquo Peacock &rdquo for the theme, with Ukraine of ethnic arts and crafts of the Easter egg crochet work. Malinina said: &ldquo Ukraine Easter egg and Peacock in Xishuangbanna, China woven into the same work, is to express a long friendship and love between people of the two countries, also symbolizes the two countries in the folk culture of Exchange and fusion &rdquo.
in January this year, from Russia in Xishuangbanna, 3 young people and had a &ldquo close &rdquo, they use 4 days to visit the Folk Museum, visited the wild elephant Valley, visiting ancient forest park, also has experience of Dai garden Thai New Year.
Russia Education Sciences dhalia Gillespie · yalishandeluofuna · dujiankewa she wrote in the road out of style in Xishuangbanna, enjoy the secrets of the heart: &ldquo winter even in the Xishuangbanna to be a gatekeeper, take food as wages, sleeping in the stack, and happy! &rdquo
Reed art in celebration of baiyangdian Tsinghua University celebrates its centenary
On the occasion of the celebration of the centennial of Tsinghua University, Hebei industrial arts master Liu Yongle after 23 days of giant reed art complete the creation of the fragrance shuimuqinghua century debut of Tsinghua University.
according to Liu Yongle introduction, the fragrance shuimuqinghua century was invited by the Tsinghua University Alumni Association in Baoding, in occasion of the celebration of the centennial of Tsinghua University, is for the gift of Alma Mater, source of its creation is &ldquo water wood Tsinghua &rdquo this very representative of Tsinghua University campus scene. Produced by this work to be better, while at work, he sought to fine, fine, every link, every process checks in person.
in addition, the centennial of fragrance shuimuqinghua work fine, elegant building in the works, pine and cypress erect, Willow beautiful, Lotus beautiful, water bird life. Tsinghua University celebrates its centenary collection certificates are also issued for the work of the Organizing Committee, and expressed in the permanent collections of Tsinghua University.
young in baiyangdian Liu Yongle child like drawing, for the love of art of Reed, produced a large number of Reed art. Reed art painting is a traditional handicrafts of anxin County of baiyangdian, classification, profile cutting, pressing, sculpture, clip, woven, made by more than 10 kinds of processes. To Reed of Reed material art for his screen character processing of natural, elegant fine, unique style and highly favored visitors, becoming first choice for domestic and overseas tourists to baiyangdian tourism souvenirs and the first tourist souvenirs of Baoding.
Rattan renewed Sichuan victims hope
Epicentre Wenchuan, chongzhou worst affected villages and towns are all along the mountains, most important restoration and reconstruction work. Now, in chongzhou, Sichuan huaiyuan peace village features rattan industry revived the affected area of the town of hope, the villagers at the door open when the boss.
in the peaceful village of new arms to fight next to the road, bright color under the blue sky special dazzling hepingcun settlements. A beautiful small building, homeowners Gong Yongming was commanding ten laiwei busy with locals, soft cane in the hands of the workers were flying up and down, and one side filled with beautiful wreaths, vases that are provided by customer, now that order to the second half of the!
Gong Yongming huaiyuan town is one of the many good at rattan worked into, transportation before, he had to others working in the factory. Wenchuan after the earthquake, the town suffered huge losses over more than 30 rattan enterprise, plant after the collapse, once encountered discontinued, houses collapsed, did not work, what about family life in the future? A craft Gong Yongming very nervous.
But soon after, Gong Yongming life has rekindled hope that permanent settlement area of post-disaster reconstruction plan launched, new home in the wide arms to fight next to the road! Rattan industry planning has introduced, with 1000 m rattan huaiyuan town street as a carrier, accelerating the bigger rattan industry, creating the rattan in the West Village! Not only so, town Shang also to rattan large and worked into were with out visit investigation, and please to has Sichuan art college teachers and students, with most trend of art vision for new products of design, in original more than 30 more species rattan products of Foundation Shang development leads out has more than 180 multiple varieties of fine rattan art products, application has 40 pieces rattan technology national patent, let original style old, and function single, and technology rough of rattan products variable body into has high-end crafts, and success into has Europe, international market.
In many small workshop evolved into large enterprises, Gong Yongming's new home is repaired. Looking at traffic convenient, spacious new home, he decided to make his shop when the boss's decision. In support of the Government and the parties, now his rattan never huaiyuan roadside stalls on the product, but to break into the more than more than 20 cities in the country. &Ampldquo new House is big and strong, transport is also not a problem, can the current shop factory after use! &Amprdquo&ldquo Yes, House was repaired, industry has, we don't have going, can at the door when industrial workers at home! &Amprdquo small workshop filled with villagers in laughter.
It is learnt that the rattan industry has a long history in huaiyuan town, due to the conception, backward technology, just stop at a local brand. Opportunity of relying on post-disaster reconstruction, huaiyuan rattan industry facing unprecedented opportunities. Town Shang established has huaiyuan rattan training base, let more young people participation this item industry registered and using &ldquo huaiyuan rattan &rdquo trademark, in improve technology content and products quality of while, makes huaiyuan rattan has more large of visibility, and more high of value and aesthetic value established huaiyuan rattan Association, solidarity local of rattan artists, research new products, publishing new information organization artists to other arts and crafts of township visit learning established rattan prepared products exhibition room, promotion and publicity this door unique of civil woven skills. At present, huaiyuan rattan owners &ldquo a ride &rdquo on large furniture companies nationwide sales network, as a complement to the furniture industry featured products are sold all over the country. Rattan enterprises have begun to operate independently, such as export, other major owners are also scattered in some foreign orders. By focusing on protection, building, mining and support, and &ldquo on small scale &rdquo huaiyuan rattan is bigger and stronger, are moving towards &ldquo cane bamboo and forest products production and processing of characteristic regional &rdquo industry towards the high end.
Deep in the jungle to visit well Bella man
Panama tourism garden of life experience, where enbeila will go to, where crafts are everywhere. Panama national population has more than 3 million, comprising mainly Indo-Afro-mestizo and indigenous peoples has 6, account for about 10% of the population, including Embe 20,000. Drove out the din of Panama City, about an hour to chageleisi River, to visit deep in the jungle of Panama Aboriginal &mdash&mdash Embe pull people.
Two dark complexion, physically strong young men on the shore to meet us. They are naked from head to foot, waist-only surrounding a multicolored beads into a skirt, a mountain of cloth hung small abdominal straps hidden shame, mouth &ldquo blah blah &rdquo called to welcome us.
Young man led us on a pirogue. Canoe real, is a complete tree trunks with a dig dig into more than 10 metres long, the bows pointed, Stern fitted with the engine. Guy a standing bow, armed with a long wooden pole, one of the stood Stern, hand lever of the engine. Young man with a long pole gave a brace of bow, ship or offshore, in the roar of the engine, ships like arrow of takeoff breaker line.
A little boat on the shore. On a high bank on the shore, a group of men blow bamboo flute, knocking wood drums, bamboo shoots, turtles and coconut shells, a group of women shouting, echoed synthesis of song of songs in the River. Tribal chiefs Antonio is a man of more than 50 years, he enthusiastically describe the local situation: &ldquo we are Embe people, our tribe called the tuxibonuo, 20 households, and 72 people, living in the jungle on both sides of the Chagres River, there are also 3 other enbeila tribes. The past, we mainly rely on fishing and hunting and mining of fruit for a living, some bananas, maize and cassava. We live in the high house built with trunks and palm leaves, this beast and flood-proof, moisture-proof. We men before the small stomach with long strips of red and yellow are called &lsquo wayougu &rsquo, to hush up a scandal, can also wipe the sweat away, hand. No cotton in the past, be separated from the bark of the wear, such as bark mats, shop and sleep on the floor. &rdquo
In order to protect the natural environment, in October 1984, Panama as the Chagres River basin national parks, nature reserves 129,000 hectares, is Panama's largest and most important nature reserve. Since then, Embe people's lives changed, tourism gradually became their main source of income. Now the tourism project on the existing water boating, playing under the waterfall, also well Bella people such as music and dance performances and food tasting. Antonio said happily: &ldquo our tribe every year nearly 6,000 visitors, revenue can fully meet the needs of tribal, days are much better than in the past. &rdquo
About Embe people place, eyes full of rugged style handicrafts, carved wooden, useful in a variety of animal model of slim soft cane grass woven faceplate and wreaths. It is said that these colorful colors, are natural dye. Chief said, enbeila man is a master of natural sculpture, knitting masters of woman is born. In order to protect the forest, they built wooden carving is no longer cut trees, but with the natural death of the tree when carving material.
More good news is, Embe people pulling the children on the school. School in a village not far, teacher Spain language and enbeila language teaching. Figure xibonuo tribe is currently out of the two college students, we called Gilbe LAD was one of the pole. Gilbe 22 years of age, at Panama University, he is going to back to the tribe after graduation, helping home and do a better job of tourism.
In a high room, one old lady just sit on is currently using cane grass weaving faceplate, a pair of green parrots perched on the beam, is kissing each other and combing the feathers.
&nbsp &Ampldquo enbeila &rdquo is &ldquo good &rdquo 、 &ldquo good friends &rdquo meaning. Embe people through new production methods, and their wisdom, in harmony with nature, nature conservation &ldquo good &rdquo.
Small knowledge of tamarix chinensis Lour
Together with white gravel configuration, a clump of tamarix Plexus light smoke whirling thinning trees, plant type, special style one squid powder fog condensation, Dim light, soft and charming, this is a beautiful desert plants. Recently, Chen mountain Botanical Garden xerophyte in Shanghai Park, attracting many tourists stop to watch. It is 构词成分。 (pronounced Chen) Liu, deciduous shrub or small tree in the genus tamarix tamarix as a branch. The Botanic Garden, is now displayed &lsquo four core &rsquo Africa, China tamarix, tamarix chinensis &lsquo pink falls &rsquo multiple sticks of tamarix ramosissima, &lsquo &rsquo of Euphorbia pulcherrima many species such as tamarix tamarix ramosissima, and light.
tamarix chinensis red inflorescence
tamarix, alias, and located hanging silk willow, xiheliu, sanchunliu, Yin Liu, etc, its spend in case of rain the opening should be planting water pool, if days of rain, 构词成分。, also known as rain Division.
for temperate and subtropical trees tamarix chinensis, produced in China's Gansu, Hebei, Henan, Shandong, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong, Yunnan and other provinces. In desert areas, tamarix ramosissima sand-fixing is excellent tree species, the Yellow River basin and coastal saline-alkali soil cultivation, is a pioneer in saline-alkali land greening.
fine species of tamarix ramosissima in the desert region is sand-fixing
tamarix as a deciduous shrub or small tree. Leaf pumila, lanceolate, flake, small, dense, is light blue green. Small branches droop, fine silky, graceful and lovely. Total of inflorescence set was born in the year, composed of cone-shaped compound inflorescence pollen red, summer and autumn flowering, flowering is very long, ever-new inflorescence, sometimes spent three times a year. Capsule October mature, usually not very strong. Tamarix old red purple or light brown. Due to living in harsh environments, the leaves become very small, secret like a Flake was born in branch, each leaf only 1-3 mm long.
usually cutting propagation. Old branches, may shoot, plug the plug in spring or autumn is all right. Spring in February-March, more than one year strong branches, 15-20 cm long, inline in the seedbed, cuttings dew 3-5 cm of soil, to the April-May root growth, survival rate up to 95%. Usually a little management, appropriate water fertilization, one-year seedlings of up to 1 meters above. Autumn inserted in September-October, with the same branch as cuttings, with the spring plug, the survival rate is also high. In addition, seeding, available by layers-roots propagation.
cultivation and management
easily survives tamarix chinensis, lax requirements for soil, loose sandy loam soil, alkaline and neutral soil can be. Due to watering, fertilization after planting. Trim resistance of tamarix chinensis, in spring and summer growing season may be appropriate to spune plastic, cut off key branches to facilitate ventilation and light, viable after the autumn leaves a trim.
Main insect pests of tamarix trees with leaves of PEAR sword sheath damage of spodoptera exigua, 800-1000 liquid sprays of trichlorfon in the larval stage to control aphids 40% Dimethoate twice liquid pensha available.
tamarix ramosissima is a traditional Chinese medicine, rubella body itching, young shoots of spring is in the treatment of fengshigutong good medicine, so that many people out of the ills of torture.
Therefore, Tibetan people and affectionately called &ldquo-Yin Liu &rdquo and &ldquo bodhisattva tree &rdquo.
In addition, the initiation of tamarix chinensis shoots tough, flexible, is preparation of baskets, baskets, boxes, baskets and other farming tools and daily necessities in good material, durable than willow. Bark of tamarix chinensis contains tannic acid, tannin extraction.
Order form training mitigation dile29a problem
In previous years, Tuen Mun Heung Lo liuyunlong changing to WA village surplus labor force working around after school, but poor working environments low incomes, life drifting from place to place. Earlier this year, he took part in the County Department of social welfare launched &ldquo order form &rdquo training, master a CNC cut technology and became an official employee of the Aetna of Jining mining equipment manufacturing limited. On April 21, liuyunlong pleased to tell reporters: &ldquo this enterprise pay well, there are various benefits, I am very happy. &Amprdquo
in recent years, the Yutai County employment sector through field visits and survey the unemployed labor units, found a lot of accepting units for less skilled workers, the impact of the production schedule, while most unemployed people and surplus rural labor because no technical expertise for their job was not found. For &ldquo dilemma &rdquo the problem County County all in depth the Secretary for human and social enterprise, for the lack of post registration list and types of units, and labor contracts with enterprises, the unemployed and migrant workers &ldquo order form &rdquo training. After the training, by officers of the examination to the reservation unit of labor, employment rate reached 100%.
This year, the County employment training center and star source mining equipment Ltd, Aetna equipment Ltd over more than 20 employers reached &ldquo order form &rdquo training protocols, electrical welding, Turner, Willow weaving and other professional training, participate in the training of more than 500 people found work to the satisfaction of all, the employment rate reached 100%.
Yixing bamboo and wood products exports in the first quarter increased
The first quarter of 2011, Yixing inspection and quarantine of exported bamboo wood products 780, the value of US $ 34.7597 million, and last year respectively, 14.2%. No quality problem has occurred, and were not being informed or abroad.
face Yixing area bamboo wood grass enterprise products export substantially growth, Yixing test quarantine Council take has more item measures do checks and service work: a is in area enterprise within comprehensive carried out to quality upgrade, and quality comparison upgrade for theme of &ldquo scoring &rdquo activities, promote has enterprise products quality of upgrade, to won has more abroad customer of recognized second is on bamboo wood grass products enterprise take site identification and photos identification phase combination of way, upgrade express inspection placed speed, facilitate has Enterprise export three is timely will abroad latest regulations and trade barriers information notification enterprise, ahead of do should policy, for enterprise won has buffer time, years, no a votes orders due to information does not CHEONG and extension export.
According to, 2010 yilai, Yixing test quarantine Council to &ldquo quality upgrade &rdquo activities and &ldquo quality comparison upgrade &rdquo activities for opportunity, change traditional of test supervision mode, first in bamboo wood grass products enterprise in the implementation &ldquo scoring &rdquo activities, urged export bamboo wood grass products enterprise quality management level of substantially upgrade, maintenance has export bamboo wood grass products industry of health fast development.
Persons with disabilities into the Reed art culture busine43 cards
His tireless efforts, founder of Arts and crafts society, Reed into a port in a culture of business cards, through free training, placement assistance, driving many out of the predicament of life of persons with disabilities. But he Zhao Fu Tang are Taiping Zhen a severely burned hands of persons with disabilities.
1982 year, Zhao Fu Tang unfortunately encountered Mart Fireworks sales on fire, the hands were fired three people with disabilities, ten fingers severely deformed. During the stay in Dagang sister House to recover, he likes to Reed on art. &Ampldquo neighbors aunt Reed at home painting, raw materials simple, do what looks good, I was fascinated. &Amprdquo later Zhao Fu Tang tried to make Reed art, &ldquo I found my hands haven't spent &rdquo. Through access to relevant information, visit famous masters, hands-on practice, Zhao Fu Tang making Reed found a painting process. In order to highlight the fluffy texture of animal hair, Zhao Fu Tang Reed did a filamentous processing, looks real, lively a lot. Zhao Fu Tang will Reed art background picture from the traditional black flannel and body coordinated background image, and applied for a patent. New design at the popular exhibition centre in Tianjin, exhibits all the sales.
now, Reed art work have become a port of Zhao Fu Tang culture of a business card.
Li Futang founded futang arts and crafts also was named the &ldquo by city CDPF Dagang handicraft manufacture base for persons with disabilities &rdquo and &ldquo Al-&rdquo for poverty alleviation of persons with disabilities. Zhao Fu Tang break Reed art making process, some persons with disabilities to participate in the making. &Ampldquo $ revenues almost every year more than 20,000. &Amprdquo for several years, Zhao Fu Tang Trojan has trained more than more than 120 persons with disabilities.
Reco29ended Xian international horticultural exhibition 2011 Park Chang Park
2011 world horticultural Expo will be held on April 28, 2011 in Xian 构词成分。 构词成分。 ecological zones, and duration of 178 days held in Xian. Guangyun Tan Xian International Horticultural Exposition 2011 master club-houses, located in known to history as &ldquo &rdquo on the 构词成分。 构词成分。 构词成分。 shore, is one of the main port in ancient China. Tang dynasty during the Tianbao, Emperor Xuanzong had organized a large-scale exhibition and fair of water transport, showing the smooth trade developed in the Tang dynasty and water transport, a world exposition of the originator. Xian International Horticultural Exposition 2011 to &ldquo Chang-creative nature--city of man and nature in harmony with the nature &rdquo as its theme. Emblem and mascots are named as &ldquo Chang spent &rdquo, take &ldquo flushed with success Horseshoe disease, saw Chang spent a day &rdquo.
international horticultural exhibition park recommended: Changan Park
design themes: Green Interpretation, ecology, new concepts of Chinese style
Cheung on landscaped including aerospace plant and space science education exhibition area, bamboo culture display area, herb and cultural exhibition, cultural show waterfront area, Peony Paeonia lactiflora display area.
space plant and space science education exhibition area: display space, aerospace horticultural varieties of plants. Using landscape design concept of narrative, using symbolic manipulation of sets and space science education as a whole, interpretation of human awareness, space exploration, to the history of the universe.
bamboo exhibiting zone: China's new interpretation of the concept of the wind. Use traditional bamboo woven out of scenic spots in China Gate Gallery, sculpture, bamboo, bamboo plank road, Takenoya, tea room, and other landscape elements of great charm in China. By bamboo homes came with the sound of Bang flute, the teahouse meditation tea a scenic, wind-swept tall bamboos, the desolate heart from Qingyuan.
herb and cultural exhibition area: layers of ground shape the fresh herb garden, people gonggeng, couldn't think of the Jin dynasty poet Tao Yuanming's &ldquo Picking chrysanthemums under the eastern fence, and leisurely see Nanshan &rdquo. White doctor sit-in Yu Zhulu, hanging pot of interrogation, the world lives, China traditional culture of harmony in this wonderful explanation and to show.
culture waterfront: Reed, Hawthorn, trestle, springs, streams, art cottage, Green Island common draw freehand brushwork in ink of a picture full of poetic landscape, huazhongyoushi, poetry and painting, artistic conception of the infinite. There is a temporary pond built art Lu, Lu in the hanging of two paintings, set off a window, window in the King and King of mingling with each other in the picture, difficult to each other, amazing.
Peony Paeonia lactiflora exhibition area: walk slowly around a zhumaolin, is the oncoming full Park pink Peony, Peony. Xu Ning in the Tang Dynasty poem cloud: who does not love flower, breaking of good China town. Filled with Song dynasty poet Jiang Kuigeng said with deep feeling: reading bridge Red medicine, know who year after year.
Outside tail Sensen, Peony and herbaceous Peony competing to bloom, bees and butterflies in the hustle dance in the garden, the scene this poem, ancient poetic feeling arises spontaneously.
Birth of the first natural neosinocalamus affinis in China wind power blades
Recently, domestic first 1.5 MW, 40.3 m bamboo wind turbine blades in Texas century Wei can wind power equipment company was born. &Ampldquo this marking the bamboo leaves applied to the key technologies of megawatt wind generator has been overcome and entered the stage of industrialization. &Amprdquo the company said.
It is understood that the bamboo wind power blades for the growth of China's natural Chee bamboo as raw material in the South, compared with traditional glass fiber reinforced plastic blade, with the processing of simple, stable performance, easy to recycle, and other advantages, can directly reduce the cost of material 25%, improve efficiency of power generation by 15%. In recent years, the century Wei can wind power equipment company increasing blade testing and exploration of new materials, research and development design center in Beijing, the introduction of Germany blade design technology, according to the wind resource status leaves of bamboo material development and trial production.
At home and abroad with the support of experts, May 2010, by century Granville and the khans of wind technology company limited jointly developed the first 1.5 MW, 40.3 m which has been launched successfully, and static loading test of bamboo leaves, will be held in early April in Huaneng Liaoning panjin Dawa wind farm on hook test, test implementation through to volume production.
introduction of neosinocalamus affinis Categories: Bamboo categories: Bamboo bamboo bamboo branch, mother and son, Chee Hau: Grass family Latin name: Sinocalmus affinis (Rendle) Mcclure
neosinocalamus affinis, nominal, mother and son, Chee Hau bamboo bamboo bamboo. Bushy, root nest wind, bamboo up to about two feet. Old bamboo key junctions in Hsinchu, high and low, and if for all ages-dependent, thus come the name. Hubei Province folk called congzhu. Section that Takeuchi Minoru, thinning, weak can cane, his tight, thin, a clump of dozens of roots, which are to make hundreds of root and shoot though, only to students. May or June, the long bamboo shoots, Fang Cheng next year bamboo, bamboo shoots was food.
stalk material woven bamboo, paper and building materials.
Straw wallpaper wallpapers maintenance VS fabric wallpaper
natural material wall paper
with straw, hemp, wood, leaves and other natural pressure on the viscosity to paper-based material drying, with strong smells in the country, natural simplicity. But poor durability, fire resistance, should not be used in flow of larger application.
straw wallpapers shrinkage of large, easy to produce higher bubble, wrinkle on construction personnel requirements.
1, straw wallpaper surface hand made from natural materials, due to its natural characteristics, even for the same lot number wallpapers can be color shading, a normal phenomenon. Pollutants generally failed to clear after
2, its pollution, it is suggested when ordering goods, appropriate order 1
3, walls requirements: for paper thin straw paper, should be carefully reviewed before construction walls of lacquer colors are the same case reveal the ins and outs of the matter.
4 with natural materials, straw paper made by hand, it cannot be spent, it seams not anastomosis, a normal phenomenon, pre-construction, construction, and the customer that, and after the 2
3 of construction sites and customers confirm, customer recognition cannot be continued construction.
5, straw wallpaper is not available, wipe, joints after overflow could not be cleaned, wallpapered surfaces results in &ldquo &rdquo suggested using glue on the machine, and use protective tape to avoid glue to wallpaper the surface spill.
6, tile when carefully ease from top to bottom, because of their surface natural shrinkage rate of rice straw and different shrinkage of paper-based, it is likely to produce bubble, fold, need patience to heal.
its surface selection of fabrics, chemical fiber, silk, linen, silk, fabric such as silk, satin, or thin felt for raw materials, Visual and feel soft and comfortable, with a sense of elegance, some silk, silk fabric is beautiful because of its reflective effect of the fiber, but expensive for this type of wallpaper.
fabric product surface as natural fabrics, and shrinkage of large, sensitive to pollution, different lot numbers of the products may produce color difference, construction, do the following requirements:
1, due to its natural characteristics, may produce chromatic aberration, it is suggested when ordering goods, appropriate order 1
2 site for adjustment. Please check before construction construction required number and line number of the goods, to avoid unnecessary trouble.
2 with natural materials, oil products, so the joints may be more obvious, pre-construction, construction, and the customer that, and after the 2
3 of construction sites and customers confirm, customer recognition cannot be continued construction. After
3, due to their surface contamination, dirt is not easy to clear, so recommend the use of glue on the machine, and use protective tape to avoid glue to wallpaper the surface spill. In addition can also consider using glue to the wall construction.
4, post full waiting for after the gluing, and wall tile. Waiting time of each paper should be the same otherwise may create wallpapers of expansion and contraction varies.
5, tile to make full use of lap tailors, tailor should keep blades sharp (it is best to use imported blade), replace the blades in a timely manner. Construction to make full use of brush smooth paper, in the seams on a private pressing wheel, where consistent.
Note: do not open the door window ventilation within 48 hours after construction, and maintenance considerations and customers speak out.
China (Shenzhen) International gifts, handicrafts exhibition opening
April 24, China (Shenzhen) International gifts, handicrafts, watches and household products fair held in Shenzhen Convention and Exhibition Centre. The exhibition covers an area of 100,000 square meters, 5,300 booths, exhibitor 2,800.
According to sponsor introduction, this exhibition to " " happy home, creative life For topics, participate in nearly 3,000, ceramics, household, crafts, cultural and creative products, green food, jewelry, electronics, toys, bags, leather goods, outdoor goods, health products, kitchen products, hardware tools and many other gifts an array, the number calculated by 100,000, functional elements of ACE are brought together innovation, leading exhibitors covering a number of leading enterprises. Which, Nanjing Thai an affidavit, and Shanghai home is, and South bed ornaments, and yigema, and Jie Liya, and sunrisun cosmestics mainly of Home Home spinning, Jin Boyuan, and prosperity culture, and Shenzhen most, and Taiwan dry Tang Xuan lead of ceramic and the crafts, joint create, and love Shi up, and TCL, and fly branch, and million Lee up leader of electronic electrical, in the grain group, and Assia brings of green food,, are will for audience brings new of Visual feel. This exhibition attracted Korea, and Taiwan, Hong Kong, Japan and other overseas countries, regional business exhibition. In addition, " Yiwu small commodity world " 、 " Taizhou commodity " 、 " Home of textile " Nantong, " porcelain " and Dehua in Chaozhou, and " Kingdom of stainless steel " chaoan gift with gift of light industry base of the elite will also.
Host Fang Li huabo, Chairman Jiang Chengwen, said Reed huabo relying on 93 countries and regions of the world of legend group resource network, hosting gift show for nearly 20 years, the establishment of a Centre for intellectual property protection, invited global buyers, creative design, green procurement channel support services industry reputation, by careful management of supply and demand relationships, cooperation and procurement in one step. Depth explanation three necessary conditions, makes attracted enterprises increase year by year.
&Ampnbsp for encourages original, build industry brand, excitation exhibition China Bo apart from increased intellectual property protection measures outside, also launched including new products publicity promotion zainei of series of wide activities, purpose is advocate innovation, strengthening Enterprise independent design research and development, maximum to boot enterprise fast upgrade products core competitiveness, let enterprise both show products, and reached transactions, and looking for agent and dealer while also show enterprise image, and show new products new design.
Jiang Chengwen believes that now is the critical time China gifts industry speed increase, relevant industry, Enterprise, and the Association of the exhibition must be led under the guidance of the Government, coordinated operations, and learn from each other, innovation, design, branding, and other aspects of restructuring.
It is understood that this exhibition will continue until the 27th, is expected to attract 130,000 buyers to visit.
Earth environmental day crafts creative infinite
April 22 is the 42nd in the world earth day. The same day, one to &ldquo advocating green consumption, green production, build a green home &rdquo themed arts and crafts contest in Chengdu, Sichuan Institute of technology staged.
The contest by the Sichuan provincial Department of land and natural resources, geological society in Sichuan province, Chengdu University jointly organized.
Earth (World Earth Day) was in 1970 by American Gaylord &Bull Nielsen and Dennis &Bull Hayes initiated and subsequently influence gradually expanded. From China in the 1990 of the 20th century, the world held every year on April 22 Earth Day activities. 2011 theme is &ldquo to cherish the Earth's resources, change the mode of development &rdquo.
reportedly, Sichuan University, Sichuan agricultural University chuannei University team participated in the 10 games.
in Chengdu University venues, 16 waste or environmental protection materials for college students personally make handicraft works attracted the eye of many teachers and students.
&ldquo there's smoke-free &rdquo and other works show the creative thinking of college students. Works &ldquo there's smoke-free &rdquo is discarded cigarette boxes for students on Earth spell &ldquo stop smoking &rdquo graph, to remind you not to let the smoke shrouded the home. Works &ldquo tears &rdquo is with waste newspapers, cans, water bottles and made of latex, warning not to let last drop of our tears of the Earth. Eventually, the work &ldquo from Sichuan College of education, love life, love environment &rdquo due to environmental protection and the perfect combination of fashion first prizes.
this competition aims to enhance the environmental awareness of students and the general public and enthusiasm, wake up the community's sense of mission and responsibility to protect the environment, promote energy-saving emission reduction and eco-civilization construction, realization of scientific development, building a harmonious society.
60,000 craft treasures will debut in Chongqing art and craft fair
From April 28 to May 2, 2011 China (Chongqing) Arts and crafts industry fair will be held at the Nanping International Convention and Exhibition Centre. It is learnt that more than more than 60,000 treasures from all over the country technology will debut at the Expo, which is unheard of, unprecedented domestic and international arts and crafts boutique, will give viewers a visual feast.
From 25 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions of the nearly 300 arts and crafts vendors and personal exhibition at the exposition. $ 500,000 worth of high-grade carved &ldquo thousands of Bed &rdquo produced by wood and Ginkgo, works in more than 1000 days, full of flowers and birds figures carved on the bed, Cheung poultry animal, like a luxury and elegant halls. Famous folk art masters Xiang, Chongqing Three Gorges in the creation of art of the music still, non-commercial art industry in Chongqing Association of Cai Yue macro design &ldquo Phoenix &rdquo two rivers art landscape boat models, as well as Chongqing ivory treasure house of the 38-storey ivory balls are unveiled one by one. Organizers said, these craft are valuable, 38-story ivory ball valued at more than $ 500,000.
This event set in various provinces and autonomous regions in the arts and crafts, master of Arts and crafts boutique, Hong Kong, Macao and overseas three exhibition of Arts and crafts, exhibition areas such as handicraft, gifts, travel, mahogany furniture, decorative lighting, gem and ornamental stone, paintings, antiques, arts and crafts production equipment.
Demand for timber imports doubled within 5 years
recently, according to a new study reports that, China's timber import demand will double in one year. This is the view of the large demand for housing construction in cities of China, Canada exports to the China's total timber exports, is expected to double within the next five years, British Columbia, and Canada mainly wood skewer, output quantity of wood more new high last year, reaching 4.6 million cubic meters (29 billion board feet).
The headquarters in the United States made on RISI research company of survey, China's demand for timber, wood, plywood and other wood, from now to 2015 annual growth is expected to 9%.
RISI international wood markets research company transfer inquiry Commissioner Flynn (Robert Flynn): &ldquo in fact, our estimation is very conservative, we are confident that Canada's timber exports to China over the next 5 years can easily be doubled. &rdquo He also pointed out that Canadian exports to China last year's total timber exports reach 9.4 million cubic metres is expected by 2015 will increase in this number to 19 million cubic metres. Flynn said that Canadian import timber market share in China, currently about 50%, but given the Canadian wood resource-rich, market development is still very optimistic for the future.
Pat Bell, Director of the British Columbia employment, tourism and innovation (Pat Bell) recently said that China in the next two years, may replace the United States as the British Columbia's largest export market for wood. In 2003, British Columbia exports to China total only 232 million board feet of wood, or about one-thirteenth last year.
International bamboo and rattan plant bamboo towards Earth Day
On the occasion of April 22, Earth Day, international network for bamboo and rattan (INBAR) held in Beijing zizhu Yuan bamboo planting activity, zizhu, gold inlaid jade bamboo, planted under Luo Hanzhu 30 bamboo trees, for the Earth to add a clump of green.
Bamboo can promote eco-environment protection, is the need of low-carbon development is also important to promote green development resource. Director General of the international network for bamboo and rattan, Gu Zhen said: &ldquo bamboo absorbs carbon dioxide, not only can purify water, can also prevent water and soil erosion. Bamboo forests also provide food and Habitat for many species and wild animals in place, including a representative of endangered animals, such as the China Giant Panda and the mountain gorillas of Africa. &rdquo
International bamboo and rattan was founded in 1997, its Member States worldwide, headquartered in China, now in Ghana, Ethiopia, India and Ecuador and has regional offices. Zizhuyuan Park was built in 1953, is characterized by bamboo garden history. Zizhuyuan Park planned in 2012 in the Park grow up to 100 of bamboo varieties, forming &ldquo Dazhu into a forest, small bamboo cover &rdquo landscape, and gradually introduced &ldquo know write love bamboo, bamboo, bamboo, bamboo, enjoy eating bamboo, bamboo, bamboo, bamboo, bamboo, songzhu &rdquo ten series bamboo culture activities.
Suihua networking platforms help the wicker industry rising
In recent years, the Manchu in Wangkui County in suihua city car white rural revitalization Wicker factory make full use of small and medium enterprises network platform, dissemination of information on wealth, expand sales channels, processing this characteristic economy development of Wicker to the annual output value of more than 2 million worth of major industries.
box Manchu Township processing white Wicker prestigious, Wicker village has grown to 6 professional production, processing more than 200 companies, engaged in Wicker processing reaches more than 400 the number of people, wicker fence more than 150,000 square meters, handicraft 400,000 years processing, sales of nearly $ 1 million, taxes of $ 45,000, pulling more than 600,000 yuan to local peasants. At the same time, the Heung Yee Kuk also broaden distribution channels, making a first class service platform, supply and demand information network platform launch successful SMEs, increase sales.
in recent years, the Township of Wicker processing industry chain constantly elongated, development development has &ldquo basket &rdquo, and &ldquo go Tower &rdquo, and &ldquo presbyopia basket &rdquo, and &ldquo gift basket &rdquo, more than 20 more than varieties, gradually implementation has by single of practical type change for decoration type multifunctional, and by single of willow curtain packaging to dressed artifacts, appliances development, products export to United States, and France, and Korea , And Spain and more than more than 20 countries and regions.
10 anniversary of the veteran cadres in Changsha University training 15,000 students
On April 20, Hunan Changsha Furong district, Convention Center and crafts feast, calligraphy and rather see skill, the show is exciting, &hellip&hellip Day is 10 anniversary of the University of Furong district, veteran's day, thousands of students come together, a highlight in the Furong district, Convention Center. According to statistics, Furong district, veteran University School for 10 years, total opening 385, trained older students 15,487, old friends is their &ldquo jokes here happy base camp &rdquo. Calligraphy, poetry, paper cutting, vocal music, dance, older model &hellip&hellip old activity you can think of, in Furong district, almost all of old cadres University open course. Currently, the school has been opened 21 Professional. In April 2001, when the school was established only 5 classes, 138 trainees. By 2010, the whole school classes 74, series students reach 3,539, is the beginning of the school's more than 25 times. Now Chancellor Yu Shuxia headaches is, and many other areas of old friends, Trustees look for relationships, requires registration entry, forced by realities of inadequate classrooms, she only smiled and declined. After 10 years of hard running, &ldquo age in education, laoyousuoxue, laoyousuole belonging, &rdquo University of Furong district, old mission was a strong showing. Deng Chunxiang 2007 retired from Changsha railway station for the elderly, character within a bit of her 2008 tried to report the Furong district, veteran University crafts class, two years later, she can not only produce bead vases, silk flowers, animals and other handicrafts, also make a number of good friends, living rich and colorful in his later years. &Ampldquo this is the old headquarters of happiness! &Amprdquo body dance classes the unattached elderly lamented said with a smile.
Emperor Qianlong praised Hangzhou bamboo basket debut of Arts and Crafts Museum
Hangzhou China Arts and Crafts Museum in &ldquo 11 &rdquo debut, exhibits include when it was under the reign of Jiangnan in praise of Hangzhou bamboo baskets. A few days ago, is the conversion Arch of Chen Qi mine West of red silk weaving mill, will build Hangzhou China Arts and Crafts Museum. It is located in the southern end of West historic district is scissors swords second-phase expansion project of the Museum in China, plans unveiled national day this year.
Current of technology Art Museum exhibition programme has been designed to complete, by the Museum of international top design team &mdash&mdash Japan painting across, some domestic famous experts including Mao Zhaoxi, also takes part in the exhibition programme planning.
Exhibits also include Hangzhou in bamboo baskets. Hangzhou scissor sword Museum is responsible for the exhibition of woven wool teacher said, Hangzhou bamboo baskets, the earliest dates back to the Southern Song dynasty. Because weaving is exquisite, the old base, foreign tourists and pilgrims to the Hangzhou, is to buy a home, is with Longjing tea, osmanthus fragrans in full sleep long, Hangzhou West Lake water shield side famous product.
Legend, 200 years ago, under the reign of Jiangnan, see someone selling woven bamboo baskets, bamboo baskets, it's very small Yin Road: &ldquo 构词成分。 构词成分。 in his hand rush out rush out, silver Lau Kok &rdquo. The emperor have said, Hangzhou bamboo baskets growing fame and more and more people, by the beginning of Dragon docking gradually transferring to the West along the River, go Tong, Jiangcun.
future, Hangzhou bamboo baskets in the exhibition in the Museum of Arts and crafts, from the go Tong called hand of Heng Fa Chuen Yang's aunt. It is said that she made bamboo basket craft, is inherited from Grandpa.
Handicrafts as empty nest elderly spiritual pillars
&Ampnbsp now, &ldquo, and empty nest elderly &rdquo has become a widespread social phenomenon. Children work on weekdays, will not have the time and the old chat. Recently was informed that several of Yang Yuan, Eastern chaidam community elderly people often do with crafts, Tickle each other.
On April 20, &ldquo Yang Yuan, Eastern chaidam community Liu Xiaolan, aged up to &rdquo65 to make their own arrangements by hand schedule is: go with several older sister Enatsu to visit friends, it can be considered a spring tour in the spring. Today, she told the few sisters almost inseparable. In their own words, this is called &ldquo join pension &rdquo.
a few years ago, Liu Xiaolan suffered from stomach cancer, gastric resection for four-fifths. After the surgery, she felt that he should be happy to live well every day, with great fanfare picked up his various hobbies, hand weaving, sewing, paper-cutting, painting &hellip&hellip arranged like a small House Museum. Soon, neighbors found her work, have the door to apprentice. Less than a year, Liu Xiaolan Zhang Qiumei of Yang Lanfen, 65 and 64 years of age there are 60 years old Liu Aizhen became an older sister without a word about. Four children of the elderly are not, so we wanted to move to their own programs, to make life more colourful.
the eve of the last Dragon Boat Festival, several old rags together to buy a lot of color line, came back to get Liu Xiaolan, you pin me to sew sachets, we are happy to engage in a small talk, study and discussions with each other to do manually, a few days out of the dozens of unique sachet, to the Dragon Boat Festival day is sent to the community's children. To see the children smile, several elderly people also feel very happy. Later, the community sword teams need a group of sword of Spike, they hastened to purchase raw materials, well to the sword.
in addition to fabric, some of them also do cloth, beaded flowers, tied with silk flowers, woven Chinese knots, and so on. About in your home today, and tomorrow to her home, a stay is all day, the dinner time, invitation to personally Cook cooking entertain you, or directly go to the restaurant dinner, so you come to, several elderly cooked like a family-like, also do not feel alone. &Ampldquo usually the children back, always eat dinner went, and these older sister together but we talk about each other amused, with feeling than with the children happy. Sisters used to say, we simply " join pension "! &Amprdquo Liu Xiaolan Jolly told reporters.
Th China Strait craft fair will be held in Putian
Th China Strait crafts fair was held on April 28 in Putian City of Arts and crafts. It is reported that this event is used by the State Council Taiwan Affairs Office of Fujian Provincial people's Government jointly organised several units.
This crafts Expo to &ldquo carry forward Chinese excellent culture, promote industry cooperation development &rdquo and &ldquo creative, and brand, and green, and harmonious &rdquo for theme, exhibited Strait, and Hong Kong and Macao area and abroad crafts production enterprise of wood carving, and root carving, and ceramic, and jade, and stone, and jewelry, and lacquer, and woven, and embroidery, and painting, and bamboo carving, and paper-cut, and antique collection, 26 large class crafts. Main exhibition hall in total 666 standard booth, which Taiwan 92, for the extremes of the past.
it is reported that participation across the Taiwan Strait is crafts fair's main features. Starting from the first, operators began to consciously organization Taiwan people who come to the exhibition of the crafts sector. Concerned pointed out that Taiwan's arts and crafts from the Chinese culture, but it also has its own regional characteristics. So it processes quality and whole exhibitions complement each other, to a certain extent information is also provided to the Mainland of new technology and artistic atmosphere.
it is understood that the China Strait crafts fair is a professional exhibition of crafts enterprises gather, since 2006, has held a 5. 5th art fair will be a total of more than 20 provinces throughout the country over more than 2000 times exhibiting companies, attract tourists 1.054 million passengers.
480,000 bamboo baskets coming out first in China and abroad art gallery
April 22 is the first public art museum in China and abroad &ldquo inheritance series of intangible cultural heritage exhibition &rdquo last day of a rollout, the exhibition from April 9, lasted nearly half a month ago. It is reported that: this exhibition for the convenience of viewers across the country, official website of the first public art museum in China and abroad are still in www.ciceart.com opening exhibition online. This is also a master of Chinese bamboo craft, Dongyang inheritance people He Fuli bamboo national intangible cultural heritage, in Chinese and foreign employees in the first public art Museum organized his more than 50 years is Dongyang constructed the largest solo exhibition ever.
Day of the first public art museum in China and abroad, became a world of bamboo. More than 50 pieces of bamboo basketry or standing on the ground or hanging on the wall, or placed within the Cabinet, in a variety of point of light exposure, looks simple and solemn, handsome, elegant, lookin thick sense of history.
wander in these bamboo works between, seemed is in &ldquo through &rdquo from followed has hundreds of years of Dongyang traditional bamboo containers, to Shang century 890 generation sold Japan and Europe of bamboo spent device, then to new century before and after rise of fine bamboo technology products, until in recent years just came out of bamboo wood combination technology boutique, more than 50 pieces bamboo works on such series up has Dongyang bamboo of development course. &Ampldquo through this exhibition, we can tell you Dongyang constructed from coarse to fine, from the simply the propagation, from easy to difficult and by the practical implications to appreciation and collection development process. &Amprdquo He Fuli to view exhibition of guests describes, past a only small rice basket by nearly 1 cm wide of thin bamboo strip woven and into, but now woven also of artifacts, 1 cm wide of thin bamboo strip has profile into more than 50 more than root fine as hair of strips silk, also into has turned spring and bamboo silk mosaic technology, basket body rendering seven or eight species different of pattern, its dense degree also from past of &ldquo sieve &rdquo evolution for &ldquo leak &rdquo. &Ampldquo do so exquisite baskets you willing to fill a bowl with rice? Now it is already a collection! &rdquo
value 480,000 of the Eight Immortals bamboo silk flower basket, 560,000 worth of the double Dragon clothes closet, 560,000 of value the value of bamboo and silk white crane tripod, 860,000 of the auspicious peace/
interpretation of bamboo weaving technology of fine
&ldquo Dongyang solid bamboo bamboo is China's representative, is typical of fine bamboo. Enjoy Dongyang bamboo, we must look at its overall shape, but also to see difficult to weave it. &Amprdquo based on northerners know less about bamboo, He Fuli self explanation worked as a teacher. What fine bamboo difficult? As He Fuli explanations, all eyes focused on a &ldquo conch &rdquo last. This conch is about 80 cm long, about 40 cm high, placed on the Gall Midge wood base. I saw &ldquo conch &rdquo lie on a few small shrimps, entire bodies yellow, whiskers are thin and soft, two black eyes of fine such as sesame. Some shrimp it is said that in about five days every weave work only. But the biggest highlight is not here, but in the conch itself, &ldquo the only conch Dongyang constructed nearly 20 knitting method, whole body all over the crease, strut its degree is the highest in Dongyang bamboo. &Amprdquo the original, strut is the most difficult in the three-dimensional fine bamboo woven, which only conch most recess even stretch a finger will not go on, can only rely on artist proficient handle to grasp.
He Fuli bamboo basketry of the conch </p>
&Ampnbsp not including punch and weaving, compact test of bamboo weaving artists of the amount of levels. This exhibition on exhibited has pair &ldquo mini basket &rdquo, they high however 20 cm, basket mouth diameter however 9 cm, is into has wear, and plug, and around, and bomb, and series, five species basic woven techniques, also with Shang has rattan art and bamboo carving, woven chujiu species pattern, modeling punch run, overall color light, was put it down, couldn't help guess He Fuli is how in this &ldquo footed Zhijian &rdquo flexible deduction out this Muscovy wonderful of. In this exhibition Shang, guest were not only insight has Dongyang bamboo on practical containers, and animal ornamental modeling of profound grasp, also taste has bamboo in the difficulty highest of character modeling, which of &ldquo music old man figure &rdquo is He Fuli Yu two years Qian on began idea and Yu this official launched of works, it reference has Dongyang wood carving in the of full relief techniques, with slender of bamboo silk woven out three bit character, two bit old in plays chess, one old stop watch, &ldquo character of action, and air are vivid, clothing sleeve squash, road bone cents wind. More rare is, people head in particular to be given in traditional Dongyang constructed on the basis of innovation, is more subtle and more thick and increased realism. And Board, checkers, chess and cans are made of bamboo, even by the chess Cup with thin bamboo strip coiling, which shows He Fuli carefully craft attitude embodies the Dongyang bamboo artist position on the inheritance and innovation of traditional crafts. &Amprdquo the National Palace Museum, the Deputy Director of the Department of science and technology evaluation of bamboo-weaved into the forbidden city of Dongyang Cao Jing floor so. Did not expect little bamboo basketry, during which the great universe, no wonder so many guests say Dongyang constructed of fine people &ldquo incredible &rdquo. Care for non-leaves, master He Fuli to the first public art museum, gift of the care at home and abroad on the opening day of the exhibition, He Fuli also briefed by representatives of Beijing's first public art museum in China and abroad presented their &ldquo care for &rdquo. &Ampldquo thanks times gave me the opportunity, from Dongyang entered the Palace, this is my dream would not think of and participating in the National Palace Museum repairs, I was invited to Beijing to hold solo exhibition, all the more respect for traditional cultures, recognition for folk art, respected to Dongyang bamboo. &Amprdquo He Fuli said he hoped the exhibition can get people to understand the great beauty of Dongyang bamboo, voice of the social aspects of the collection to achieve the comprehensive revitalization of Dongyang bamboo, to Dongyang constructed of non-material heritage of the national heritage formed a greater impact.
It is understood that the exhibition works containing the essence of decades He Fuli masters, bamboo basketry has reached the collection level, prices of a basket of the Eight Immortals bamboo silk flower basket up to 480,000, and a price of the double Dragon clothes closet 560,000, a pair of bamboo basketry of the auspicious peace reached the 860,000. In addition, there is the elephant not for sale, is to allow people to put it down. &Ampshy in this exhibition, from the plane to semi-solid to solid, from animals to people to calligraphy, Dongyang guests praise constructed of a variety of ways. Complex central a small as a half human is particularly striking, its whole body is seen green, long nose and high rejection, holding the young foot, attitude and vivid. The little like He Fuli &ldquo turning bamboo into elephant's magician &rdquo witness of this praise, when Australia visit, he is the root of the whole bamboo through dozens of programs, weave Visual elephant, is stunning.
When did toys first become &ldquoMade in China&rdquo? - History
Nowe definicja choroby zawodowej
3 lipca 2009 r. weszły w życie ważne zmiany i nowe przepisy doty­czące chorób zawodowych i wypadków przy pracy. Znowelizowane przepisy Kodeksu pracy przede wszystkim wprowadziły nową definicję choroby zawodowej.
Postępowanie w sprawach chorób zawodowych - całkiem nowe regulacje
Również od 3 lipca 2009 r. mamy całkiem nowe rozporządzenie w sprawie chorób zawodowych. Zmieniony został tryb zgłaszania podejrzenia choroby zawodowej, a także ponownie określono działania jakie należy podjąć w razie wykrycia takiej choroby. Stworzono także nowy wykaz chorób zawodowych wraz z okresem, w którym wystąpienie udokumentowanych objawów choro­bowych upoważnia do rozpoznania choroby zawodowej pomimo wcześ­niejszego zakończenia pracy w nara­żeniu zawodowym.
Postępowanie powypadkowe - nowe przepisy
3 lipca 2009 r. to również ważna data dla wszystkich, którzy mają do czynienia z wypadkami przy pracy. Od tego dnia obowiązuje bowiem nowe rozporządzenie w sprawie ustalania okoliczności i przyczyn wypadków przy pracy.
Pracownik wyznaczony w zakresie zwalczania pożarów i ewakuacji już nie musi spełniać wymagań kwalifikacyjnych określonych w przepisach o ochronie przeciwpożarowej
Od 5 sierpnia 2009 r. już wiadomo, na jakich zasadach pracodawca ma wyznaczyć pracowników do wykony­wania działań w zakresie zwalczania pożarów i ewakuacji pracowników.