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French War Council HQ, Bordeaux, 1914

French War Council HQ, Bordeaux, 1914


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French War Council HQ, Bordeaux, 1914

Here we see the French War Council HQ at Bordeaux, after the Government moved from Paris in the face of the German offensive of 1914.


France (A Reich Disunited)

France (Republique Francais) is a country located in Western Europe bordered by Switzerland, Prussia, and Italy to the East, Belgium to the North and Spain and Catalonia to the South. It holds a population of 68.7 million and is a Unitary Presidential Republic with its capitol held in Paris.

Originally inhabited by the Gauls, the region was invaded and annexed by the Roman Empire in 51 A.D, after which it was referred to as Galia. After several hundred years of Roman holding, France was conquered by the Germanic Franks and instituted as part of the Kingdom of West Francia, and eventually, France in 987. Several civil and state wars followed this era (as well as a major revolution in the late 18th century), with their end ensuring the stability of France and its assertion as a regional and world power.

France became the first nation, following the United States, to institute a republican government, which led to the end of Absolute Monarchism in France and eventually the rest of Europe. French conquests spanned the globe, from The Americas to Africa and Asia, making it the second largest colonial empire after the United Kingdom by 1917.

In the modern day, France is a global power, and one of the League of Nations' Big 6, being one of the only nations on Earth with nuclear capabilities.


Contents

The French Syndicalist Movement

Karl Marx, in his important pamphlet The Civil War in France, considered the 1871 Paris Commune as the prototype for a future revolutionary insurrection, the form at last discovered for the emancipation of the proletariat. In fact, triggered by the Parisians' resentment against the defeatist French government and after months of siege by the Prussian Army, the Paris Commune was something more of a Utopian and enthusiastic socialist experiment, having short-lived and anecdotal followings in French provinces, and later smashed in a bloodbath by the Legalist French Army.

The repression that followed decapitated for years the nascent French socialism, while the SPD developed in Germany and the Trade Unions flourished in Britain. Those left in the wake of the debacle were torn apart, divided between the Marxist-inspired Parti Ouvrier Français of Jules Guesde and the French trade unions, encouraged by the successes of Fernand Peloutier's Fédération des Bourses du Travail. The French syndicalist movement was quickly overtaken by anarchist activists, after the repressive "lois scélérates" of 1894.

In 1895, the Confédération Générale du Travail (General Confederation of Labour), vowing to be independent of all political formations, was founded at Limoges, an engagement that was renewed by the 1906 Charte d'Amiens, affirming the anarcho-syndicalist tendency within the CGT, embodied by its vice-secretary Emile Pouget.

Helped by the union of Guesde's revolutionary followers and Jean Jaurès' social-democrats into the Section Française de l'Internationale Ouvrière (French Section of the Workers' International), the French left was coming into prominence, helped by its role in the Dreyfus affair, when the Weltkrieg broke out.

First an outspoken pacifist, Jaurès was shot down by a nationalist activist four days before the French entry in the war. His successor, Léon Jouhaux, agreed to participate in the Union Sacrée government, followed by most of the SFIO leadership.

Fall of the Third Republic

The Revolution was initially sparked by the CGT, who declared a General Strike in the spring of 1919, hot on the heels of the second outbreak of mutiny in the French Army. The mutineers were protesting the Conservative call for a last-ditch counter-offensive, following a string of severe French and Allied defeats during the German Offensives of 1919.

The CGT wanted to paralyse the nation, force the ruling Conservatives to step down and hand over power to the CGT's executive arm the Comité de Salut Public, or CSP - led by the zealous anarchist Emile Pouget.

They were charged with the task of leading first the General Strike, and then the establishment of a new government and Constitution which would allow for a complete reconstruction of the French nation. They also had as their immediate aim to end "the abominable war" as soon as possible. In achieving these aims, the strike was initially unsuccessful, and the CGT was unable to seize power before the fall of Paris to German general Oskar von Hutier, made possible due to the turmoil of the fighting.

The French Civil War

With the fall of Paris however, the nationwide General Strike turned violent, as frustrated Unionists became desperate to end the war before the Germans were in a position to occupy the whole country. Skirmishes with police turned into riots across much of the country, and the government was forced to resign, marking the beginning of a transitory period between the Third Republic to the Fourth.

This period was characterized by a dualistic power structure much like that of Russia between the Revolutions of 1917 - on the one hand, a Provisional Government of Liberals and Socialists, and on the other, the CGT, claimed a "legitimate right to power" via their Trade Union structure and a new system of local councils. (However, unlike in Russia - where the Revolutionary Left's gains proved ephemeral - in France, this provided the Revolutionaries with the chance for permanently taking power.)

This uncertain situation continued through the summer of 1919, until things came to a head in the early autumn, when the Provisional Government attempted to disarm and demobilize the French Army following the conclusion of a truce with the Germans. Fearing the Government was attempting to stifle the Revolution (the Army was largely supportive of the Left), the Socialist Party began a boycott of the Parliament, and declared itself an ally of the CGT, followed thereafter by a number of the more radical Liberals.

Following this decision, the Bolshevik Jacobins declared the Provisional Government an enemy of the Proletariat, encouraging Party members to begin a policy of agitation in favour of a "great purge of France, to forever destroy her class enemies". Inspired by Lenin and his revolutionaries and the outbreak of the Russian Civil War between the Reds and the Whites, gangs of working men and army units sympathetic to the Jacobin cause began to attack and loot the property of the aristocracy and upper middle classes - seizing land by force and holding the Establishment to account in revolutionary "courts".

Although they wanted to put a stop to this policy (they had hoped to negotiate with the Provisional Government), the CGT was unable to prevent the Jacobins from carrying out their attacks, or prevent an escalation of the crisis, as the Provisional Government gathered together the "forces of reaction" to respond with force and attempt a counter-revolution.

Enforcement of the Regime

Not wanting to see the revolution die, and simultaneously desiring to limit the influence of the Jacobins, the CGT was left with no choice but to declare war on "the Provisional Government and the forces of Counter-Revolution", and attempt to seize control of the entire country.

Taking full control of Paris, they formally concluded peace with Germany in the winter of 1919, accepting the annexation of the rest of Lorraine, the legitimacy of the new state of Flanders-Wallonia, and agreeing to pay a heavy burden of reparations.

Following the conclusion of the truce with the Germans, the CGT began to draft a new constitutional setup together with the Socialists, Jacobins, Anarchists and radical Liberals. Meanwhile, they had to fight the self-styled "Establishment" and "drive them into the sea", and try and prevent and limit the Jacobins' "hunt for the Bourgeoisie".

Though they proved unable to counter the Jacobins' image as integral members of the revolution, they were able to largely limit their participation in arranging the constitutional setup of the new state. Through ensuring that leading Jacobins were often engaged in the conduct of the war, the CGT were able to cultivate and protect their own image as the Revolutions' legitimate political leaders.


Daily life and social customs

In comparison with the immediate postwar era, the French now devote far more time to leisure and cultural pursuits, largely as a result of a shorter workweek, more years spent in education, and greater affluence. The increasing emphasis on home entertainment provided by television, stereo, and personal computers has not reduced cinema or theatre attendance. On the contrary, the number of moviegoers grew significantly in the 1990s, and though it varied somewhat during the first decade of the 21st century, it reached its highest level in 45 years in 2011, with more than 215 million tickets sold.

The popularity of cultural activities is also evident, with increasing visits to historic monuments, art galleries, and museums. Especially attractive are interactive exhibitions at museums, such as the Cité de Sciences et de l’Industrie (City of Science and of Industry) at Le Parc de la Villette in Paris or the Futuroscope theme park near Poitiers. Interest also has been revived in local and regional cultures, often as part of new initiatives to develop tourism, and annual national festivals, such as the Fête de la Musique, are extremely successful.

Although French cuisine has a reputation as a grand national feature, regional differences are marked. Some local dishes have achieved international fame, even if they are often poorly imitated. Among these are the seafood soup, bouillabaisse, from Marseille andouillette, a form of sausage from Lyon choucroute, pickled cabbage from Alsace and magret de canard, slices of breast of duck from Bordeaux. France is also renowned for the range and quality of its cheeses. More than 300 varieties are recognized. The majority are produced from cow’s milk, including Camembert (Normandy), Brie (Île-de-France), Comté (Franche-Comté), Saint-Nectaire (Auvergne), and Reblochon (Savoy). Cheese is also made from ewe’s milk, as in the case of Roquefort (Aveyron), as well as from goat’s milk. Perhaps the best-known exports of France are the wines from some of the world’s great vineyards in Burgundy, Bordeaux, and the Rhône valley. However, the reputation of French cuisine has not prevented the proliferation of fast-food outlets in France, especially over the past few decades. French consumption of wine and tobacco has dropped steadily since the mid-20th century, a mark of the nation’s increased attention to health.

Paris is internationally known for its haute couture, exemplified by such houses of high fashion as Coco Chanel, Christian Dior, Hubert de Givenchy, Yves Saint Laurent, Jean-Paul Gaultier, and Christian Lacroix. Traditional dress is occasionally seen in many regions, although it is largely reserved for official ceremonies and festivals. Regional differences often reflect local customs of dressmaking and embroidery, the availability of fabrics, and adaptations to local climatic conditions. Headdresses vary greatly, ranging from elaborate lace wimples found in Normandy and Brittany to the more sober beret of southwestern France or the straw hat, worn typically in and around the area of Nice.

In addition to the Roman Catholic holy days, the French celebrate Bastille Day on June 14, commemorating the rise of the French Republic via the fall of the prison fortress of the Bastille in Paris in 1789 at the start of the French Revolution. “La Marseillaise,” the French national anthem and one of the world’s most recognizable national anthems, also memorializes the Revolution.


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Ancient

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…molds, were deposited together in France.

Colonies and exploration

Central African Republic

…Belgium, Great Britain, Germany, and France competed for control of equatorial Africa. Belgium, Germany, and France each wanted the region that would eventually become the Central African Republic. The French were ultimately successful and named it the French Congo (later French Equatorial Africa), with its capital at Brazzaville. The French…

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Niger

The French conquest began in earnest only in 1899. It nearly met with disaster owing to the local population’s determined resistance against the notorious expedition in 1899 led by French Captains Paul Voulet and Charles-Paul-Louis Chanoine (also known as Julien Chanoine). It was only in 1922,…

…Niger by conflict between the French military and guerrilla resistance, the lack of political parties until 1946, and the international isolation of this large, thinly populated territory. When the Fifth Republic constitution of France was adopted in 1958, Niger chose to become an autonomous republic, but only the French Tricolor…

North America

The policy of France was much the same, even though the physical conditions of their territories prevented creation of large estates or mining operations. The first Frenchmen on the continent were mostly entrepreneurs interested in the lucrative fur trade who hired Indians to collect and carry furs from…

…inevitable that Great Britain and France should wage a struggle for mastery in North America. Two powers could not occupy the same land without a desperate battle for supremacy. In its century-long course and its far-reaching consequences, this became one of the epic contests of modern history. It was a…

…the entire Mississippi basin for France. Within a generation the Mississippi became a vital link between France’s Gulf of Mexico settlements and Canada, and La Salle’s claim was vaguely designated as “Louisiana.”

France, occupied with wars in Europe to preserve its own territorial integrity, was not able to devote as much time or effort to overseas expansion as did Spain and Portugal. Beginning in the early 16th century, however, French fishermen established an outpost in Newfoundland, and…

…American Atlantic seaboard possessions of France in the 17th and 18th centuries. Centred in what are now New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island, Acadia was probably intended to include parts of Maine (U.S.) and Quebec.

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…the Spanish returned Louisiana to France, and three years later the United States, under the leadership of Pres. Thomas Jefferson, bought Louisiana from the French emperor Napoleon I. The Louisiana Purchase, a vast acquisition of land for the country, included New Orleans and much of present-day Louisiana state, as well…

Portuguese, Spanish, French, and English explorers did probe the islands and the bays and rivers of the “maine” (mainland) throughout the 16th century by the first decade of the 17th century, summer fisheries had been established on some of the coastal islands, and fur trade had begun…

…helped pave the way for French control of Michigan. Although some of the region’s indigenous peoples and the newcomers initially engaged in skirmishes, these soon gave way to more amiable relationships. Many native individuals became fur trappers, trade middlemen, or guides, while others, particularly women, focused on providing food to…

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In 1699 a French expedition led by Pierre le Moyne d’Iberville established France’s claim to the lower Mississippi valley. French settlements were soon established at Fort Maurepas, Mobile, Biloxi, Fort Rosalie, and New Orleans.

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…of Saint-Germain-en-Laye restored it to France. There were other attempts by the British to capture this stronghold, but all failed until the famous Battle of Quebec on the Plains of Abraham (adjacent to the city) in 1759, in which the French were defeated. Shortly thereafter most of the French-held territory…

Tunisia

…periods of Ottoman and then French rule but also because populations of Jews and Christians have lived among a Muslim majority for centuries. Similarly, the capital, Tunis, blends ancient Arab souks and mosques and modern-style office buildings into one of the most handsome and lively cities in the region. Other…

…at the time of the French invasion of Algiers, Tunisia was officially a province of the Ottoman Empire but in reality was an autonomous state. Because the principal military threat had long come from neighbouring Algeria, the reigning bey of Tunisia, Ḥusayn, cautiously went along with assurances from the French…

…country was deeply imbued with French culture during the 75 years of the protectorate, which ended in 1956.

…important military base during the French protectorate (1881–1955) and, with the development of its strategic naval base, the town also played an important role in World War II. Occupied by the Germans in 1942 and retaken by the Allies in 1943, Bizerte offered control of the Straits of Sicily. France…

…of independence that ended when France launched a war of conquest in 1830.

Relations with France have frequently been contentious. Disputes developed soon after independence over the Algerian expropriation of abandoned French property (1963) and its nationalization of French petroleum interests (1971). There were also problems with the Algerian migrants living and working in France, who consistently remained at the…

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…time the provisional capital of France. In the 1950s, when the Algerian uprising against France began, the capital city was a focal point in the struggle. After 1962, when Algeria became independent, many far-reaching changes were made to the city as the new government set out to create a modern…

France sponsored an expedition, similar in intent to Flinders’s, at the same time. Under Nicolas Baudin, it gave French names to many features (including “Terre Napoléon” for the southern coast) and gathered much information but did little new exploration. It was on the northern coast,…

…on external support, primarily from France and international organizations. This support has rendered a little less painful the formidable economic stagnation and low standard of living of the overwhelming majority of the population.

…the 18th century the English, French, and Portuguese all possessed fortified posts in Ouidah. The French first established a factory in Allada in 1670 but moved from there to Ouidah in 1671. Although this factory was abandoned in the 1690s, the French built a fort (known as Fort Saint Louis)…

…State, to which Great Britain, France, and Germany had already agreed in principle.

…royal Portuguese authority before the French made a determined effort to establish a permanent colony there. In 1555 French troops took possession of the beautiful harbour of Rio de Janeiro, which, inexplicably, the Portuguese had neglected to occupy. A large Portuguese force under Mem de Sá, the governor-general, blockaded the…

France obtained a protectorate over the Yatenga empire in 1895, and the French officers Paul Voulet and Charles Paul Louis Chanoine (also known as Julien Chanoine) defeated the morho naba Boukari-Koutou (Wobogo) of Mossi in 1896 and then proceeded to overrun the Gurunsi lands. The…

At this point the French, who had been ceded much of Cochinchina (southern Vietnam), sought to assert Vietnamese claims to Cambodian tribute, seeing the adjacent Cambodian provinces as future colonial possessions. The French forced Norodom to accept French protection early in 1863, but, before the agreement was ratified in…

French control over Cambodia was an offshoot of French involvement in the neighbouring provinces of Vietnam. France’s decision to advance into Cambodia came only when it feared that British and Siamese expansion might threaten its access to the largely unmapped Mekong…

…in two small portions and French rule in the remainder of the territory. These League of Nations mandates (later United Nations [UN] trusts) were referred to as French Cameroun and British Cameroons.

” A French fleet, however, reached the Cape first and established a garrison there to help the Dutch defend it. The French presence brought prosperity and gaiety to Cape Town and initiated a surge of building.

…Dutch were replaced by the French as the leading slave merchants on the north coast of the Congo region as the scale of the trade grew rapidly. Congo captives became the dominant population in Saint-Domingue, later called Haiti, which rose to be the richest of all the world’s colonies and…

…early 1900s it came under French control when the resistance of the Sanūsī brotherhood was somewhat subdued. The French considered the region ungovernable, and, following Chad’s independence in 1960, BET remained under French military administration. The French finally withdrew from the area in January 1965, and the region was incorporated…

By this time the partition of Africa among the European powers was entering its final phase. Rābiḥ was overthrown in 1900, and the traditional Kanembu dynasty was reestablished under French protection. Chad became part of the federation of French Equatorial Africa in 1910.…

In 1843 France officially took possession of Mayotte, and in 1886 it placed the other three islands under its protection. Administratively attached to Madagascar in 1912, Comoros became an overseas territory of France in 1947 and was given representation in the French National Assembly. In 1961, a…

…the river in 1877, but France acquired jurisdiction in 1880 when Pierre de Brazza signed a treaty with the Tio ruler. The formal proclamation of the colony of French Congo came in 1891. Early French efforts to exploit their possession led to ruthless treatment of the local people and the…

…in the 1830s that allowed France to build forts and trading posts. France withdrew in 1870, but private merchants remained. Arthur Verdier sent explorers north and imported the first coffee plants. By the 1890s, inland penetration by traders such as Marcel Triech-Laplène and military missions such as those of Capt.…

Syria was forcibly placed under French mandate, and Damascus fell to the army of Gen. Henri Gouraud on July 25, 1920, following the battle of Maysalūn. Damascus resisted the French takeover, and despite the French bombardment of the city in 1925, the resistance continued until early 1927. A new urban…

French decolonization proved more troublesome. France had given the name “Indo-China” to a million square miles in Southeast Asia, an area nearly 10 times the size of the mother country, which it had colonized in the 19th century—a union of settlements and dependencies in Tonkin,…

…States had urged Britain and France to dismantle their empires in the aftermath of World War II, but, once those countries became Washington’s most potent allies in the Cold War, the United States offered grudging support for Anglo-French resistance to nationalist and Communist forces in their colonies. President Truman’s Point…

The first colonists (1632) were French, but, with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748), Great Britain and France agreed to treat the island as neutral ground and leave it to the Caribs. From that time until 1805, Dominica went back and…

…when Napoleon I led a French army in a short occupation of the country.

It was not until the French occupation of Egypt (1798–1801) that the first survey was made across the isthmus. Napoleon personally investigated the remains of the ancient canal. J.M. Le Père, his chief lines-of-communication engineer, erroneously calculated that the level of the Red Sea was 10 metres (33 feet) above…

Although several projects for a French occupation of Egypt had been advanced in the 17th and 18th centuries, the purpose of the expedition that sailed under Napoleon I from Toulon

The French navigator Louis-Antoine de Bougainville founded the islands’ first settlement, on East Falkland, in 1764, and he named the islands the Malovines. The British, in 1765, were the first to settle West Falkland, but they were driven off in 1770 by the Spanish, who had…

…were less successful with the French, who wanted them to withdraw from Egypt. Once it became apparent that the British were determined to remain, the French cast about for means to force the British from the Nile valley. In 1893 an elaborate plan was concocted by which a French expedition…

…were less successful with the French, who wanted them to withdraw from Egypt.

French merchants from Rouen opened a trading centre in the coastal village of Sinnamary in 1624, followed by others from Rouen or Paris who founded Cayenne in 1643. The Treaty of Breda awarded the territory to France in 1667, and the Dutch, who had occupied…

…to dry their catch after France gave up all other claims to the island in 1713 previously, Newfoundland had been claimed by France although occupied by England. As defined by the Treaty of Paris (1783), the French Shore extended westward around the island from Cape St. John in the north…

By 1800 the British were becoming the leading traders in manufactures throughout the Gulf of Guinea. After 1815 the French sought to compete more actively in the commercial sphere and to join Britain in combating the slave trade. To these ends, Capt. Édouard…

…made it easy for the French and British to dominate the territory.

…Djallon placed his country under French protection in 1881. The independent Malinke state, ruled by Samory Touré, resisted the French military until 1898, and isolated small groups of Africans continued to resist the French until the end of World War I (1914–18).

The French settled first in a trading post at Sinnamary in 1624 and later established Cayenne (1643).

During a brief French occupation, Longchamps, later called Georgetown, was established at the mouth of the Demerara River the Dutch renamed it Stabroek and continued to develop it. The British took over in 1796 and remained in possession, except for short intervals, until 1814, when they purchased Demerara,…

The Treaty of Rijswijk (1697) formally ceded the western third of Hispaniola from Spain to France, which renamed it Saint-Domingue. The colony’s population and economic output grew rapidly during the 18th century, and it became

Under French rule, Hanoi again became an important administrative centre. In 1902 it was made the capital of French Indochina. This was largely because of Tonkin’s proximity to southern China, where the French sought to expand their influence, and because of Tonkin’s mineral resources. Hanoi remained…

…by the opening of a French coaling station at Obock on the Afar coast. Britain sought to close off the Nile valley to the French by facilitating Rome’s aspirations in the Horn. Thus, after 1885, Italy occupied coastal positions in Ethiopia and in southern Somalia. This limited the French to…

The British and the French participated in the wars of succession that followed his death in 1748.

The French had shown an interest in the East from the early years of the 16th century, but individual efforts had been checked by the Portuguese. The first viable French company, the French East India Company, was launched by the minister of finance…

…was occupied with the revived French danger, which was once again serious with the Treaty of Tilsit (1807) and Napoleon I’s resulting alliance with Russia. To guard against a French-sponsored Russian attack, British missions were sent to Afghanistan, to Persia, and to Ranjit Singh, the Sikh ruler of the Punjab.…

France entered into negotiations with Bangkok (1886) to define the Siamese-Vietnamese frontier and won the right to install a vice-consul in Luang Prabang. The office was entrusted to Auguste Pavie, who, partly because of his popularity with the Laotians, succeeded in winning Luang Prabang over…

…of the 17th century, the French and English, aided by buccaneers of their respective nationalities, were able to take over the small islands, Jamaica, and the western end of Hispaniola to grow tropical crops, above all sugar, for themselves. The societies that grew up there were not exactly Latin American…

…also invaded in 1642 the French established Fort-Dauphin in the southeast and maintained it until 1674. One of their governors, Étienne de Flacourt, wrote the first substantial description of the island. In the late 17th and early 18th centuries, Madagascar was frequented by European pirates (among them Captain William Kidd)…

The French, who established a fort at Médine in western Mali in 1855, viewed the Ségou Tukulor empire as the principal obstacle to their acquisition of the Niger River valley. Fearful of British designs on the same region, they engaged in a series of diplomatic overtures…

After the death of du Parquet, his widow governed the island in the name of her children, but her policies were often opposed by the settlers. In 1658 the French king, Louis XIV, resumed sovereignty over the island and paid an indemnity to…

The French competed for access to this trade, first with the Dutch and, in the 18th century, with the English, and it was to the French that much of the Saharan coast was ceded in European treaties early in the 19th century. French claims to sovereignty…

In 1767 the French crown took over the island’s administration from the French East India Company. The French authorities brought African slaves to the island and established sugar planting as the main industry, and the colony prospered.

…settlers were repeatedly attacked by French forces and Carib Indians. The French took possession of the island in 1664 and again in 1667, but it was restored to England by the Treaty of Breda. French forces sacked the island in 1712 and captured it for the last time in 1782,…

During the French invasion of Algeria in 1830, the sultan of Morocco, Mawlāy ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (1822–59), briefly sent troops to occupy Tlemcen but withdrew them after French protests. The Algerian leader Abdelkader in 1844 took refuge from the French in Morocco. A Moroccan army was sent to…

When French colonizers first interacted with the Natchez in the early 18th century, the tribal population comprised about 6,000 individuals living in nine villages between the Yazoo and Pearl rivers near the site of the present-day city of Natchez, Miss.

…member of another traditional rivalry—the French or the English. Initially the Huron-French alliance held the upper hand, in no small part because the French trading system was in place several years before those of the Dutch and English. The indigenous coalitions became more evenly matched after 1620, however, as the…

France was almost constantly at war during the 15th and 16th centuries, a situation that spurred an overseas agenda focused on income generation, although territorial expansion and religious conversion were important secondary goals. France expressed an interest in the Americas as early as 1524,…

The French capture of Algiers in 1830, followed by the Ottoman reoccupation of Tripoli in 1835, rudely interrupted the attempts of North Africa’s rulers to follow the example of Muḥammad ʿAlī, the pasha of Egypt, and increase their power along European lines. Of the four powers…

…Portuguese Dutch and English and French. The Spanish and Portuguese period began with the voyages in the early 1520s of Ferdinand Magellan and, after his death, his crew members. Later discoveries included the Solomon Islands, the Marquesas, and possibly New Guinea, all by the Spaniard Álvaro de Mendaña de Neira…

The French government was the first to intervene, after two Roman Catholic missionaries were expelled from Tahiti in 1836. In the same year, two more were deported from Hawaii. In 1839 the archbishop of Chalcedon suggested regular association between the Roman Catholic missions and the French…

It was claimed for France in 1603 by Samuel de Champlain, the first governor of French Canada (who called it Île Saint-Jean), but it was not colonized until 1720, when 300 settlers from France established Port la Joie at the entrance to the harbour of Charlottetown. In addition, fishers…

…prelude to annexation, particularly by France. This use was also developed during the 19th century as a means of colonial expansion or as a means of maintaining the balance of power. Thus, by the Treaty of Paris (1815) the Ionian Islands became a protectorate of Great Britain in order to…

… and Gorée were returned to France in 1816. When attempts to grow cotton near Saint-Louis proved unprofitable, trade for gum in the Sénégal valley was substituted. In 1848 the marginal colonial economy was further disrupted when the Second Republic outlawed slavery on French soil.

…a route of advance for French colonial influence. French ships entered the estuary at least as early as 1558. From a French fort established in 1638, reconnaissance parties went 160 miles upriver to Podor. In 1659 a larger fort was erected on N’Dar Island in the estuary and named Saint-Louis-du-Sénégal…

…and was formally annexed to France in 1756. The archipelago was named Séchelles, later changed by the British to Seychelles. War between France and Britain led to the surrender of the archipelago to the British in 1810, and it was formally ceded to Great Britain by the Treaty of Paris…

…Illyrian Provinces of Napoleon I’s French Empire, along with Dalmatia, Trieste, and parts of Croatia. French occupation had a profound impact on the politics and culture of the area. The French encouraged local initiative and favoured the use of Slovene as an official language. Many of the changes did not…

…in the late 19th century, France already possessed (from 1862) a coaling station at Obock near the mouth of the Red Sea, other areas of the north coast were occupied by Egypt, and southern Somaliland recognized the overlordship of the sultan of Zanzibar. By the end of the 1880s, France…

…Council, governmental body established by France in April 1663 for administering New France, its colony centred in what is now the St. Lawrence Valley of Canada.

Timbuktu was captured by the French in 1894. They partly restored the city from the desolate condition in which they found it, but no connecting railway or hard-surfaced road was built. In 1960 it became part of the newly independent Republic of Mali.

…World War I, British and French colonial troops from the Gold Coast and Dahomey invaded Togoland and on August 26 secured the unconditional surrender of the Germans. Thereafter the western part of the colony was administered by Britain, the eastern part by France. By an Anglo-French agreement of July 10,…

…after World War II, the French had an obligation to move Togo toward self-government. A local flag was adopted in 1956, shortly before the country was made an autonomous republic within the French Union. The flag’s green background stood for agriculture, hope, and youth the French Tricolor in the upper…

The French exploited the situation by constructing forts within Tukulor territory and signing treaties of friendship with Tukulor’s neighbours. After 1890, French troops swept the empire, conquering Segu, Macina, and Timbuktu in turn. Aḥmadu succumbed to the French in 1893, and his former empire was soon…

Relations with France began in the 18th century, when French traders and missionaries settled in the area. In 1859 the town was captured by the French, and in 1862 it was ceded to France by the Vietnamese emperor Tu Duc. As the capital of Cochinchina, Saigon was…

France resorted to arms after 1843 and, by the treaty of 1862 signed at Saigon (present-day Ho Chi Minh City), received three eastern provinces of Cochinchina, besides other privileges concerning trade and religion. In time, French attentions were focused on the Tonkin delta region into…

For decades the French had tried without success to retain some influence in the area. Only at the end of the 18th century was a missionary named Pigneau de Béhaine able to restore a French presence by assisting Nguyen Anh in wresting control of Dai Viet from the…

…Geneva Accords) were signed by French and Viet Minh representatives and provided for a cease-fire and temporary division of the country into two military zones at latitude 17 °N (popularly called the 17th parallel). All Viet Minh forces were to withdraw north of that line, and all French and Associated…

France occupied the rest of Saint Kitts, took control of Guadeloupe and Martinique in 1635, and in 1697 formally annexed Saint-Domingue (Haiti), the western third of Hispaniola, which for about half a century had been occupied by buccaneers and French settlers. Curaçao, Aruba, and

French and British competition soon became of major importance. Both countries were resentful of the growing economic power of the Netherlands that was based on foreign trade, and both possessed colonies in the Americas. Their governments decided that their colonists should not be dependent on…

Conflicts

World War II

France’s 800,000-man standing army was thought at the time to be the most powerful in Europe. But the French had not progressed beyond the defensive mentality inherited from World War I, and they relied primarily on their Maginot Line for protection against a German…

The British and French parliaments, confident that their governments had turned every stone in search of peace, declared war on Germany on September 3.

…to de Gaulle and General Jacques-Philippe Leclerc.

Great Britain and France declared war on Germany on September 3, at 11:00 am and at 5:00 pm , respectively. World War II had begun.

…was abolished and a new French state created, under the supreme authority of Pétain himself. The few French colonies that rallied to General de Gaulle’s Free French movement were strategically unimportant.

…of the Low Countries and France. In just over six weeks, German armed forces overran Belgium and the Netherlands, drove the British Expeditionary Force from the Continent, captured Paris, and forced the surrender of the French government.

…other Allied troops from the French seaport of Dunkirk (Dunkerque) to England. Naval vessels and hundreds of civilian boats were used in the evacuation, which began on May 26. When it ended on June 4, about 198,000 British and 140,000 French and Belgian troops had been saved.

…by discreetly eliciting support from French officers whom he felt were likely to sympathize with the project. He relied particularly on Gen. Charles Mast, commander of the troops in the Algiers sector, and on Gen. Antoine Émile Béthouart, commander of the Casablanca sector. Mast (whose involvement had been secured as…

…alliance that had pledged Britain, France, and Italy to jointly oppose German rearmament and expansion. In fact, just the opposite happened: fascist Italy turned its back to the democratic West and took to the road of alliance with Nazi Germany. On October 25, 1936, the Rome-Berlin Axis was proclaimed, but…

…candidate for leadership of the French in North Africa. Giraud had been captured by the Germans in May 1940, but the 63-year-old officer had staged a daring escape from imprisonment at Königstein Fortress in April 1942. Giraud then made his way to southern France, and just days before the Allied…

…in France, but it left French commanders in North Africa confused. Hitler resolved that uncertainty the following day, when he set aside the Franco-German Armistice of 1940 and ordered his forces into the hitherto unoccupied part of France. Southern France was speedily overrun by German mechanized units, with six Italian…

…it was announced that the French leaders had agreed to choose Giraud to succeed Darlan as high commissioner.

…resistance movement in northern (occupied) France, although both there and in southern France (ruled by the puppet Vichy regime) other resistance groups were formed by former army officers, socialists, labour leaders, intellectuals, and others. In 1943 the clandestine National Council of the Resistance (Conseil National de la Résistance) was established…

By early June 1940 Denmark, Norway, Belgium, and the Netherlands had fallen, the British had been driven into the sea, and the Germans had taken more than one million Allied prisoners in the space…

…for the Austrian succession itself, France unsuccessfully supported the dubious claims of Bavaria, Saxony, and Spain to parts of the Habsburg domain and supported the claim of Charles Albert, elector of Bavaria, to the imperial crown, all with the overall aim of crippling or destroying Austria, France’s long-standing continental enemy.

…the Hundred Years’ War between France and England.

…of what was left of French power in Germany and Poland. The battle was fought at Leipzig, in Saxony, between approximately 185,000 French and other troops under Napoleon, and approximately 320,000 allied troops, including Austrian, Prussian, Russian, and Swedish forces, commanded respectively by Prince Karl Philipp Schwarzenberg, General Gebhard Leberecht…

…the Hundred Years’ War between France and England. Many of the French nobility were killed, and King Jean was left a prisoner of the English.

…Napoleon III to establish a French satellite state in Mexico. The battle, which ended in a Mexican victory, is celebrated in the national calendar of Mexican holidays as Cinco de Mayo (5th of May).

After France declared war on Spain and the Hapsburg Empire in 1635, a new theater opened in the Thirty Years’ War around Flanders. At Rocroi, the young Duke of Enghien, later Prince of Condé, won his first victory, defeating the Spanish tercios formations that had long…

…1870), decisive defeat of the French army in the Franco-German War, causing the surrender of Napoleon III and the fall of the Bonaparte dynasty and the Second French Empire it was fought at the French border fortress of Sedan on the Meuse River, between 120,000 French troops under Marshal Mac-Mahon

…of 1648–59, a victory of French and British forces led by Henri de La Tour d’Auvergne, vicomte de Turenne, over Spanish forces near Dunkirk (then just north of the French frontier in the Spanish Netherlands). The victory led to the surrender of Dunkirk by

…at Naples to support the French campaign in southern Italy. On October 19–20 his fleet slipped out of Cádiz, hoping to get into the Mediterranean Sea without giving battle. Nelson caught him off Cape Trafalgar on October 21.

French losses were insignificant.

…I engagement in which the French repulsed a major German offensive. It was one of the longest, bloodiest, and most-ferocious battles of the war French casualties amounted to about 400,000, German ones to about 350,000. Some 300,000 were killed.

…Austria’s 1809 war against the French control of Germany. The battle was fought on the Marchfeld (a plain northeast of Vienna) between 154,000 French and other troops under Napoleon and 158,000 Austrians under Archduke Charles. After a defeat at Aspern-Essling in May, Napoleon needed a victory to prevent a new…

…century between the British, the French, the Marathas, and Mysore for control of the coastal strip of eastern India from Nellore (north of Madras [now Chennai]) southward (the Tamil country). The name Carnatic properly refers to the region occupied by the Kannada-speaking people, which roughly corresponds to the modern Indian…

…long-standing dispute between England and France until 1953, when the International Court of Justice confirmed British sovereignty. In the late 20th century the dispute revived, as sovereignty of these islands determines allocation of rights to economic development (specifically, petroleum) of the continental shelf.

…the Russians and the British, French, and Ottoman Turkish, with support from January 1855 by the army of Sardinia-Piedmont. The war arose from the conflict of great powers in the Middle East and was more directly caused by Russian demands to exercise protection over the Orthodox subjects of the Ottoman…

…in which 50,000 British and French troops (joined by 10,000 Piedmontese troops during 1855), commanded by Lord Raglan and Gen. François Canrobert, besieged and finally captured the main naval base of the Russian Black Sea fleet. Sevastopol’s defenses had been built by the military engineer Colonel Eduard Totleben, and the…

…movement also developed, especially in France, under the leadership of certain bishops but with considerable popular support. Religious leaders proclaimed the Peace of God and the Truce of God, designed to halt or at least limit warfare and assaults during certain days of the week and times of the year…

…of Devolution, (1667–68), conflict between France and Spain over possession of the Spanish Netherlands (present-day Belgium and Luxembourg).

…conquest by Louis XIV of France, whose chief aim in the conflict was to establish French possession of the Spanish Netherlands after having forced the Dutch Republic’s acquiescence. The Third Anglo-Dutch War (1672–74) formed part of this general war.

…struggle between the Indians, the French, the British, and the Americans. At the fortifications in Crown Point, the British dislodged the French (August 4, 1759), who in turn were ousted by the Green Mountain Boys (May 11, 1775). Similarly, Fort Ticonderoga was held by the French (1755–59) and the British…

…Africa between Great Britain and France.

…as to purposely offend the French government precipitated the Franco-German War.

…faster by seeking conflict with France. If he could not bring the south into a united German nation by reason, he would rely on the passions aroused by war. Ever the master tactician, he worked behind the scenes to be certain that neither Russia nor Austria would intervene in such…

by Prussia defeated France. The war marked the end of French hegemony in continental Europe and resulted in the creation of a unified Germany.

…the military collapse of Metropolitan France in the summer of 1940. Led by General Charles de Gaulle, the Free French were eventually able to unify most French resistance forces in their struggle against Germany.

Although Britain and France had technically been at peace since 1748, both powers continued to harass each other in their colonial settlements in North America, the West Indies, and India. When the French attacked the British colony of Minorca in May 1756, war broke out Britain allied itself…

…given to the hostilities between France and one or more European powers between 1792 and 1799. It thus comprises the first seven years of the period of warfare that was continued through the Napoleonic Wars until Napoleon’s abdication in 1814, with a year of interruption under the peace of Amiens…

Revolution exploded in France in the summer of 1789, after many decades of ideological ferment, political decline, and social unrest. Ideologically, thinkers of the Enlightenment urged that governments should promote the greatest good of all people, not the narrow interests of a particular elite. They were hostile to…

…of Milan), the Austrian Habsburgs, France, and Venice all sought paramount influence. Opposing the Spaniards, he narrowly escaped the bloodbath of July 19–23, 1620, in which over 300 Protestants perished. He left the priesthood, murdered (Feb. 25, 1621) the head of the Spanish party, Pompeius Planta, and had to flee…

between England and France in the 14th–15th century over a series of disputes, including the question of the legitimate succession to the French crown. The struggle involved several generations of English and French claimants to the crown and actually occupied a period of more than 100 years. By…

The French at first promised to recognize the new government as a free state but failed to do so. On November 23, 1946, at least 6,000 Vietnamese civilians were killed in a French naval bombardment of the port city of Haiphong, and the first Indochina War…

…guerrillas in Malaya, but the French waged a protracted and ultimately unsuccessful war with the Communist Viet Minh in Indochina, while the Dutch failed to subdue nationalists in Indonesia and granted independence in 1949. The United States transferred power peacefully in the Philippines in 1946.

…war raged in Korea, the French were battling the nationalist and Communist Viet Minh in Indochina. When a French army became surrounded at Dien Bien Phu in 1954, Paris appealed to the United States for air support. American leaders viewed the insurgency as part of the worldwide Communist campaign and…

Because the rulers of both France and Spain had dynastic claims in Italy, it was predictable that after the Hundred Years’ War in France in 1453 and the conquest of Granada by Spain in 1492 both powers would make Italy the battlefield of their conflicting ambitions. In the event, it…

Fought largely by France and Spain but involving much of Europe, they resulted in the Spanish Habsburgs dominating Italy and shifted power from Italy to northwestern Europe. The wars began with the invasion of Italy by the French king Charles VIII in 1494. He took Naples, but an…

…the newly unified monarchies of France and Spain, such foreign intervention echoed the policies of their medieval Angevin and Aragonese forebears.

…the League of Augsburg against France under Louis XIV. Canadian and New England colonists divided in support of their mother countries and, together with their respective Indian allies, assumed primary responsibility for their own defense. The British, led by Sir William Phips, captured Port Royal, Acadia (later Nova Scotia), but…

…career came in 1911, when France occupied the Moroccan cities of Rabat and Fès. While Kiderlen was not opposed in principle to French supremacy in Morocco, he demanded compensation for Germany. He encouraged German agitation for intervention in western Morocco and, to lend force to his arguments, dispatched the German…

…two international crises centring on France’s attempts to control Morocco and on Germany’s concurrent attempts to stem French power.

…minor conflict between Mexico and France, arising from the claim of a French pastry cook living in Tacubaya, near Mexico City, that some Mexican army officers had damaged his restaurant. A number of foreign powers had pressed the Mexican government without success to pay for losses that some of their…

The French army that conquered Portugal, however, also occupied parts of northern Spain and Napoleon, whose intentions were now becoming clear, claimed all of Portugal and certain provinces of northern Spain. Unable to organize government resistance, the Spanish minister Godoy persuaded his king, Charles IV, to…

France, then at war with England, interpreted the treaty as a violation of its own commercial treaty of 1778 with the U.S. This resentment led to French maritime attacks on the U.S. and between 1798 and 1800 to an undeclared naval war. Finally, the commissions…

The movement started in France, prompted by Charles X’s publication on July 26 of four ordinances dissolving the Chamber of Deputies, suspending freedom of the press, modifying the electoral laws so that three-fourths of the electorate lost their votes, and calling for new elections to the Chamber in September.…

The revolution was successful in France alone the Second Republic and universal manhood suffrage were established, but the quarrel between the supporters of the république démocratique and the partisans of république démocratique et sociale culminated in a workers’ insurrection in June 1848.

…the early 1840s, Louis-Philippe of France rejected further change and thereby spurred new liberal agitation. Artisan concerns also had quickened, against their loss of status and shifts in work conditions following from rapid economic change a major recession in 1846–47 added to popular unrest. Some socialist ideas spread among artisan…

…War (1921–26) against Spanish and French rule in North Africa and founder of the short-lived Republic of the Rif (1923–26). A skilled tactician and a capable organizer, he led a liberation movement that made him the hero of the Maghrib (northwest Africa).

…across the frontier into the French protectorate to safeguard his supply lines and important sources of foodstuffs. In that instance, his Riffian fighters were as successful against the French as they had been against the Spanish, overrunning dozens of frontline positions, exacting some 6,200 French casualties, and endangering the important…

…secure help from Britain and France, the exhausted Finns made peace (the Treaty of Moscow) on Soviet terms on March 12, 1940, agreeing to the cession of western Karelia and to the construction of a Soviet naval base on the Hanko Peninsula.

Generally, France, Austria, Saxony, Sweden, and Russia were aligned on one side against Prussia, Hanover, and Great Britain on the other. The war arose out of the

…the Hundred Years’ War between France and England.

In August 1936, France joined Britain, the Soviet Union, Germany, and Italy in signing a nonintervention agreement that would be ignored by the Germans, Italians, and Soviets. About 40,000 foreigners fought on the Republican side in the International Brigades largely under the command of the Comintern, and 20,000…

…Anne, married Louis XIII of France, and the younger, Maria Anna, married the future Habsburg emperor Ferdinand III. Two sons of these marriages, Louis XIV and the emperor Leopold I, respectively, married their Spanish cousins Marie-Thérèse and Margarita Teresa, the daughters of Philip IV and

…1949, between Israel, Great Britain, France, and Egypt in 1956, and between Israel, Jordan, and Egypt in 1970. None of these states was at the time declared an aggressor. On the other hand, Japan was found to be an aggressor in Manchuria in 1933, Paraguay in the Chaco area in…

Britain and France feared that Nasser might close the canal and cut off shipments of petroleum flowing from the Persian Gulf to western Europe. When diplomatic efforts to settle the crisis failed, Britain and France secretly prepared military action to regain control of the canal and, if…

…to Nasser, as were the French, who were battling Islāmic nationalists in Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia.

…Tangier was bombarded by a French fleet as part of French campaigns against the Algerian emir Abdelkader. The Spanish then invaded Morocco in 1860, thus challenging a British policy aimed at preventing any Continental power from securing control of the southern shore of the Strait of Gibraltar. This situation led…

…struggle involved the rivalry of France with the Habsburgs of the empire and with the Habsburgs of Spain, who had been attempting to construct a cordon of anti-French alliances.

The only one available was France. Louis XIII and Richelieu, fresh from their triumph in Italy, had been subsidizing Sweden’s war effort for some time. In 1635, in the wake of Nördlingen, they signed an offensive and defensive alliance with the Dutch Republic (February 8), with Sweden (April 28), and…

…Vietnam, which had defeated the French colonial administration of Vietnam in 1954, to unify the entire country under a single communist regime modeled after those of the Soviet Union and China. The South Vietnamese government, on the other hand, fought to preserve a Vietnam more closely aligned with the West.…

Germany, France, and the Netherlands each achieved a settlement of the religious problem by means of war, and in each case the solution contained original aspects. In Germany the territorial formula of cuius regio, eius religio applied—that is, in each petty state the population had to…

…of Religion, (1562–98) conflicts in France between Protestants and Roman Catholics. The spread of French Calvinism persuaded the French ruler Catherine de Médicis to show more tolerance for the Huguenots, which angered the powerful Roman Catholic Guise family. Its partisans massacred a Huguenot

The French and Russian fleets, not to mention the Japanese, outnumbered the Royal Navy’s Asian squadron. The French, Italian, and potential Russian presence in the Mediterranean threatened the British lifeline to India. Soon the Panama Canal would enable the United States to deploy a two-ocean navy.…

Much of northern France, Belgium, and Poland lay in ruin, while millions of tons of Allied shipping rested at the bottom of the sea. The foundation stone of prewar financial life, the gold standard, was shattered, and prewar trade patterns were hopelessly disrupted.

…and an 18-hour ultimatum requiring France to promise neutrality in the event of war between Russia and Germany.

Foch, however, now had a Franco-U.S. force of 28 divisions and 600 tanks in the south ready to strike through Metz into northeastern Lorraine. Since Foch’s general offensive had absorbed the Germans’ reserves, this new offensive would fall on their bared left flank and held the promise of outflanking their…

…left large swaths of northern France, Belgium, and Poland in ruin. The war had cost millions of dead and wounded and more than $236,000,000,000 in direct costs and property losses. Ethnic hatreds and rivalries could not be expunged at a stroke, and their persistence hindered the effort to draw or…

Now Britain and France were promising to fight Hitler over Poland, thereby handing Stalin the choice of joining the Western powers in war or dealing separately with Germany to avoid conflict entirely. Fearing that war might unleash rebellion at home, Stalin chose to become the greatest appeaser of…

International relations

Netherlands

…negotiated an alliance with the French, who feared that the restoration of the prince of Orange would create a hostile Anglo-Dutch coalition. Furthermore, success in the fighting at sea increasingly went to the newly rebuilt Dutch navy. In 1667 the Dutch fleet sailed up the Thames and the Medway to…

…without bloodshed during November as French troops withdrew to their homeland. On November 30, the hereditary stadtholder, at the invitation of van Hogendorp’s provisional authority, returned from England to proclaim his reign as hereditary prince. In 1814 he granted a charter establishing a constitutional monarchy, with restricted powers for a…

…their revolution in 1789 the French recognized red, white, and blue as the “colours of liberty” and honoured the Netherlands for first having used these in a flag (see France, flag of). Pro-French “Patriots” in the Netherlands took the first step regarding an official Dutch national flag when their Batavian…

Syria

The European powers (except France) also objected to Egyptian rule in Syria because it was a threat to the Ottoman Empire, the weakness or disintegration of which might cause a European crisis. In 1839 war broke out between Muḥammad ʿAlī and his suzerain, the sultan. Ibrāhīm defeated the Ottoman…

… nationalist parties that opposed the French mandate and demanded independence, dominating Syrian politics throughout the years of its existence, 1925–49.

United States

…reality only Great Britain and France, both on the Allied side) to purchase munitions on a cash-and-carry basis. With the fall of France to Germany in June 1940, Roosevelt, with heavy public support, threw the resources of the United States behind the British. He ordered the War and Navy departments…

of the United States and France. Standing 305 feet (93 metres) high including its pedestal, it represents a woman holding a torch in her raised right hand and a tablet bearing the adoption date of the Declaration of Independence (July 4, 1776) in her left. The torch, which measures 29…

…at Algeciras, Spain, to discuss France’s relationship to the government of Morocco. The conference climaxed the First Moroccan Crisis (see Moroccan crises).

…the first open friction with France, which sent warships to blockade Buenos Aires in 1838. This caused dissension in the coastal region, which depended heavily on export trade. Argentine political exiles in Montevideo, Uruguay, received French backing in their efforts to overthrow Rosas, and in the north a league of…

…policies of Louis XIV of France. They also stayed outside the Triple Alliance of Holland, England, and Sweden that was concluded in order to ward off the attacks of Louis against the Spanish Netherlands. When Louis actually invaded Holland, the emperor finally entered the war, but, in the ensuing Treaties…

…formation of an alliance of France, Bavaria, and Spain, joined later by Saxony and eventually by Prussia itself, to dismember the Habsburg monarchy. Faced by this serious threat, Maria Theresa called together her father’s experienced advisers and asked them what she should do. Most argued that resistance was hopeless and…

…support from Napoleon III of France, Sardinia provoked a woefully unprepared Austria into war and then invited France to come to the Italian kingdom’s assistance. The Austrians suffered two major defeats at Magenta and Solferino and concluded peace. The monarchy gave up Lombardy and kept Venetia, but, more important, it…

, British, French, and Soviet). In September 1945 a conference of representatives of all states extended the authority of the Renner government to all parts of Austria.

…of the Rhine to Revolutionary France in the 1790s, however, and was constrained into an alliance with France in 1796. Baden thus became a satellite of France but was well compensated by its new ally for the possessions it had lost. Between 1803 and 1806, the French compensated Baden by…

…Serbs and Bulgarians, while Britain, France, and Russia intervened for the Greeks. The Romanians benefited from the wars of Italian and German unification, and Albanian independence would have been impossible had the Balkan states not smashed Ottoman power in Europe in the First Balkan War (1912–13).

…that of the Directory in France and was bound to France by alliance. In March 1805 Napoleon changed the system of government once more: the Batavian Republic was renamed Batavian Commonwealth, and executive power was given to a kind of dictator called the council pensionary. In June 1806, however, the…

…was successively occupied by Revolutionary France (1796), by Austria (1799), and then again by France (1800). In the following year Bavaria became an ally of France and was thus able to expand its territories at the expense of Austria, acquiring by the Treaty of Pressburg in 1805 approximately the boundaries…

Hostilities between France and Spain persisted, marked by further losses of territory on the southern border (Artois in 1640 and parts of Flanders in the later 17th century).

Under French rule there was no autonomy as there had been under the Spanish and Austrian regimes. The administration was centralized, aristocratic privileges abolished, and the church persecuted. Military conscription measures provoked a peasants’ revolt (1798–99), but repression was extremely harsh. Under the…

…States, the United Kingdom, and France) to abandon their post-World War II jurisdictions in West Berlin.

European countries regarded Canada as both on its own and as an economic, if not a military, dependency of the United States, a view revealed by the course of Franco-Canadian relations in the 1960s. France had not taken an active role in Canadian…

…Treaty of Whampoa (Huangpu) with France. These arrangements made up a complex of foreign privileges by virtue of the most-favoured-nation clauses (guaranteeing trading equality) conceded to every signatory. All in all, they provided a basis for later inroads such as the loss of tariff autonomy, extraterritoriality (exemption from the application…

…including the murder of a French missionary in western Guangxi, led in 1857 to an Anglo-French alliance against China in what came to be called the second Opium (or Arrow) War. The brief hostilities were concluded by the humiliating treaties of Tianjin in 1858. Then, following the Sino-French War of…

…fell victim to British and French imperialism. Already established in Vietnam, France regarded Yunnan as within its sphere of influence and built the Hanoi-Kunming railway at the turn of the 20th century to exploit the resources of the province. In 1910 the British, then established in Burma, induced the tusi

Eventually, France recognized the Czechoslovak National Council as the supreme body controlling Czechoslovak national interests the other Allies soon followed the French initiative. On September 28 Beneš signed a treaty whereby France agreed to support the Czechoslovak program in the postwar peace conference. To preclude a…

… and at isolating Germany’s enemy, France.

…military pact that developed between France and Russia from friendly contacts in 1891 to a secret treaty in 1894 it became one of the basic European alignments of the pre-World War I era. Germany, assuming that ideological differences and lack of common interest would keep republican France and tsarist Russia…

The French, who had played so large a part in Muḥammad ʿAlī’s reforms, fell into disfavour, and for diplomatic support ʿAbbās turned to their British rivals, whose help was needed against the Ottomans. Although initially ʿAbbās was ostentatiously loyal to the sultan, he resented an attempt…

Britain and France, major shareholders in the company, were angered by Nasser’s actions (France was equally infuriated by Egyptian aid to the Algerians who were revolting against French rule) and sought to regain control of the canal by an intricate ruse. In collaboration with France and Britain,…

…the major part of southwestern France. Altogether his holdings in France were far larger than those of the French king. They have become known as the Angevin empire, although Henry never in fact claimed any imperial rights or used the title of emperor. From the beginning Henry showed himself determined…

…campaign in the Netherlands and France and an endless guerrilla action in Ireland, where Philip discovered he could do to Elizabeth what she had been doing to him in the Low Countries. Even on the high seas, the days of fabulous victories were over, for the king of Spain soon…

…was now at odds with France, the latter power was willing to sponsor an invasion on behalf of the Stuart dynasty. It hoped that such an invasion would win support from the masses and from the Tory sector of the landed class. Although a handful of Tory conspirators encouraged these…

…over the occupation of Germany, France often sided with the U.S.S.R. in order to keep Germany weak and obtain reparations. The Berlin crisis of 1948, however, convinced the French that a way must be found to reconcile German recovery with their own security. The architects of an integrationist solution were…

…and other southern domains to France, and Flanders was fatally weakened by the departure of his successor, Baldwin IX, to become Latin emperor of Constantinople (as Baldwin I) in 1205. The French king Philip II Augustus seized the chance to influence the succession in Flanders, and when the Flemings resisted…

…after the death of Lorenzo, French armies under King Charles VIII invaded Italy. They were backed against the Medici by the popular party in Florence, which (with French help) succeeded in exiling the Medici and declaring Florence a republic. The consequence, however, was the loss of political autonomy to the…

…the French and Indian War, France welcomed the opportunity to undermine Britain’s position in the New World.

…capitulation was the entrance of France into the war. The French had secretly furnished financial and material aid since 1776. Now they prepared fleets and armies, although they did not formally declare war until June 1778.

…Jacobins, Geneva was annexed to France. The city was reduced to a subservient role and submitted in 1802 to the protection of Napoleon I. The emperor distrusted Geneva, “that city where they know English too well” (it was indeed harbouring a secret liberal and Anglophile opposition), and the French period…

” French President Mitterrand warned the Germans against pushing it too hard, while British Prime Minister Thatcher was openly skeptical. Gorbachev was expected to demand large concessions in return for his approval. Bush presumably had reassured him at Malta that events would not be allowed to…

The Carolingian kings of France, as well as the great feudatories who sought to dominate if not to ruin them, became, in turn, petitioners to the German court during the reign of the Ottos. The kings of Burgundy—whose suzerainty lay over the valleys of the Saône and the Rhône,…

…alliance was therefore forged by France (where Cardinal Richelieu took charge of affairs in 1624), England (whose ruler, James I, was father-in-law to the deposed Frederick V), the Netherlands, and Denmark (whose Protestant king, Christian IV, had extensive territorial interests in northern Germany, now threatened by Catholic armies). In 1625…

the Americans, British, French, and Soviets divided Germany into four zones. The American, British, and French zones together made up the western two-thirds of Germany, while the Soviet zone comprised the eastern third. Berlin, the former capital, which was surrounded by the Soviet zone, was placed under joint…

…by the forces of revolutionary France and with Napoléon Bonaparte’s invasion of Egypt in 1798. These developments caused panic in Constantinople, for they seemed to indicate that the seditious and atheistic doctrines of the French Revolution had penetrated the borders of the empire. The brief period of French rule in…

…court became a centre of French knightly culture. Western dress and translations of French tales of chivalry appeared. A royal notary, known to future generations as “Anonymous,” wrote the history of the conquest of Hungary. The first known work in the Hungarian language, the Halotti beszéd (“Funeral Oration”), was part…

…seek armed aid from Revolutionary France to help overthrow English rule. After an initial effort failed, Tone went to the United States and obtained letters of introduction from the French minister at Philadelphia to the Committee of Public Safety in Paris. In February 1796 Tone arrived in the French capital,…

…dynasty West Francia (roughly, modern France), East Francia (roughly, modern Germany), and Italy were the major new kingdoms that emerged. Lothar’s son Louis II (844–875) was king-emperor only in Italy. Louis II, whose reign was in many ways the high point of the Carolingian kingdom in the peninsula, was an…

When French troops invaded Italy in the spring of 1796, they found fertile ground for the revolutionary ideas and practices of their native country. Since the 1780s, Italian newspapers and pamphlets had given full play to news from France, especially to the…

…on Rome merely brought back French troops, who defeated Garibaldi at Mentana on November 3. Arrested once again, he was sentenced to house arrest on the remote island of Caprera, between Sardinia and Corsica, where he owned some property. Italy suffered a marked loss of prestige politically and militarily, and…

Meanwhile, France, Russia, and Germany were not willing to endorse Japanese gains and forced the return of the Liaotung Peninsula to China. Insult was added to injury when Russia leased the same territory with its important naval base, Port Arthur (now Lü-shun), from China in 1898.…

…Britain, the United States, and France, that replaced the Anglo-Japanese Alliance, and a Five-Power Naval Limitation Treaty (with Italy) that set limits for battleships at a ratio of five for Great Britain and the United States to three for Japan. An agreement on the fortification of Pacific island bases was…

…a joint protectorate with Vichy France over the whole colony. This opened the way for further moves into Southeast Asia.

and Tuscany, and British and French observers, the congress proclaimed its hostility to revolutionary regimes, agreed to abolish the Neapolitan constitution, and authorized the Austrian army to restore the absolutist monarchy. The British and French protested the decision, thereby encouraging unsuccessful resistance among the Neapolitans. A similar revolt in Piedmont…

In that year France, which administered Lebanon as a League of Nations mandate, established the state of Greater Lebanon. Lebanon then became a republic in 1926 and achieved independence in 1943.

French political influence was great, particularly among the Maronites, whose integration into the Roman Catholic ecclesiastical structure was formally codified in 1736.

…representatives of the United States, France, Italy, and Japan. At the end of three months of meetings, general agreement had been secured on the regulation of submarine warfare and a five-year moratorium on the construction of capital ships. The limitation of aircraft carriers, provided for by the Washington Five-Power Treaty…

French domination of the area dates from the 17th century, when control of the duchy became vital in the struggles between the French kings and the Habsburgs, who ruled the Holy Roman Empire. The French had already established a foothold by taking Metz, Toul, and…

…the increasing influence of the French and English kings, particularly after 1200 this applied especially to French power in Flanders. A struggle for the throne that broke out in Germany at the death of Henry VI (1197) found the two powerful factions—the Ghibellines and Guelfs—on opposite sides in the Low…

…of Burgundy (princes of the French royal house of Valois) began to penetrate these territorial principalities in the Low Countries, whose feelings of territoriality made them regard the dukes of Burgundy with suspicion. The marriage in 1369 of Philip II the Bold of Burgundy to the heiress of the count…

…time, but in 1635, when France became involved, a period of disaster began in Luxembourg, which was wracked by war, famine, and epidemics. Moreover, the war did not end for Luxembourg with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 but only with the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659. In 1679…

Some countries, including France and the United Kingdom, sought the establishment of a no-fly zone over Libya to protect rebels and civilians from air attacks, while others, including the United States and Germany, expressed reservations, emphasizing the need for broad international consensus and warning against possible unforeseen consequences…

Exiled Mexican conservatives, who continued to intrigue, enlisted the help of a powerful ally, the French ruler Napoleon III, who wanted to create a Latin league that would include the Mediterranean lands and the former possessions of Spain and Portugal in the New…

The Grimaldis allied themselves with France except for the period from 1524 to 1641, when they were under the protection of Spain. In 1793 they were dispossessed by the French Revolutionary regime, and Monaco was annexed to France. With the fall of Napoleon I, however, the Grimaldis returned the Congress…

…seek commercial relations with the French, who were then advancing toward his kingdom from their base in Southeast Asia. Thibaw sent envoys to Paris, and in January 1885 the French signed a treaty of trade with the kingdom of Ava and dispatched a French consul to Mandalay. That envoy hoped…

Narai’s flirtations with the French were encouraged by the Greek adventurer Constantine Phaulkon, who became his chief minister and adviser. Thai diplomatic missions were sent to King Louis XIV of France in 1680, 1684, and 1686 and, encouraged by Phaulkon to hope for territorial concessions and even Narai’s conversion…

…in 1934 to counteract mounting French domination of Morocco and to secure recognition of the equality of Moroccans and Frenchmen under the French protectorate.

…names Neustria and Francia (France) interchangeably, implying that Neustria formed the heart and core of the Frankish lands. Later, the name Neustria came to denote a much smaller area, and, by the 11th and 12th centuries, it was sometimes used synonymously with Normandy.

Süleyman’s main European ally was France, which sought to use Ottoman pressure in the south to lessen the pressure of the Habsburgs on its eastern frontiers. The land war with the Habsburgs was centred in Hungary and was fought in three main stages. From 1520 to 1526 the independent Hungarian…

…accompanying tripartite agreement between Britain, France, and Italy defined extensive spheres of influence for the latter two powers. The treaty was ratified only by Greece and was abrogated by the Treaty of Lausanne (July 24, 1923) as the result of a determined struggle for independence waged under the leadership of…

…by May 1916 Great Britain, France, and Russia had reached an agreement (the Sykes-Picot Agreement) according to which, inter alia, the bulk of Palestine was to be internationalized. Further complicating the situation, in November 1917 Arthur Balfour, the British secretary of state for foreign affairs, addressed a letter to

…appealed for aid to the Frankish ruler Pippin III (the Short), who “restored” the lands of central Italy to the Roman see, ignoring the claim of the Byzantine Empire to sovereignty there. This Donation of Pippin (756) provided the basis for the papal claim to temporal power. In the same…

…a preliminary meeting of the French, British, U.S., and Italian heads of government and foreign ministers—respectively, Georges Clemenceau and Stephen Pichon Lloyd George and Arthur James Balfour Woodrow Wilson (who fell ill at the conference, probably having contracted the flu as the influenza

…it was formally annexed to France as the département of Taro.

…the 65-year (1494–1559) struggle between France and Spain for the control of Italy, leaving Habsburg Spain the dominant power there for the next 150 years. In the last phase of the war, fought mostly outside of Italy, France was beaten at the battles of Saint-Quentin (1557) and Gravelines (1558). These…

Émigrés looked to Revolutionary France for assistance, and General Jan Henryk Dąbrowski succeeded in 1797 in persuading Napoleon Bonaparte, then waging his Italian campaign, to create auxiliary Polish legions. In their headquarters the future Polish national anthem—“Jeszcze Polska nie zginęła” (“Poland Has Not Yet Perished”)—was sung for the first

…the utmost by war with France and revolt in Catalonia. The French minister, Armand-Jean du Plessis, cardinal et duc de Richelieu, already had agents in Lisbon, and a leader was found in John, duke of Bragança, a grandson of the duchess Catherine (niece of John III) whose claims had been…

France ran a massive empire, but its nationalistic yearnings were not fully satisfied and the humiliating loss of Alsace-Lorraine had not been avenged. Russia encountered a new opponent in the Far East in the rise of Japan. The Japanese, fearful of Russian expansion in northern…

…Second Reform Act (1867), the French Third Republic (1875), the triumph of nationalism in Italy and Germany (1871), the establishment of universal manhood suffrage in Germany (1867), equality for the Hungarians in the Habsburg monarchy (1867), emancipation of the serfs in

…was German help in reducing Franco-Russian pressure on the British Empire and defending the balance of power. What Germany sought was British neutrality or cooperation while Germany expanded its own power in the world. Bülow still believed in Holstein’s “free hand” policy of playing the other powers off against each…

…Dutch Republic (United Provinces), and France to prevent Spain from altering the terms of the Treaty of Utrecht (1713). Philip V of Spain, influenced by his wife, Elizabeth Farnese of Parma, and her adviser Giulio Alberoni, seized control of Sardinia and Sicily (assigned to Austria and

…Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen, 1818) France was admitted to full participation in the proceedings, creating in effect the Quintuple Alliance.

…April 22, 1834, between Britain, France, and the more liberal claimants to the thrones of Spain and Portugal against the conservative claimants to those thrones. The alliance successfully supported Maria Cristiana, who was acting as regent for Isabella II in Spain and had allied herself with the liberals against the…

…Allied invasions of Italy and France and was attended by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill. Differences between U.S. and British strategists about the coordination of the Italian campaign with Operation Overlord (the planned

…from reforms introduced by the French when they dominated Italy during the period of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars (1796–1815). A number of Italian states were briefly consolidated, first as republics and then as satellite states of the French empire, and, even more importantly, the Italian middle class grew…

But they saw in France and Britain the chief guarantors of the postwar international order.

…quickly made peace with both France and Britain and restored normal relations with Austria. His hope that he would then be able to concentrate on internal reform was frustrated by the reopening of war with Napoleon in 1805. Defeated at Austerlitz in December 1805, the Russian armies fought Napoleon in…

…army could have crushed either France or Russia alone but not both together. The Russian invasion of East Prussia in August 1914 was a failure: in two unsuccessful battles nearly 150,000 Russians were taken prisoner. The invasion did, however, cause the Germans to withdraw troops from their western front and…

…of a report commissioned by French judge Jean-Louis Bruguière, including allegations that Kagame and other FPR leaders ordered the rocket attack that caused the 1994 plane crash that killed Habyarimana and triggered the genocide (echoing the claims of some Rwandan dissidents) Kagame vehemently denied the allegations. Rwanda severed relations with…

Rwanda severed relations with France in 2006 when Bruguière—claiming jurisdiction because the flight crew members who perished in the crash were French—signed international arrest warrants for several of Kagame’s close associates for their alleged roles in the crash and requested that Kagame stand trial at the ICTR. (Relations between…

…people, was much influenced by France in the 150 years following the Peace of Westphalia (1648). Saar became a French province in 1684 under the Truce of Regensburg, but in 1697 France was forced to surrender all of Saar except the town of Saarlouis under the Treaty of Rijswijk. From…

…secret conference held at Plombières, France, in July 1858 he arranged with Emperor Napoleon III for French military intervention in the event of Austrian aggression against Piedmont. Cavour’s goal was the complete expulsion of Austrian troops from the peninsula. In return for this help Piedmont had to cede Savoy and…

…Julius II, and in 1512 France and Scotland renewed their “auld alliance” as a counterbalance. In 1513 Henry VIII invaded France. James IV consequently invaded England, where he died along with thousands of his army in the rashly fought and calamitous Battle of Flodden.

between Great Britain, Italy, and France. On the African continent itself Egypt also was involved, and later Ethiopia, expanding and consolidating its realm under the guiding leadership of the emperors Tewodros II, Yohannes IV, and Menilek II. Britain’s interest in the northern Somali coast followed the establishment in 1839 of…

When in June 1977 France granted independence to Djibouti (under a Somali president), the WSLF, backed by Somalia, immediately launched a series of fierce attacks on Ethiopian garrisons. By September 1977 Somalia had largely conquered the Ogaden region, and the war was at the gates of Hārer. Then the…

…by the governments of Australia, France, New Zealand, the Netherlands, Great Britain, and the United States to advise them on economic, social, and health matters affecting the South Pacific island territories they administered. It is the oldest regional organization in the Pacific and is headquartered in Nouméa, New Caledonia. Guam…

…the First Coalition against Revolutionary France led to a French invasion in 1794. In July 1795 the conflict with France was ended by the Peace of Basle, which was followed the next year by the Treaty of San Ildefonso, an alliance between Spain and France against England. When Napoleon again…

…son of King Louis-Philippe of France. The marriages revived dynastic ties between Spain and France but caused the breakdown of friendly relations between England and France.

…then to the kingdom of France. Thus, for several centuries Catalans looked to the north.

…time, Gustav Adolf negotiated with France for its support against the German emperor, whose armies threatened the south shores of the Baltic. In 1630 Gustav Adolf with his Swedish army landed in northern Germany, joining in the Thirty Years’ War. In 1631 Sweden concluded its treaty

…between the Holy Roman emperor, France, Spain, and the Italian powers over control of the duchy of Milan. The Swiss had more than a passing interest in this area, having followed Uri and extended their control into the southern Alpine valleys while fighting against the Milanese during the 15th century.…

Although both pro- and anti-French feelings existed, Switzerland attempted to remain neutral during the French revolutionary wars. The country’s strategic position on the main Paris-Milan route via the Simplon Pass was vital for France, however, as was control of the Great Saint Bernard Pass. Thus, after Napoleon’s armies had…

In 1893, after French gunboats forced their way up the Chao Phraya River to Bangkok, he was forced to cede to France all Lao territories east of the Mekong River, and in 1907 the French took over three territories in northwestern Cambodia and Lao territory west of the…

…it had apprised Britain and France at Stresa of its intentions of doing so. British public opinion was torn between a desire to avoid war and an unwillingness to sanction unprovoked aggression. The compromise was a retreat to the fiction of “collective security,” which meant a dependence upon action by…

France held out for just 38 days. (Listen to an excerpt of Churchill’s first address to the House of Commons as prime minister, on May 13, 1940.) When on June 18 the French government resolved to ask for an armistice, Churchill announced on the radio…

…known collectively as the P-5)—China, France, the Soviet Union (whose seat and membership were assumed by Russia in 1991), the United Kingdom, and the United States—concur on the admission of new members at times posed serious obstacles. By 1950 only 9 of 31 applicants had been admitted to the organization.…

…system, ongoing economic aid from France for the maintenance of the Francophone school system has ensured that about half of ni-Vanuatu children receive French-language instruction. Education is free and compulsory for ages 6 to 12, but only about one-third of ni-Vanuatu children undertake postprimary education. The country’s school attendance and…

…subsequent treaties of peace with France, signed on May 30 not only by the “four” but also by Sweden and Portugal and on July 20 by Spain, stipulated that all former belligerents should send plenipotentiaries to a congress in Vienna. Nevertheless, the “four” still intended to reserve the real decision…

Medieval society

…extent of allodial land in France was increased by the anarchy that accompanied the decline of the Carolingian monarchy much of this new property, however, was eventually brought into a feudal relationship in which the holder owed certain services to his lord. By the 12th and 13th centuries, the only…

Erasmus’s associates in France included the influential humanists Robert Gaguin, Jacques Lefèvre d’Étaples, and Guillaume Budé (Guglielmus Budaeus). Of these three, Budé was most central to the development of French humanism, not only in his historical and philological studies but also in his use of his national influence…

By the end of the 11th century, the universal tendency of feudalism to associate status with the possession of land caused the French viscounts to qualify their title with the name of their own most important fief. In Aquitaine, of which the counts of…

Role of

…Canterbury, Robert Winchelsey, but in France there was no strong defender of papal prerogative against the concerted action of the king and his civil lawyers. His bull Unam sanctam (1302) proclaimed the primacy of the pope and insisted on the submission of the temporal to the spiritual power.

It provided reigning kings of France from 1589 to 1792 and from 1814 to 1830, after which another Bourbon reigned as king of the French until 1848 kings or queens of Spain from 1700 to 1808, from 1814 to 1868, from 1874 to 1931, and since 1975 dukes of Parma…

France from 987 to 1328, during the feudal period of the Middle Ages. By extending and consolidating their power, the Capetian kings laid the foundation of the French nation-state.

…the outbreak of war with France, Charles hurried back to Spain, where his followers had meanwhile gained the upper hand over the comuneros. Even though he granted an amnesty, the young monarch proved to be an intransigent ruler, bloodily suppressing the revolt and signing 270 death warrants. Those actions were…

…the Moroccan port to which France had claims, convinced Churchill that in any major Franco-German conflict Britain would have to be at France’s side. When transferred to the Admiralty in October 1911, he went to work with a conviction of the need to bring the navy to a pitch of…

…and social history of the French Third Republic.

During the 1890s, France faced a major constitutional crisis in the Dreyfus affair. The imprisonment of Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish army officer falsely accused of treason, triggered a battle between conservative, Catholic, and military forces, all bent on defending the authority of army and state, and a more…

…endless wars with Scotland and France bankrupted him. He quarrelled bitterly with both clergy and barons, behaving as a rash and obstinate autocrat who refused to recognize his limitations. Philip III and Philip IV of France had both cheated him of the contingent benefits promised by the Treaty of Paris…

…a state of hostility with France, for which the most obvious reason was the dispute over English rule in Gascony. Contributory causes were France’s new king Philip VI’s support of the Scots, Edward’s alliance with the Flemish cities—then on bad terms with their French overlord—and the revival in 1337 of…

Eleanor became queen of France, a title she held for the next 15 years. Beautiful, capricious, and adored by Louis, Eleanor exerted considerable influence over him, often goading him into undertaking perilous ventures.

…aid and diplomatic recognition from France. He played on the French aristocracy’s liberal sympathies for the oppressed Americans and extracted not only diplomatic recognition of the new republic but also loan after loan from an increasingly impoverished French government. His image as the democratic folk genius from the wilderness of…

More important was Frederick Henry’s French policy, culminating (1635) in the so-called treaty of partition between the two countries and stipulating a partitioning of the southern Netherlands, if conquered by arms from the Spanish. The treaty further provided for the yearly payment of a considerable French subsidy, thus enabling the…

…by a hostile coalition of France, Spain, and Bavaria, had to agree to the Convention of Klein-Schnellendorf, by which Frederick was allowed to occupy the whole of Lower Silesia. However, the Habsburg successes against the French and Bavarians that followed so alarmed Frederick that early in 1742 he invaded Moravia,…

…than once to cede to France territory in western Germany in the hope of breaking up the coalition that threatened him. Moreover, by his part in the first partition of Poland he helped to create an important common interest with Russia: thenceforth both states had as one of their major…

French intervention, however, forced Frederick William once again to give up his Pomeranian conquests. Ratified in the Treaty of Oliva in 1660, this renunciation was balanced by confirmation of the Elector’s full sovereignty over the Duchy of Prussia.

…by a similar coup (France frustrated his proxy marriage to the Breton heiress Anne), he procured Philip’s marriage, in 1496, to Joan, prospective heiress of Castile and Aragon: thus securing for his family not only Spain, with Naples–Sicily and Sardinia, but also the immense dominions the Spaniards were about…

…overlordship of the king of France. By conquest, through diplomacy, and through the marriages of two of his sons, he gained acknowledged possession of what is now the west of France from the northernmost part of Normandy to the Pyrenees, near Carcassonne. During his reign, the dynastic marriages of three…

…holdings) and to parts of France that had never been in English hands. Although such demands were unlikely to be conceded even by the distracted government of France under King Charles VI, Henry seems to have convinced himself that his claims were just and not a merely cynical cover for…

…the duchy of Brittany into France, Henry found himself drawn along with Spain and the Holy Roman emperor into a war against France. But he realized that war was a hazardous activity for one whose crown was both impoverished and insecure, and in 1492 he made peace with France on…

…Ferdinand II of Aragon, against France and ostensibly in support of a threatened pope, to whom the devout king for a long time paid almost slavish respect.

In the west France remained the natural enemy of Germany and must, therefore, be cowed or subdued to make expansion eastward possible.

More significantly, France, now liberated and under the leadership of Charles de Gaulle, did not intend to simply accept the fait accompli of an independent Vietnam and attempted to reassert its control. On October 6 the French general Jacques Leclerc landed in Saigon, followed a few days…

…Charles de Gaulle’s newly liberated France his first thought was that an assignment error must have been made in Rome.

…King Philip II Augustus of France and attempted unsuccessfully to seize control of England. In April 1193 he was forced to accept a truce but made further arrangements with Philip for the division of Richard’s possessions and for rebellion in England. On Richard’s return, early in 1194, John was banished…

…played a major role in French affairs in the early 15th century.

Though Leopold’s policy toward Catholic France was undecided at first, he finally had to agree to a coalition with the Protestant naval powers, Holland and England. In the course of the long struggle with France, the empire scored several military successes but in the…

…Ingelheim [now in Germany]), Carolingian ruler of the Franks who succeeded his father, Charlemagne, as emperor in 814 and whose 26-year reign (the longest of any medieval emperor until Henry IV [1056–1106]) was a central and controversial stage in the Carolingian experiment to fashion a new European society. Commonly called…

…1917, Vincennes, near Paris, France), dancer and courtesan whose name has become a synonym for the seductive female spy. She was shot by the French on charges of spying for Germany during World War I. The nature and extent of her espionage activities remain uncertain, and her guilt is widely…

…along the eastern frontier of France. He successfully defended his new domains against the attacks of Louis XI of France, defeating the French at the Battle of Guinegate in 1479. There Maximilian’s military innovation saved him. French armies consisted primarily of the prized and formidable Swiss Reisläufer, mercenary units that…

…Vincennes, France), first minister of France after Cardinal de Richelieu’s death in 1642. During the early years of King Louis XIV, he completed Richelieu’s work of establishing France’s supremacy among the European powers and crippling the opposition to the power of the monarchy at home.

The French, partly as a result of this antimissionary policy, invaded Vietnam in 1858, initially landing at Tourane (Da Nang), and then establishing a base at Saigon. They forced the emperor Tu Duc (q.v.), then facing revolts elsewhere, to cede the three eastern provinces of southern…

…Otto could not only resist France’s claims to Lorraine (Lotharingia) but also act as mediator in France’s internal troubles. Similarly, he extended his influence into Burgundy. Moreover, when the Burgundian princess Adelaide, the widowed queen of Italy whom the margrave Berengar of Ivrea had taken prisoner, appealed to him for…

…under the surveillance of Britain, France, and Russia. By 1832 he had achieved this objective.

… of Prussia to engage the French on the Continent, while the British Navy harassed the French on their own coasts, in the West Indies, and in Africa. Choosing good generals and admirals, he inspired them with a new spirit of dash and enterprise. His hand, eye, and voice were everywhere.…

…but it was the provocative French decrees of late 1792, which authorized their armies to violate neutral territory and which promised military assistance to any European people wishing to depose its rulers. The French, confident of victory after their successes against the Austro-Prussian forces and believing that England was ripe…

…Pius one lesson, developments in France, where the church prospered more under the liberal regime of Louis-Philippe than it had under the clerical Charles X, suggested quite the opposite conclusions to the liberal Catholics there, whose spokesman was Charles de Montalembert. On the other hand, the coming of the Second…

…to King Louis XIII of France from 1624 to 1642. His major goals were the establishment of royal absolutism in France and the end of Spanish-Habsburg hegemony in Europe.

…became bankers to whom the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars of 1792–1815 came as a piece of great good fortune. Mayer and his eldest son, Amschel, supervised the growing business from Frankfurt, while Nathan established a branch in London in 1804, Jakob settled in Paris in 1811, and Salomon and…

…the victorious Western powers, especially France, for Germany had already renewed ties with Russia through the Treaty of Rapallo in 1922. By meeting the reparation payments, for the reduction of which he fought as stubbornly as he did for removal of French troops from west of the Rhine, he hoped…

When France and Spain went to war in 1793, the Black commanders joined the Spaniards of Santo Domingo, the eastern two-thirds of Hispaniola (now the Dominican Republic). Knighted and recognized as a general, Toussaint demonstrated extraordinary military ability and attracted such renowned warriors as his nephew…

…of the royalist movement in France during the Second Restoration (1815–30). The ultras represented the interests of the large landowners, the aristocracy, clericalists, and former émigrés. They were opposed to the egalitarian and secularizing principles of the Revolution, but they did not aim at restoring the ancien régime rather, they…

…with the assistance of the French, in exchange for a trade treaty, an agreement the French declined because of ʿUmar’s growing strength. ʿUmar realized that faith without force would be ineffective and made careful preparations for his task. In northeastern Guinea, where he first established himself, he wrote down his…

In 1570 Walsingham was appointed ambassador to France. His experiences there would affirm his growing conviction that, with religion now the dominating political fault line in post-Reformation northern Europe, England could no longer trust its long-term security…

…evidently spent much time in France. Because of his prudence, the council appointed him tutor to the young king (June 1428–May 1436). While attending the king in France (1430–32), Warwick was present at the trial and execution of Joan of Arc and scored a notable victory over the French near…

…political change and had made France Germany’s implacable enemy. At 75 years of age, he was unable to solve the social and political problems confronting Germany at the end of the century. William’s action would have been justifiable if he himself had been in possession of a solution. As it…

Treaties

, by Britain, France, Spain, and the Batavian Republic (the Netherlands), achieving a peace in Europe for 14 months during the Napoleonic Wars. It ignored some questions that divided Britain and France, such as the fate of the Belgian provinces, Savoy, and Switzerland and the trade relations between

…pact between the government of France and the Grand National Assembly of Turkey at Ankara, signed by the French diplomat Henri Franklin-Bouillon and Yusuf Kemal Bey, the Turkish nationalist foreign minister. It formalized the de facto recognition by France of the Grand National Assembly, rather than the government of the…

Britain, Chile, France, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, South Africa, the United States, and the Soviet Union. Later other nations acceded to the treaty.

Chile, France, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, South Africa, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the

…1797), a peace settlement between France and Austria, signed at Campo Formio (now Campoformido, Italy), a village in Venezia Giulia southwest of Udine, following the defeat of Austria in Napoleon Bonaparte’s first Italian campaign.

Anglo-French agreement that, by settling a number of controversial matters, ended antagonisms between Great Britain and France and paved the way for their diplomatic cooperation against German pressures in the decade preceding World War I (1914–18). The agreement in no sense created an alliance and…

…the People’s Republic of China, France, Laos, the United Kingdom, the United States, the Soviet Union, the Viet Minh (i.e., the North Vietnamese), and the State of Vietnam (i.e., the South Vietnamese). The 10 documents—none of which were treaties binding the participants—consisted of 3 military agreements, 6 unilateral declarations, and…

by Austria, Great Britain, and France, accepted Russian military aid early in 1833. In return he concluded, at the village of Hünkâr İskelesi, near Istanbul (Constantinople), an eight-year treaty that proclaimed peace and friendship between the two nations and a commitment to reach a mutual agreement on all matters relating…

…common policy in opposition to France. The terms of the anti-French alliance were unacceptable to Henry VII, who ratified it (Sept. 23, 1490) with amendments that were in turn rejected by Spain. The marriage was renegotiated in 1496 on terms similar to those proposed in 1489.

reached by Germany, Great Britain, France, and Italy that permitted German annexation of the Sudetenland, in western Czechoslovakia.

…the Dutch War, in which France had opposed Spain and the Dutch Republic (now the Netherlands). France gained advantages by arranging terms with each of its enemies separately.

…series of agreements whereby Germany, France, Belgium, Great Britain, and Italy mutually guaranteed peace in western Europe. The treaties were initialed at Locarno, Switz., on October 16 and signed in London on December 1.

…(1733, 1743, and 1761) between France and Spain, so called because both nations were ruled by members of the Bourbon family. The Pactes de Famille generally had the effect of involving Spain in European and colonial wars on the side of the French Bourbons (e.g., the Seven Years’ War, 1756–63).…

…Hanover on one side and France and Spain on the other, with Portugal expressly understood to be included. It was signed in Paris on Feb. 10, 1763.

…side and the United States, France, and Spain on the other. Preliminary articles (often called the Preliminary Treaty of Paris) were signed at Paris between Britain and the United States on November 30, 1782. On September 3, 1783, three definitive treaties were signed—between Britain and the United States in Paris…

…agreement signed by Austria and France at Pressburg (now Bratislava, Slovakia) after Napoleon’s victories at Ulm and Austerlitz it imposed severe terms on Austria. Austria gave up the following: all that it had received of Venetian territory at the Treaty of Campo Formio (see Campo Formio, Treaty of) to Napoleon’s…

…War until 1659 Spain and France engaged in almost continuous warfare. During the struggle Spain found itself also involved in hostilities with England, and the real decay of the Spanish monarchy became rapidly apparent. Any assistance that might have been hoped for from the Holy Roman emperor was prevented by…

…finally in 1658 by the Treaty of the Pyrenees.

…not apply if Germany attacked France or if Russia attacked Austria. Bismarck showed the Russian ambassador the text of the German-Austrian alliance of 1879 to drive home the last point. Germany paid for Russian friendship by agreeing to the Russian sphere of influence in Bulgaria and Eastern Rumelia (now part…

…(June 1862), agreement by which France achieved its initial foothold on the Indochinese Peninsula. The treaty was signed by the last precolonial emperor of Vietnam, Tu Duc, and was ratified by him in April 1863.

…the terms of the treaty, France received Fiume, Istria, and Trieste, part of Croatia, and most of Carinthia and Carniola Russia, having backed Napoleon, received the Tarnopol section of East Galicia the Grand Duchy of Warsaw obtained West

Great Britain and France, with the assent of imperial Russia, for the dismemberment of the Ottoman Empire. The agreement led to the division of Turkish-held Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, and

…[June 27], 1807), agreements that France signed with Russia and with Prussia (respectively) at Tilsit, northern Prussia (now Sovetsk, Russia), after Napoleon’s victories over the Prussians at Jena and at Auerstädt and over the Russians at Friedland.

of Britain, Georges Clemenceau of France, Woodrow Wilson of the United States, and Vittorio Orlando of Italy. The first three in particular made the important decisions. None of the defeated nations had any say in shaping the treaty, and even the associated Allied powers played only a minor role. The…

Public opinion in France and Britain wished to impose harsh terms, especially on Germany. French military circles sought not only to recover Alsace and Lorraine and to occupy the Saar but also to detach the Rhineland from Germany. Members of the British Parliament lobbied to increase the reparations…

…signed in October 1648, saw France try to sabotage the agreements already made.


Napoleon Marches on Belgium

Upon Napoleon’s return to France, a coalition of allies—the Austrians, British, Prussians and Russians—who considered the French emperor an enemy began to prepare for war. Napoleon raised a new army and planned to strike preemptively, defeating the allied forces one by one before they could launch a united attack against him.

In June 1815, Napoleon’s forces marched into Belgium, where separate armies of British and Prussian troops were camped.

At the Battle of Ligny, on June 16, Napoleon defeated the Prussians under the command of Gebhard Leberecht von Blucher. However, the French were unable to totally destroy the Prussian army.


Ending the revolution, 1794–1799

The post-Thermidorian regimes were republican, but they were driven above all else by the imperative to end the Revolution, most obviously by suppressing the sources of instability represented by the Jacobins and sans-culottes. The Thermidorians were hard men, many of them former Girondins, who had lived through the Terror in quiet opposition, and were determined that the terrifying experience would not be repeated. While there was a widespread longing for a return to democratic freedoms, a bitter social reaction was unleashed by the removal of wartime restrictions.

The end of all fixed prices in December 1794 unleashed rampant inflation, and, by April 1795, the general level of prices was about 750 percent above 1790 levels. In this context of social and political reaction and economic deprivation, the sans-culottes made a final desperate attempt to regain the initiative. The risings of Germinal and Prairial Year III (April and May 1795) effectively sought a return to the promises of the autumn of 1793, the epitome of the sans-culottes' influence. The crushing of the May 1795 insurrection unleashed a wide-ranging reaction, with thousands of arrests. Prison camps were established in the Seychelles and French Guiana.

The majority in the Convention now sought a political settlement that would stabilize the Revolution and end popular upheaval. The Constitution of the Year III (August 1795) restricted participation in electoral assemblies by wealth, age, and education as well as by sex. Popular sovereignty was to be limited to the act of voting: petitions, political clubs, and even unarmed demonstrations were banned. The social rights promised in the Jacobin constitution of 1793 were removed property ownership was again to be the basis of the social order and political power, as was the case from 1789 to 1792. Gone now was the optimism of the period 1789 to 1791, the belief that with the liberation of human creativity all could aspire to the "active" exercise of their capabilities. The constitution of 1795 now included a declaration of "duties," exhorting respect for the law, the family, and property. In this sense, the constitution can be seen to mark the end of the Revolution.

One important difference in the new constitution was the attempt to resolve religious divisions by separating church and state. On 11 Prairial Year III (30 May 1795) the regime allowed the reopening of churches closed during the Terror and allowed émigrépriests to return under the decree of 7 Fructidor Year IV (24 August 1797), but only on condition of their taking a civic oath. Religious observance was to be a purely private matter: bells and outward signs of religiosity were forbidden. The church was to be sustained by the offerings of the faithful rather than direct state support.

By excluding the poor from active participation in the political process, the Directory sought to create a republican regime based on "capacity" and a stake in society. To avoid a strong executive with its Jacobin connotations, there were to be frequent partial elections to the Council of the Five Hundred and rotation of executive authority. The rule of the committees was over. This combination of a narrow social base and internal instability caused the regime to vacillate between political alliances to the right and left to broaden its appeal and forced it to resort to draconian repression of opposition and to the use of military force.

For the better off, the regime of the Directory represented much of what they wanted: the guarantee of the major revolutionary achievements of the period 1789 to 1792 without threats from popular politics. The years of the Directory were often characterized, however, by bitter tensions occasioned by religious divisions, desertion from the army and avoidance of conscription, political abstention, and violent revenge for the deadly politics of the Year II. Underpinning all these tensions were the Directory's economic policies, which ultimately alienated the great mass of people.

As it trod its narrow path the Directory had to protect the regime against resurgent political forces on either side. The elections of 1797 returned a majority of royalists of various nuances. In response, the Directors annulled the elections of 177 deputies and called in troops on 17–18 Fructidor Year V (3–4 September 1797). A new wave of repression followed against refractory clergy, many of whom had returned in hope after the elections. Then, on 22 Floréal Year VI (11 May 1798) another coup was effected to prevent a resurgence of Jacobinism: this time 127 deputies were prevented from taking their seats.

The republican rationale for war in 1792—that this was a defensive war against tyrannical aggression that would naturally become a war of liberation joined by Europe's oppressed—had developed since 1794 into a war of territorial expansion. Peace treaties were signed with Prussia and Spain in 1795. In 1798 the Directory established "sister republics" in Switzerland and the Papal States and the left bank of the Rhine was incorporated into the "natural boundaries" of what was increasingly referred to as "la grande nation." Conflict with Britain and Austria continued. A peace treaty with the latter was signed at Campo-Formio on 25 Vendémiaire Year VI (17 October 1797), but hostilities recommenced in Italy in 1798. This, together with the extension of war with Britain into Ireland and Egypt, convinced the Directory that irregular army levies had to be replaced by an annual conscription of single men aged twenty to twenty-five years (the Jourdan Law, 19 Fructidor Year VI [5 September 1798]).

The Directory's military ambitions were increasingly resented by rural populations liable to conscription and requisitioning at a time of economic difficulty. Resentments climaxed in the summer of 1799 in large-scale but uncoordinated royalist risings in the west and southwest. By that time, too, the requisitioning, anticlericalism, and repression practiced by French armies was provoking discontent and insurrection in all of the "sister republics." This and the initial successes of the Second Coalition formed between Russia, Austria, and England provided a pretext for a challenge to the Directory, led by Napoleon, the army officer who had dispersed the royalist insurgents in 1795 and who now abandoned his shattered forces in Egypt. Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès and Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand, two of the architects of revolutionary change in the period from 1789 to 1791, supported Napoleon. On 18–19 Brumaire Year VIII (9–10 November 1799), the furious members of the Five Hundred were driven out by troops and a decade of parliamentary rule was over.

Napoleon moved quickly to establish internal and external peace. On 15 July 1801 a concordat was signed with the papacy, formally celebrated at Easter mass at Notre-Dame de Paris in 1802. The treaty of Lunéville was signed with Austria on 21 Pluviôse Year IX (9 February 1801) and that of Amiens with Britain on 5 Germinal Year X (25 March 1802). The end of war offered the chance for deserters to be amnestied and for returning émigrés and priests to be reintegrated into their communities in a climate of reconciliation. The peace with Europe was, of course, to be temporary.


Please follow the link here to read the open letter concerning the policy change at the Service historique de la Defense in its entirety.

1. The Millstone Prize , recognizing the best interdisciplinary paper presented at the 2018 meeting:

Patrick Luis Sullivan De Oliveira, Princeton University, for “Ce gentlemen[sic] rider du turf atmosphérique: Ballooning, Masculinity, and the Colonial Imaginary in turn-of-the-century France.”

2. The Ronald S. Love Prize , recognizing the best paper on France and the Francophone World up to 1800 given by a grad student at the 2018 meeting:

Alice Coulter Main, University of Wisconsin, for “Sexing the Terror: The Jeunesse Doréeand the Fall of the Parisian Jacobin Club (1794).”

3. The Edward T. Gargan Prize , recognizing the best paper on France and the Francophone world since 1800 given by a grad student at the 2018 meeting:

Kelly Wood, New York University, for “Upheaval of Postwar Memory: The 1953 Bordeaux Tribunal and the Case of the Malgré Nous."

In addition, two 2019 Millstone Research Fellowships have been awarded to support research projects:

1. Natalie Smith, University of Chicago, for “Soap and the Making of Modern Marseille: an urban history of France’s Second City, 1850-1914”

2. Mallory Hope, Yale University, for “Marine Insurance, Risk, and Forecasting in Early Modern France.”

We express our sincere gratitude to the families of Amy Millstone, Ronald Love and Ed Gargan, whose generous support of scholarship has made these awards possible.


Society of Intimates

The philosophical works of Louis Claude de Saint-Martin aroused much interest. In order to study his teachings, a circle of disciples was formed, known by the name of Society of Intimates. This society was working for the purest forms of spirituality. Saint-Martin accepted very few men and women into his society, always exercising extreme prudence.

Despite the political and social turbulence of the French Revolution, Louis Claude de Saint-Martin was never seriously harassed during the Reign of Terror, or at any other time during the Revolution. On October 13, 1803, at the age of sixty, Louis Claude de Saint-Martin went through transition following a stroke.

Following Louis Claude de Saint-Martin&rsquos death, the Martinist disciples were not very active. The traditional teachings and ceremonies were privately transmitted by groups of initiators, spreading principally throughout Italy, Germany, and France.


Gradually Silencing the Rapes

45Even though they were recorded by the UNWCC and the SRCGE, rapes were not explicitly included in other texts organizing war crime sentencing. The agreement on the prosecution and punishment of major war criminals from the European Axis powers, signed in London on August 8, 1945, mentions them in the implicit expression “bad treatment. of civilian populations.” [42] The word “rape” reappears in law No. 10 of the Allied Control Council of December 20, 1945 among the list of crimes against humanity. [43] However, none of the accused in the Nuremberg trials were convicted on these grounds, [44] just as none, it seems, were convicted in French military courts where German war criminals were referred to for acts committed in France or against French people.

46Explaining the disappearance of rape as a war crime in Europe is not easy, even as it was in the process of being taken up and developed in international law. In 1929, the Geneva Convention specified concerning single female prisoners of war that they should be treated with all consideration due to their gender. Twenty years and a world war later, at the time of the 1949 Convention, things were clearer: “Women shall be especially protected against any attack on their honor, in particular against rape, enforced prostitution, or any form of indecent assault.” [45] However, during the period of interest to us, rape appears or disappears depending on the text and court. While in the Asia-Pacific region, the Imperial Japanese Army seems to have made massive use of sexual violence, in Europe, rape, contrary to numerous other war crimes, was clearly not a sufficiently marked aspect of the armies there. A note addressed to René Cassin in 1948 concerning the black book confirms this hypothesis:

48This suggestion made by counsel to the vice-president of the Council of State, president of the Black Book Committee on enemy crimes and most notably the representative during the war of free France at the UNWCC, is indicative of the memory of rape. What then were the excesses of the Allied troops mentioned in the note addressed to René Cassin that risked bringing to light acts that were similar to German crimes and would stain the memory of the martyrs? Those committed by Red Army soldiers are today the most well-known, thanks to the work done on the extent of the phenomenon, involving the rape of probably tens of thousands of German women, with up to twenty-five thousand in Berlin alone. [47] Less known, because there were a great many fewer (but also especially because they involved Western Allied armies), were the rapes committed by American, British, and French soldiers, but which are now beginning to come to light. [48]

49While the American intervention in Western Europe was essential to its liberation, it also has to be viewed, as historian Mary Louise Roberts writes, as the confirmation of a new military power that was also political, economic, and cultural. The sexuality of the soldiers was a manifestation of this power. The GI’s power of seduction, with his short-term love affairs, demonstrated the sexual ascendancy of the American giant, even though the military staff fought strongly to combat rape. [49] Thus, the rapes by Americans after D-Day can be compared to the isolated cases committed by the Germans during the Occupation. However, they are sharply distinct from those committed during 1944 as a weapon in the fight against the Maquis.

50The significance and diversity of rape—either in isolation or on a massive scale, encouraged or suppressed, targeting enemies or allies, and inflicted as a sex crime or weapon of war—make qualifying rape as a war crime a difficult issue. Recognized as such in 1945, rapes became “individual crimes” in the correspondence addressed to René Cassin. In the letter, the responsibility of the German military staff was lessened and their specific place as a weapon of terror was forgotten as an “aside of the war.” Concerning Oradour-sur-Glane, a “typical case” where men were gunned down while the women and children were burned alive in the church, rape disappeared from the scene of the massacre. However, several of those who entered the church after the fire testified to the presence on top of the charred bodies of a woman’s body “with no apparent injury or trace of being burned, but which was undressed on the lower part, the genitals clearly apparent.” Jean-Jacques Fouché recounts the degree to which this violent act was something of a taboo. [50] A particular aspect of sexual violence is that it is not the perpetrator who is shamed, but rather the victim and her community. Noble deaths do not include the stain of the enemy’s sperm on the women who fathers, husbands, brothers, and sons were unable or did not know how to protect. Men rendered impotent by the enemy’s violence, who, because they too were dominated, were unable to oppose the taking of “their women.” A way of re-establishing their virility then became not the condemnation of the criminals, but personal vengeance, like that imagined by Robert Enrico and Pascal Jardin in the 1975 film Le Vieux Fusil [The Old Gun].

51While the rapes gradually faded from national memory, this also came about due to the difficulty in enumerating them to give them a national dimension. It is hard to imagine France claiming to be the country of the “ten thousand raped women” to emphasize its martyrdom in the same way the Communists claimed to be the party of the seventy thousand shot. This first obstacle is not unique to war, but is based on the difficulty victims of rape have in lodging complaints. At the end of the 1950s, American criminologists suggested a ratio of one rape known about for every twenty rapes committed. [51] Still in 2006, in spite of the growing attention of public authorities, the national study on violence toward women in France [52] estimated that only one out of eleven rapes is reported.

52What can then be said of the figures obtained for wartime: five hundred and fourteen rapes recorded, most on a case by case basis, of which two hundred were by name? For collective information, only that which was sufficiently precise concerning the place or date were retained “the few hundred in the Crest region” mentioned earlier were, for example, set aside, contrary to the fifty-four women in a village in Drôme quoted in a report on the atrocities committed there. The number is therefore very low, but if multiplied by the same factor as that used for the GI soldiers, they become much more numerous than those committed by the Allied armies.

53To conclude, let us return to what victims experienced once the rapist had left. The mother of a victim said to the gendarmes who had come to question her three months later to determine whether or not there had been a war crime: “This affair had no unfortunate result for my daughter who had her period in the following days.” Twenty-one years old, taken from her home, threatened with a revolver by two soldiers who fired when she tried to flee, the young woman was raped in a field thirty meters from her home, in the middle of the night on July 2, 1944. [53] The fact of considering a pregnancy as the only “unfortunate result” possible excludes the individual trauma and gives priority to society’s view and shame. The use of abortive practices, even though they were prohibited, were no doubt widespread, but given the number of events in certain regions, the issue concerning the future of the victims and their children to be born was raised with the public authorities. Thus, in Drôme, the prefect received instructions to provide them with “any material and moral help,” including housing the mother in a maternity home of a distant major city at the government’s expense, followed by the possible reception of the child by child care services. The Minister of Health, François Billoux, proposed granting to these children “the quality of ward of the state, but in such a way that neither they nor a third party might question their origin, so that they do not bear the consequences all their lives.” [54]

54The response from the National Office for the Maimed, Veterans, Victims of War and Wards of the Nation was categorical: it was out of the question to attribute a “title of honor,” which would no doubt give rise to protests “on the part of the real victims of the war. the attention owed to the blood shed for the country would suffer harm.” [55] The stain represented by rape on all of society could not be expressed any more clearly. The female victims who had not died, wounded in a way that was not visible, were asked to remain silent to avoid the spread of shame. For the director of the office, rape was the sign of useless blood spilled that was unable to stop the enemy from attacking French women especially because (this was the second argument) it was possible to confuse births from rape with those from consensual and guilty relations with members of the occupying army.

55It is not known what became of these children, who were probably born anonymously, handed over to Public Assistance, or put up for adoption, with the concern then being to erase the dramatic circumstances of their birth. As for the women, their personal lot was divided between assistance for those who had identified themselves, the de facto relinquishment of prosecution for sexual violence against their attackers, when they were known, and a silence that became more and more absolute over time. Unlike Germany and Italy, countries in which the rapes were not silenced, neither by the victims nor by society which maintained them in collective memory, the rape of French women quickly disappeared from the shared memory of the war. Its traces nonetheless remain in archives, literature and cinema, and in the intimate memories of those who experienced it. It is essential that these traces, which have been revived in the news over these last few decades, be included in the history of wartime rape.


Watch the video: Κ. Γρίβας: Ολιστικός υβριδικός πόλεμος της Τουρκίας και εξοπλισμοί 071021 (May 2022).