Information

What happened to the imperial archives stored at the Tabularium?


The Tabularium in Rome was used to house the archives of the Roman Empire.

Unfortunately, these archives do no longer exist. What happened to them?


Roman Forum

The Roman Forum is the centre of ancient Rome, it is also the largest inner-city archaeological area in the world. Nestled between the Capitoline and Palatine hills, for over a thousand years this area was the thriving civic, commercial, political and religious centre of the city. Like our city centres today, this is where most Romans spent their daily life – working, attending meetings, voting, shopping as well as attending various celebrations and parades. Today we can see the remains of Basilicas (law courts and public meeting places), the curia or senate house where people voted and the civic records office the Tabularium. On the raised street (via nova) are a number of shopping units and market stalls would have popped up on any street corner. Numerous temples (or remains of them) are scattered around the forum, most of which were converted into Christian churches later on. Today much of the area is a skeleton of its former greatness lacking the grand buildings, beautiful columns, arches and statues. Visiting the forum, we can appreciate the centre of an ancient empire that ruled the Mediterranean for over a thousand years.


LIVE NOW: Whose history? The "migrated archive" and Britain's colonial past

In April 2011, Foreign Secretary William Hague informed the British Parliament that a collection of some 25,000 historical files, that had been illegally held by his department for over 50 years, would be speedily transferred to The National Archive, at Kew. This vast collection of historical papers related to Britain’s imperial past, and is now known as the Hanslope Disclosure.

These were records that Britain had secretly removed from each of 37 of its colonies at the point of decolonization: these files were deemed too important or too damaging to leave behind, or potentially too useful to destroy. This lecture tells the story of how this so-called ‘Migrated Archive’ came into being, what happened to it over the years in which it was secretly retained, and how it came to be ‘discovered’ in the midst of a human rights trial at London’s Supreme Court on The Strand. Nearly a decade after that ‘discovery’, controversy still swirls around the question of who owns this ‘Migrated Archive’ and what should be done with it. Whose history is this, and where does such an archive belong?

The answers to these questions reveal much about Britain’s unease in dealing with the history of its past empire, and about the culture of secrecy that still infects British public institutions – even those that are supposed to be the guardians of our national heritage.

David M. Anderson is Professor of African History, in the Global History & Culture Centre at the University of Warwick. He has published widely on the history and politics of eastern Africa, including Histories of the Hanged (2005), The Khat Controversy (2007), The Routledge Handbook of African Politics (2013, ed), and Politics and Violence in Eastern Africa: The Struggles of Emerging States (2015, ed).

David M. Anderson is Professor of African History, in the Global History & Culture Centre at the University of Warwick.

Three of his projects will come to publication in the coming year: Allies at the End of Empire (ed), From Resistance to Rebellion, and Africa’s New Authoritarians. He is now working on a volume of essays on the Mau Mau counter-insurgency in 1950s Kenya, drawing upon colonial documents released since 2012, and (with Michael Bollig) an edited volume of essays on Conservation in Africa.

Anderson is editor of the African Studies Series at Cambridge University Press, would the Founding-Editor of the Journal of Eastern African Studies, and regularly contributes to the print and broadcast media on African politics.

About the Out of the Ashes lecture series

This three-year lecture series explores the theme of cultural loss and recovery across the centuries, from the destruction of the Library of Alexandria in antiquity to contemporary acts of cultural loss and destruction. A panel of world-leading experts reflects on how societies deal with cultural trauma through reconstruction and commemoration, and on how the international community should respond to cultural loss. The series is global in scope, pan-historical and multi-disciplinary in approach, and features international scholars and practitioners of the highest calibre.

Year 3 (2020–1), recovering draws together the themes of the series by exploring how we recover from cultural trauma—such as the tragic loss of the National Museum of Brazil in 2018—both literally through the reconstruction of lost archives and artefacts, and also socially through the creation of sites of cultural memory, whether virtual or real. The lectures also consider the debate on restitution and contemporary campaigns for repatriation—notably the case of the ‘Migrated Archive’ consisting of thousands of files from former British colonial possessions whose existence was illegally kept secret in breach of the Public Records Act (UK). A special panel event ‘Recovering Lost Voices’, will focus on suppressed histories and the unwritten archive, reflecting on issues of power and gender. See details of the full series here.

The Out of the Ashes lecture series is generously supported by Sean and Sarah Reynolds.

The Trinity Long Room Hub

The Trinity Long Room Hub is an Arts and Humanities Research Institute in Ireland’s leading university, Trinity College Dublin. The Trinity Long Room Hub Behind the Headlines series is supported by the John Pollard Foundation.


Ancient Archives, Modern Libraries, and Star Wars: Rogue One

Despite the movies’ opening assertion that it was "a long time ago,” the world of Star Wars would seem to have little to do with antiquity. And so I was surprised to find significant overlap between the most recent film in the franchise, Rogue One, and the world of libraries, both ancient and modern. Fair warning: spoilers for Rogue One abound ahead.

Rogue One tells a story that takes place immediately before the original Star Wars, detailing how the Rebel Alliance obtained the plans to the Galactic Empire’s super-weapon, the planet-destroying Death Star. The movie’s eponymous squadron is an ad hoc team of commandos who, in the film’s climactic sequence, infiltrate the imperial stronghold on the planet Scarif and make off with the secret plans that will enable Luke Skywalker to destroy the Empire’s ultimate weapon.

It’s worth noting that Scarif is not just an Imperial base, but is also the government’s archive: the final battle of Rogue One takes place in, around, and over a library. The spire of Scarif’s central structure is a silo in which information cartridges are stored, accessible through a robotic retrieval system. The collection seems to be poorly cataloged for a culture that has invented the hyperdrive—the Rebels essentially need to guess the title of the file they’re trying to locate. It’s possible that the Imperial officer that the Rebel robot K-2SO knocks unconscious upon entering the spire is an archivist, who presumably would have access to a finding aid for the collection. (Granted, the cataloging of classified military documents is dicey territory, but if the Defense Technical Information Center can establish guidelines for the US Department of Defense, it is hard to imagine that this is beyond the organizational powers of Emperor Palpatine.)

Aside from its poor search interface, the Imperial archive’s retrieval system—a robotic arm that travels around the storage column to retrieve information cartridges—is actually not too different from the storage and retrieval systems used in many libraries. Facilities like Columbia and Princeton’s ReCAP have 30-foot tall shelves, and use a forklift to retrieve bins of books. Some libraries use a robotic retrieval system to surface items in storage, as seen here in videos from Macquarie University and the Newcomb College Institute of Tulane University.

Unless you happen to be one those humans who doesn't know what happened in the first Star Wars film (Episode IV: A New Hope), it will come as no surprise that the rebels ultimately succeed in retrieving the Death Star plans. Far more surprising is the reaction of the Death Star’s commander, Grand Moff Tarkin, to the attack on the Imperial archive: he fires the Death Star’s main cannon on the planet, destroying the library entirely (and a sizable chunk of the planet along with it). The destruction of the Imperial archive raises lots of interesting questions: Did the Empire have a data backup plan? What else was stored there, and was any of that data backed up elsewhere? Did Tarkin have authorization to, for lack of a better word, deaccession the entire archive? And could anything of Scarif’s archive have survived such apocalyptic weeding? Is this where the story of Star Wars merges with that of Mr. Robot, with the Empire to suffer the fate of E Corp?

Many historical libraries have faced greater and lesser degrees of destruction. The best-known example is surely the Library of Alexandria, which is famous primarily for being destroyed (though there is no unambiguous historical account of its burning). The alleged fire has been blamed on a host of culprits, from Julius Caesar, to one of several third-century Roman emperors, Christian monks of the fourth century, and the seventh-century military commander ‘Amr ibn al-‘As, who led the Muslim conquest of Egypt. In his essay “Alexandria, Library of Dreams,” ISAW’s founding director Roger Bagnall identifies another possible culprit—the “slow fire” of gradual deterioration. True, the famed library of Alexandria did not survive, but in fact no papyri from antiquity could have survive the passage of centuries in the humid climate of Alexandria even if the Library itself had.

Alexandria aside, other destroyed libraries and abandoned archives have proven resilient sources of information. The library of the Villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum survives because it was destroyed: the papyrus scrolls, which would otherwise have fallen prey to the “slow fire” of deterioration and decay, were carbonized by the fires of Vesuvius. It has been theorized that the clay cuneiform tablets in Ashurbanipal’s library at Nineveh were baked into a more durable form by the fire that destroyed the royal palace in 612 BCE. A fire may also have preserved at least one of the Hittite archives at Hattusa, the clay walls of which were hardened into stone by fire when the city fell in around 1200 BCE, providing greater protection for its fragile contents.

The immediate spectre raised by the destruction of Scarif in Rogue One is that of book-burning. Authoritarian regimes rely on the ability to reshape, reinterpret, and if necessary obliterate the historical record. This assertion is at the core of one of the most famous works of modern science fiction, George Orwell’s 1984, whose protagonist is employed by the Ministry of Truth, a news/propaganda agency that also serves as an anti-archive, consigning all of its documents to incinerators. Though less spectacular than the destruction of the Imperial archive in Rogue One, the daily act of propagandists depositing the records of their activity in destructive “memory holes” serves the same purpose: erasing history.

Ancient libraries can also serve as reminders of the importance of preserving history. In his essay on the Library of Alexandria, Prof. Bagnall concludes that the historical circumstances of the library’s demise—whether spectacular or “slow”—are ultimately unimportant. What matters more is the Library’s reminder that the preservation of history and culture must be undertaken actively and not passively:

We should turn our attention away from the dramatic single event and toward the forces and personalities that create and sustain cultural institutions, for it is their absence in the Roman period, not the presence of some destructive force, that decided the fate of the books of Alexandria. Why should anyone be disillusioned by the realization that creative achievements survive only if we foster a cultural milieu that values them?

For Ashurbanipal, the assembly of the royal library at Nineveh was an expression of imperial authority. Rogue One presents us with an authoritarian Empire that sees the need to destroy what it cannot keep secret. Today's libraries and other scholarly institutions are aware of the importance of free and open access to information. The modern library's mission of discovery, preservation, and communication is a bulwark against authoritarian regimes like that embodied by the Empire of the Star Wars saga.


Designing for hyperlocal: The use of locative media to augment place narratives

Efstathia Kostopoulou , Ava Fatah gen Schieck , in Shaping Smart for Better Cities , 2021

Locative memories and digital mediation

Van Dijck observes that media and memories are not separate entities but rather the first enhances, corrupts, and mediates the latter ( van Dijck, 2007 ). Our lived memories seem to be increasingly shaped by digital technologies ( Huyssen, 2003 ), and how we create and preserve local memories has been closely related to the use of media tools. For instance, photographs and videos are all shaped by the specific technologies used for their production. Archives exist in various forms, physical or digital, from traditional archive buildings, to shoe boxes, to the web.

Yet, digital encounters with the physical site can be considered as a different category, bringing an added value and contribution to our ability to engage with places. Here, the interaction of content and form encourages us to move beyond the opposition of physical and digital encounter with the past, looking into the precise location of value in the process of digital engagement ( King et al., 2016 ).

Digital technologies can be used as tools to communicate and amplify social and spatial storytelling, providing spatial modes for engagement with site-specific stories, in new ways. In particular, locative technologies such as AR and large digital projection can combine computer-generated digital content with real spaces ( Feiner et al., 1997 Vlahakis et al., 2002 Vande Moere and Wouters, 2012 ). They do so, by overlaying the digital immaterial content on the material physical space. As such, they spatialize digital media content. In this respect, the value of engagement with the context arises from the local situation, in defined configurations of space and time coupled with technological mediation ( McCullough, 2007 ). Such mediation through digital technologies, mobile or fixed, enhances our perception and experience of place, allowing us to form new connections with the context. We suggest that this is even more relevant when it comes to the localities we inhabit and the preservation of their local memory ( Julier et al., 2016 ).


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Opium: The Downfall of Imperial China

We tend to think of the "drug problem" as a modern phenomenon. But a century ago, illegal drugs brought an end an empire that had lasted for thousands of years.

In 1793, China was the home of a sophisticated culture and a rich history. Among other remarkable achievements, China invented movable type, kites, and gunpowder. They perfected porcelain, silk and tea production. 1793, however, was the beginning of the end of Imperial China.

Great Britain and other European nations, desiring her silk, tea and porcelain, wanted badly to trade with China. China, however, wanted nothing to do with Europe, and even refused to see European diplomats. Finally in 1793, a British diplomat was successful in reaching the Chinese court. He told the Chinese of the wonderful products of his country, convinced that once they really knew what Europe had to offer, they would quickly agree to engage in trade. China, however, was unmoved. In a letter to King George, the emperor said,

. . . As your Ambassador can see for himself, we possess all things. I set no value on objects strange or ingenious, and have no use for your country's manufactures. . . Our Celestial Empire possesses all things in prolific abundance and lacks no product within its own borders. There was therefore no need to import the manufactures of outside barbarians in exchange for our own produce. But as the tea, silk and porcelain which the Celestial Empire produces, are absolute necessities to European nations and to yourselves, we have permitted, as a signal mark of favour, that foreign hongs [merchant firms] should be established at Canton, so that your wants might be supplied and your country thus participate in our beneficence.

They would sell Europe their silk, tea and porcelain, but would buy nothing in return.

Because Chinese goods were so sought-after in Europe, an imbalance of trade developed. European gold and silver went to China to import goods, but none returned because there was no possibility of export. This was unacceptable to the British and they desperately looked for a solution.

The solution to Britain's problem was opium. Although opium had been used in China for medicinal purposes for a long time, it had not been used as a recreational drug. The British introduced opium to China in 1825, and soon, not surprisingly, Chinese began to be addicted to the drug. The emperor outlawed the possession, use, and trade in opium, but the profits were so immense, that an illegal trade quickly developed. The East India Company in India supplied all the opium the Chinese wanted and the Chinese government was unable to stop the smuggling. The balance of trade gradually reversed.

In 1839 the Emperor ordered Commissioner Lin Tse-Hsu to put a stop to the opium trade. Lin wrote to Queen Victoria, appealing to the British sense of justice and compassion:

We have heard that in your own country opium is prohibited with the utmost strictness and severity:---this is a strong proof that you know full well how hurtful it is to mankind. Since then you do not permit it to injure your own country, you ought not to have the injurious drug transferred to another country, and above all others, how much less to the Inner Land! Of the products which China exports to your foreign countries, there is not one which is not beneficial to mankind in some shape or other. There are those which serve for food, those which are useful, and those which are calculated for re-sale but all are beneficial. Has China (we should like to ask) ever yet sent forth a noxious article from its soil?

He received no reply. Left on his own to solve the problem, Lin ordered the destruction of a large supply of opium stored on Chinese soil. (The Chinese had allowed the British one port in which they could trade with China).

The British were outraged, and the first Opium War began. Faced with British industrial weaponry, it was no contest, and Britain easily defeated the Chinese. As part of the settlement of the war, China was forced to agree to open up new ports for trade, and to surrender the island of Hong Kong. A second Opium War was launched by Britain in 1856, forcing more concessions on the Chinese. Among other humiliations, the Chinese government was no longer able to hold foreigners accountable under Chinese law for crimes committed in China. The proud Central Kingdom had lost the ability to control trade and foreign nationals within its own borders.

An ever-weakening Chinese government also lost the support of its own people, whom it could no longer protect. By 1911, the empire was dead and a republic was born in China.


Contents

For the 1955 model year, the Imperial was launched and registered as a separate marque (make), apart from the Chrysler brand. It was a product of the new Imperial Division of Chrysler Corporation, meaning that the Imperial would be a make and division unto itself, and not bear the Chrysler name. [1] [5] Chrysler Corporation sent notices to all state licensing agencies in the then-48 states, informing them, that the Imperial, beginning in 1955, would no longer be registered as a Chrysler, but as a separate make . [6] [7] Chrysler introduced Forward Look Styling by Virgil Exner, who would define Imperial's look (and the look of cars from the other four Chrysler divisions) from 1955 to 1963. [8] [9] Even as early as in 1954, Chrysler Corporation ads at the time began to visibly and consciously separate The Imperial from the Chrysler Division car line in the eyes of the public, to prepare for the big change coming in 1955. [10] [11] [12] Once the "Imperial" brand was introduced, Cadillac no longer used the "Imperial" name for its top-level limousines starting in 1955.

1955 Edit

The 1955 models are said to be inspired by Exner's own 1952 Chrysler Imperial Parade Phaeton show cars (which were themselves later updated to match the 1955-56 Imperials). The platform and bodyshell were shared with that year's big Chryslers, but the Imperial had a wheelbase that was 4.0 inches (102 mm) longer, providing it with more rear-seat legroom, had a wide-spaced split egg-crate grille, the same as that used on the Chrysler 300 "executive hot rod", and had free-standing "gunsight" taillights mounted above the rear quarters, which were similar to those on the Exner's 1951 Chrysler K-310 concept car. Gunsight taillights were also known as "sparrow-strainer" taillights, named after the device used to keep birds out of jet engines. Such taillights were separated from the fender and surrounded by a ring and became an Imperial fixture through 1962, although they would only be free-standing in 1955-56 and again in 1961-62. Two "C-69" models were available, including the two-door Newport hardtop coupe (3,418 built) and pillared four-door sedan (7,840 built), along with an additional "C-70" Crown limousine model (172 built). The "FirePower" V8 engine was Chrysler's first-generation Hemi with a displacement of 331 cu in (5.4 L) and developing 250 brake horsepower (186 kW). Power brakes and power steering were standard, along with Chrysler's "PowerFlite" automatic transmission. One major option on the 1955 and 1956 Imperials was air conditioning, at a cost of $535. Production totaled 11,430, more than twice the 1954 figure, but far below Lincoln and Cadillac.

1956 Edit

The 1956 models were similar, but had small tailfins. The Hemi V8 was enlarged to 354 cu in (5.8 L) with 280 brake horsepower (209 kW), and a four-door Southampton hardtop sedan was added to the range. 10,268 were produced. With a wheelbase of 133.0 inches (3,378 mm), longer than the previous year's by 3.0 inches (76 mm), they had the longest wheelbase ever for an Imperial. This also contributed to an increase in their overall length to 229.6 inches (5,832 mm), making them the longest non-limousine post-WWII American cars until the advent of the Imperials of the "Fuselage Look" era in the 1970s.

1956 was the year that Chrysler introduced the push button PowerFlite automatic transmission, with the three-speed TorqueFlite becoming available mid-year Packard also introduced a similar system called the Touchbutton Ultramatic in the Imperial's competitor, the Packard Caribbean and the Patrician.

On April 28, 1955, Chrysler and Philco announced the development and production of the world's first all-transistor car radio, [13] the Mopar model 914HR. It was developed and produced by Chrysler and Philco and was a $150.00 "option" on the 1956 Imperial car models. Philco manufactured the Mopar 914HR starting in the fall of 1955 at its Sandusky Ohio plant, for Chrysler. [14] [15] [16]

For the 1957 model year, the Imperial received its own platform, setting it apart from any other division of Chrysler. This would last through the 1966 model year. Imperials during this period were substantially wider, both inside and out, than other Mopars, with front and rear shoulder room equal to 64.0 in (1,626 mm) and 62.0 in (1,575 mm) respectively. The front seat shoulder room measurement remains an unsurpassed record for Imperial and would remain the record for any car until the 1971–1976 GM full-size models. Exterior width reached a maximum of 81.7 in (2,075 mm) for 1961–1963, which remains the record for the widest non-limousine American car. After Lincoln downsized for 1961, this generation of Imperial had no real competitor for the title of largest car for the remainder of its decade-long lifespan.

Unlike the rest of the Chrysler Corporation makes (Chrysler, De Soto, Dodge, and Plymouth) that began unibody construction for 1960, the Imperial retained separate full perimeter frames for rigidity through the 1966 model year. These substantial frames had a box cross-section with crossmembers forming an "X". The driveshaft passed through a hole in the "X" frame. The parking brake gripped the driveshaft and was not connected to the rear drum brakes prior to the 1963 model year.

The Imperial, and all Chrysler-built cars, incorporated "Torsion-Aire" suspension for 1957. This was an indirect-acting, torsion-bar front suspension system that reduced unsprung weight and shifted the car's center of gravity downward and rearward. Torsion-bar suspension on the front combined with multi-leaf springs on the rear provided a smoother ride and improved handling. Pillarless hardtops, in both two and four-door configurations, received the Southampton designation.

The Hongqi CA770, a Chinese state limousine, was based on the second-gen Imperial, however used a 340 which was not available in the Imperial. [18]

1957 Edit

The 1957 model year was based on an even greater degree on Virgil Exner's "Forward Look" styling (also used on other full-size Chryslers of the period). It featured a "biplane" front bumper, a full-width egg-crate grille, and quad headlights (where legal). Taller tailfins now encompassed the trademark gunsight taillights and framed a downward tapering decklid that met the rear bumper. Curved side glass was employed for the first time in a U.S. production car. The Hemi engine with a displacement enlarged to 392 cu in (6.4 L) was standard for 1957-58. Power seats and dual exhaust were made standard across the line. A convertible was available for the first time on an Imperial and only offered in the mid-range Crown series. Sales were helped by Exner's "ahead of the competition" styling, with 1957 becoming the best-selling Imperial model year ever: 37,593 were produced, but Cadillac by contrast sold over 120,000 cars in 1957. Quality control also slipped considerably, a consequence of the second total redesign in two years.

Starting in the 1957 model year, Imperials were available in three levels of trim: standard Imperial Custom, mid-range Imperial Crown, and the new top-of-the-line Imperial LeBaron [19] (a reference to LeBaron, Carrossiers). The custom-built Imperial Crown limousine was also offered. [19] Through the late 1950s and into the early 1960s styling would continue to become "Longer, Lower, Wider", with the addition of some of the wildest fins on a car. The "FliteSweep Deck Lid", a simulated Continental tire bulge, was an option for 1957 through 1961 and again in 1963 (due to demand). It was shared with contemporary Mopars, including the Valiant. Exner's design extended to early-fifties concept cars like the 1953 Chrysler D'Elegance.

1958 Edit

Styling changes for 1958 were limited to the front grille and bumper. Quad headlights became standard. The 1958 Imperial is credited with the introduction of cruise control, which was called "Auto-Pilot", and was available on the Imperial, and on Chrysler New Yorker and Windsor models. [20] Power door locks were another new option. Sales slipped to 16,133 in a recession year. Dealers were frustrated with buyers referring to the cars as a "Chrysler Imperial", which inhibited sales as Chrysler was not seen as having Cadillac or Lincoln's prestige. It didn't help that Imperial continued to be sold at Chrysler dealerships, instead of standalone dealers, although it did have a separate "Imperial" dealership sign.

1959 Edit

Production was moved from the traditional Jefferson Avenue Assembly plant in Detroit to an exclusive facility on Warren Avenue, north of the Jefferson Avenue factory. Other than a toothy new grill and revisions to side trim little changed in terms of exterior styling for the 1959 model year. A new option was the "Silvercrest" roof which featured a stainless steel front with a rear canopy that could be ordered either in any of the basic car colors or in the "Landau" version which had a black canopy with the appearance of leather.

A new option were the swivel-out front seats that were part of the six-way electric front bench seat. Manually activated by a handle for this introductory year, in 1960 the seats would automatically swivel when the front door was opened or closed, activated by a cable and springs. This automatic feature was discontinued by Chrysler within a few months. Many assume this was for safety reasons, although the specific reason is not clearly documented. Swivel seats returned to manual operation for the rest of 1960 and all of 1961.

The Hemi V8 was replaced with the less expensive 413 cu in (6.8 L) "Wedge" head V8 engine that nevertheless had more horsepower and weighed 101 lbs less, improving the power-to-weight ratio. For the model year 17,710 Imperials were produced, ahead of Lincoln, as the Packard luxury brand withdrew from the marketplace. The few Ghia-built 1959 Imperial Crown limousines continued to use the 392 cubic-inch Hemi, due to slow production. These cars got the 413 engine for 1960.

The design of the 1960–1963 period had elicited some controversy. At that time, Exner was increasingly struggling with the Chrysler president and board. "It was during 1962 Exner was dethroned as president of design in Highland Park. His successor was Elwood Engel, lured away from Ford to lead Chrysler Corporation along a more conventional path. Exner continued as a consultant through 1964, after which he had no further involvement." [ citation needed ] This source [ which? ] also states, "When he was good, he was very good ( re: styling). When he was bad. it was the epitome of excessive design. Sales dropped off and the board stepped in." [ citation needed ] Exner's son went on further, in a 1976 interview, "it was time for a change. Their image needed changing. Dad was a great designer and he was always ahead of his time. He gained more freedom from Chrysler in his designs of the modern Stutz." [ citation needed ] This same source [ which? ] gives accounts of how Chrysler Corporation was revived through corporate changes in leadership. "But on the product front, the influence of Tex Colbert (ousted President of Chrysler in 1961) and Virgil Exner was still present, and it wouldn't be entirely washed away until 1965". [21]

Despite the annual styling changes, all 1960-63 models featured a similar space age dashboard. The steering wheel was squared-off at top and bottom, designed for better legroom and view through the windshield in the straight-ahead position. Dashboard lighting was electroluminescent, which used no incandescent lamps: electricity running through a five-layer laminate caused the phosphorescent ceramic layer to glow in the dark. Chrysler called it "Panelescent", and it was shared on some Chrysler models. The effect was eerie and surprisingly modern, with its glowing blue-green face and bright red needles. The 1960-63 models were also united by a distinctive side trim that started above the headlights and that ran at a slight downward angle almost to the end of the rear fender (except in 1963 when it would actually wrap all the way around the rear of the car) that was undercut by a slight indent in the sides from the front until just before the rear wheel housing.

A significant change in the car's proportions had occurred between the 1959 and 1960 model years. Although, at 226.3 inches, the 1960 Imperials were exactly the same length as the previous year, the whole body had been shifted forward, with a 2.1 inch reduction in the rear overhang, and a corresponding increase at the front.

1960 Edit

The 1960 Imperial adopted wildly exaggerated styling, featuring front fascia with a swooping bumper, gaping mesh grille, giant chrome eagle, and hooded quad headlights, and tall rear fins. Soaring fins had bullet-style tail lamps at the peak of the fin, with a chrome ring surrounding it. The grille and bumper on the front of the 1960 used large pieces of heavy chrome, and the 'furrowed brows' of the fenders over the double sets of headlights gave the car a ponderous look. In common with most other 1960 Chrysler products, the Imperial featured the new "High-Tower" seat with the driver-side back individually contoured and raised above of the rest of the front seat for increased driver comfort and shoulder support. This would last through the 1962 model year. Also for 1960, Imperial changed back to 15 inch diameter wheels from the 14 inch diameter wheels that had been standard since the 1957 model. Imperial LeBarons now featured a distinctive smaller "formal rear window" for greater rear-seat privacy. Sales increased to 17,719. Imperial again finished ahead of Lincoln, but never did so again. While the rest of Chrysler's lineup adopted unibody construction, Imperial retained its body on frame construction.


The origins

Finds of ceramics dating back to the Bronze Age (around 1300 BC) and extensive craftsmanship dedicated to metalworking testify that the Capitol was inhabited long before the foundation of Rome.

Two hills, the Arx and the Capitolium , originally characterized the hill, separated by a small valley which the first king Romulus used to welcome the inhabitants of the nearby towns by the name Asylum , (hence the name).

The strategic position of the hill with very steep sides made it a real acropolis of the city, a bulwark for the defense of the inhabitants from external attacks. The first historical notes on the Capitol can be found in some stories and works by Latin poets ( Horace , Tacitus , Ovid , Titus Livy ), generally linked to the religious value of the hill.

The Hellenistic origin of the foundation of Rome found an accurate narrator in the biographer Plutarch . Aeneas , the Trojan hero who landed on the Lazio coast after the fall of Troy had a son Ascanio who in turn gave birth to the royal lineage of Alba Longa from which Romolo founder of the city descended . 1

Bloody struggles broke out between the people of the Sabines (1st millennium BC) stationed on the Quirinal hill and that of the Romans (stationed on the Palatine ) to affirm the dominance of the Capitoline hill.

Origin of the name

The name of the hill derives precisely from the temple of Jupiter Capitoline (Capitolium) , or temple of Jupiter Optimum Maximus, whose altar was dedicated to the Capitoline triad (Jupiter, Juno and Minerva).

The Capitoline name derives from the discovery of the head (caput) of an Etruscan warrior Aulo Vipsania during the numerous excavations and restorations of its foundations to erect the temple.

The name of the entire hill is assumed to have been created by: caput Auli from which Capitolium. The dimensions of the temple of Jupiter Capitoline, 53 mx 63, extraordinary at that time, were proof of the prestige and grandeur of the Rome of the Kings in the 6th century BC

Temple of Jupiter

In the Bucoliche di Virgilio , it is said how the Romans had built a “very rich” Temple dedicated to Jupiter:

Tarpeji from here to the seat, and the Capitol leads
Golden now, but wild dumin
For now, they were afraid of the field as well as the ordinance of the men who loved
the dread of the place now as well as to the forest, a rock, were trembling
This leafy wood, which, he said, leafy top of a hill,
Who is God, yet uncertain, there dwells God. The Arcadians
believe they have looked to Jupiter. 1

From the text it is clear “from here it leads to Mount Tarpeo and the Capitol, now golden, once bristling with wild brambles but always a place of divine veneration. The peasants trembled in fear in that fortress with a leafy forest where a god lived. The Arcadians believe they have seen Jupiter himself … “. The temple was consecrated in 509 BC

From 750 BC, the hill has allowed dominion over the control of land traffic and the Tiber river thanks to its height of 48 meters above sea level. Here the Etruscan king Tarquino Prisco built the imposing temple of Jupiter making it rise to a religious center as well as a very political center influential.

Storage area

On the slopes of the Capitol, in 78 BC, by the will of the consul Quinto Lutazio Catulo the Tabularium was built to preserve the Tabule , in bronze to better preserve them, on which the most important public acts were engraved (decrees, laws, peace treaties etc … ).

It was the state archive, huge and organized, testifying to the gigantic Roman organization and wisdom in documenting the real values ​​and culture for their descendants.

The building, with its powerful structures in peperino and tuff and with its arched facade stands on a high base 73.7 m long. It was built as a defense stronghold and raised to the level of the Asylum. It is the same base that today supports today’s Senatorio palace, the seat of the Municipality of Rome.

Its large corridor resting on a colossal substructure, 67 m long overlooking the Roman forum, is still visible. All Roman buildings used the loggia with half columns which was taken as a model for later constructions in the republican era.

The Tabularium is part of the complex of the Capitoline Museums which, through the Lapidary Gallery, connects Palazzo Nuovo to Palazzo dei Conservatori. To date, three arches still persist while only a few traces of the Doric frieze with metopes and triglyphs remain.


Movie Celebrities ‘Find’ Fallbrook

By Edmund Rucker

FALLBROOK, Jan. 9 (Special) — Motion picture celebrities have discovered Fallbrook’s rare combination of climate, deep fertile soil, unsurpassable scenic splendor and its invitation to solitude. Here they escape at grateful intervals from the artificiality and turmoil of the screen environment, and its exhausting social demands. here they may recharge their waning spirits in the silence and bracing air of a rural paradise. But some Hollywood folk have established permanent all-year homes here.

The latest of these is Wayne Morris, Western screen tough guy, who six month ago acquired a 20-acre ranch, half of which is in avocado trees. Mrs. Morris and the two Morris children, one 2 1/2, the other under a year old, now regard themselves as permanent residents of San Diego County Morris spends his week ends and vacations ere.

Then there are Frank Capra, Paramount director and producer of “It Happened One Night,” “You Can’t Take IT With You,” “Mr. Smith Goes to Washington”) Dolores Costello (formerly Mrs. John Barrymore, now Mrs. John Brunick) Douglas Shearer, M-G-M technical adviser and Lee Garmes, a top-flight Paramount camera man.

Ann Harding, stage and screen actress, also had a ranch here until commitments in the east caused her to sell.

First of these to settle in the Fallbrook area was Capra. Eleven years ago he acquired 1200 acres planted to avocadoes, lemons, oranges, limes and olives. although he has an income as a motion picture director not far this side of $100,000 a year, he now has reason to regard his Hollywood activities as a sideline.

Capra and his father-in-law, Myron Warner, as partners have developed an annual production that deserves to be termed big business.

The Capra family was in Hollywood when I called, but Warner was a gracious host. Mrs. Capra is the former Lucille Warner, a graduate of the University of California. She has never been connected with the stage or screen. they have three children, Frank Jr., 16, Lucille, 13, and Tom, 9.

Warner estimates the present investment in te ranch at half a million dollars. With bare land in the Fallbrook area selling at $1200 an acre and up to $5000 an acre for grove land, it can be seen that this appraisal, considering all the improvements, is not overstated. The Capra ranch soon will have 20,000 avocado trees, Warner said. Included in this count are those now in the nursery.

But the biggest source of Capra ranch revenue is from olive oil. A plant for pressing olives has been set up, through which pass from 500 to 1000 tons of olives annually. The olive oil thus produced is shipped all over the United States. Warner emphasizes that it is equal in quality to any imported product.

Organic gardening is practiced on the Capra ranch. No commercial fertilizer is put into the soil. Earthworms are used extensively. Warner said he has dumped truckloads of worms into compost. On one occasion he purchased $1200 worth of earthworms. As for the fertilizers, he spreads only natural materials.

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What happened to the big Jewish delis in Chicago?

"Why isn't there a good deli in the Gold Coast area where you can get a good corned beef or chicken soup. A big deli like New York has or LA," Susan Wolf wrote into our reader-driven series, "What's the Story?"

First, the easy part. There is, in fact, a good deli where you can get both a good corned beef sandwich and chicken soup in the Gold Coast area of Chicago.

The Goddess and Grocer at 1127 N. State St., near the triangular convergence of State, Rush and Cedar streets, may be the biggest surprise of a deli in a tiny gem of a shop. They will make a corned beef sandwich to order, but there's a so-called Mile High Reuben ($12) on the menu. The sandwich is lovely but relatively petite, compared with the giant deli sandwiches we've come to expect. It has simply a few slices of shaved corned beef or turkey pastrami, plus Swiss cheese, sauerkraut and Thousand Island dressing, all on marble rye. A monthly calendar lists soups of the day, but one notable chicken soup is available every day: matzo ball ($6.50).

"We definitely have the chicken matzo ball soup, and you can take a quart away," said The Goddess and Grocer chef and owner Debbie Sharpe. The quart includes two matzo balls. "As for the big deli corned beef, it's just not our demographic. We tried with the big sandwiches, but people are not willing to pay like they are in New York, because (the big sandwich) seems to be more of a tourist attraction."


Mars Probe Lost Due to Simple Math Error

NASA lost its $125-million Mars Climate Orbiter because spacecraft engineers failed to convert from English to metric measurements when exchanging vital data before the craft was launched, space agency officials said Thursday.

A navigation team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory used the metric system of millimeters and meters in its calculations, while Lockheed Martin Astronautics in Denver, which designed and built the spacecraft, provided crucial acceleration data in the English system of inches, feet and pounds.

As a result, JPL engineers mistook acceleration readings measured in English units of pound-seconds for a metric measure of force called newton-seconds.

In a sense, the spacecraft was lost in translation.

“That is so dumb,” said John Logsdon, director of George Washington University’s space policy institute. “There seems to have emerged over the past couple of years a systematic problem in the space community of insufficient attention to detail.”

The loss of the Mars probe was the latest in a series of major spaceflight failures this year that destroyed billions of dollars worth of research, military and communications satellites or left them spinning in useless orbits. Earlier this month, an independent national security review concluded that many of those failures stemmed from an overemphasis on cost cutting, mismanagement, and poor quality control at Lockheed Martin, which manufactured several of the malfunctioning rockets.

But NASA officials and Lockheed executives said it was too soon to apportion blame for the most recent mishap. Accident review panels convened by JPL and NASA are still investigating why no one detected the error.

“It was launched that way,” said Noel Hinners, vice president for flight systems at Lockheed Martin’s space systems group. “We were transmitting English units and they were expecting metric units. The normal thing is to use metric and to specify that.”

None of JPL’s rigorous quality control procedures caught the error in the nine months it took the spacecraft to make its 461-million-mile flight to Mars. Over the course of the journey, the miscalculations were enough to throw the spacecraft so far off track that it flew too deeply into the Martian atmosphere and was destroyed when it entered its initial orbit around Mars last week.

John Pike, space policy director at the Federation of American Scientists, said that it was embarrassing to lose a spacecraft to such a simple math error. “It is very difficult for me to imagine how such a fundamental, basic discrepancy could have remained in the system for so long,” he said.

“I can’t think of another example of this kind of large loss due to English-versus-metric confusion,” Pike said. “It is going to be the cautionary tale until the end of time.”

At the Jet Propulsion Lab, which owes its international reputation to the unerring accuracy it has displayed in guiding spacecraft across the shoals of space, officials did not flinch from acknowledging their role in the mistake.

“We know this error is the cause,” said Thomas R. Gavin, deputy director of JPL’s space and earth science directorate, which is responsible for the JPL Mars program. “And our failure to detect it in the mission caused the unfortunate loss of Mars Climate Orbiter.

“When it was introduced and how it was introduced we don’t know yet,” Gavin said.

NASA officials in Washington were reluctant to blame either Lockheed Martin or JPL solely for the problem, saying that the error arose from a broader quality control failure.

“People make mistakes all the time,” said Carl Pilcher, the agency’s science director for solar system exploration. “I think the problem was that our systems designed to recognize and correct human error failed us.

“We don’t see any connection between this failure and anything else going on at Lockheed Martin,” Pilcher said. “This was not a failure of Lockheed Martin. It was systematic failure to recognize and correct an error that should have been caught.”

In any event, scientists are anxious that the conversion error does not affect a second spacecraft, the Mars Polar Lander, now approaching the red planet for a landing Dec. 3. The lost orbiter would have served as a radio relay for the lander before beginning its own two-year survey of the Martian atmosphere and seasonal weather.

Data exchanges for the Global Surveyor, which has been orbiting Mars since 1997, have been conducted exclusively in the metric system, Hinners said. Mission controllers expect to use the Surveyor as a relay station in place of the lost orbiter.

If found formally at fault by an accident review board, Lockheed will face financial penalties. But it was not certain Thursday whether Lockheed’s contract with JPL actually specified the system of measurements to be used, as many aerospace agreements now often do.

Whatever the contractual consequences for the aerospace company, the loss of the Mars orbiter might have a lasting effect on public confidence in NASA, space analysts said.

Earlier this year, for example, NASA faced public concerns about its Cassini probe as it swung within a celestial hairsbreadth of Earth with an on-board cache of plutonium. The agency’s matchless skill in navigating space helped defuse fears of a potentially lethal collision between Earth and the Cassini probe.

Now that skill will be more open to question, analysts said Thursday.

“It is ironic,” Logsdon said, “that we can cooperate in space with the Russians and the Japanese and the French but we have trouble cooperating across parts of the United States. Fundamentally, you have partners in this enterprise speaking different languages.”


Watch the video: Le tabularium civique et militaire (January 2022).