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The Payava Tomb



File:Tomb of Payava, north end.jpg

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File:Tomb of Payava, east side peltasts.jpg

This work is in the public domain in its country of origin and other countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 70 years or fewer.

You must also include a United States public domain tag to indicate why this work is in the public domain in the United States. Note that a few countries have copyright terms longer than 70 years: Mexico has 100 years, Jamaica has 95 years, Colombia has 80 years, and Guatemala and Samoa have 75 years. This image may not be in the public domain in these countries, which moreover do not implement the rule of the shorter term. Côte d'Ivoire has a general copyright term of 99 years and Honduras has 75 years, but they do implement the rule of the shorter term. Copyright may extend on works created by French who died for France in World War II (more information), Russians who served in the Eastern Front of World War II (known as the Great Patriotic War in Russia) and posthumously rehabilitated victims of Soviet repressions (more information).


The upper part of the Tomb of Payava

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The finds from the excavations show that the city was used as a settlement since the 8th century BC. There was no evidence that the city was used as a settlement before this date.

Acording to Herodotos when the city was dominated by the Persians, after the heroic resistance of the Xanthos, they set fire to the city and delivered them to Persian Commander Harpagos in a devastated way.

Alexander the Great conquered this city in 334 BC. After the death of Alexander the Great, Xanthos came under the rule of the Egyptian Ptolemaios in 309 BC and then Antiochus III of Syria.

Xanthos, the capital of the Lycian League in the 2nd century BC, came under the rule of the Romans in 42 BC. Most of the surviving survivors were built during the Roman Empire period. Xanthos, the episcopacy center during the Byzantine rule, gained many new structures during this period. After that, it was under the sovereignty of Byzantium and remained under the Byzantine rule until the Arab invasions of the 7th century. The Arab invasions in the 7th century AD caused the city to lose its importance.


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The Payava Tomb - History

The surrounding area around the Payava Hotel makes for some of the most marvelous day trips – with something for all the family. Expand the sections below to discover some of what Kalkan has to offer, from exquisite natural beaches, to adrenaline pumping watersports & ATV safari.

Kalamar and Kulube beach clubs are a 10 minutes walk from the hotel. They are essentially platforms on the rocky shoreline with ladder access into the sea and they both have umbrellas, sunbeds, changing & toilet facilities and a cafe/restaurant.
Kalamar Beach has a water sports area, however Kulube Beach can be a little quieter. Kalamar Beach also has a complimentary shuttle service. Beaches charge an entrance fee for sunbeds and umbrellas.

Kalkan Public Beach is in the old town next to harbor formed of bright white pebbles lapped by stunningly clear water, an ideal for a spot of snorkeling – with Blue Flag status and handy facilities such as restaurants and changing rooms. The beach charges an entrance fee for sunbeds and umbrellas.

Indigo Beach is a 15 minute walk from the hotel. It is next to the Kalkan Harbour. It comprises of platforms on the rocky shoreline with ladder access into the sea and they both have umbrellas, sunbeds, changing room & toilet facilities, a cafe/restaurant and water sports area. No music on the beach. The beach charges an entrance fee for sunbeds and umbrellas.

Yali Beach is a 20 minutes walk from the hotel with a natural rocky shoreline and gradual sunbathing area. Umbrella, comfortable sunbeds, changing rooms & toilet facilities and cafe/restaurant is provided. The beach is a relaxing beach, no music during the day. However, somedays there is live jazz&blues performances during sunset. The beach charges an entrance fee for sunbeds and umbrellas.

Mahal Beach provides boat service to the beach from the Kalkan Harbor which is a 15 minutes from the hotel. Sunbathing platforms lined with olive trees offer you to relax and soak up the sun, and ladders from the terraces go straight into the sea. The beach charges an entrance fee for sunbeds and umbrellas.

Zest Beach provides free boat service to the beach from the Kalkan Harbor which is a 15 minutes from the hotel. The beach has a salt water swimming pool. Umbrellas, sunbeds, changing room and toilet facilities and a cafe/restaurant has been provided.

Palm Beach provides free boat service to the beach from the Kalkan Harbor which is a 15 minutes from the hotel. Umbrellas, sunbeds, changing room & toilet facilities and a cafe/restaurant has been provided. Also, the beach has a Professional Massage Area, you can both have a massage and enjoy the beach. The beach charges an entrance fee for sunbeds and umbrellas.

Kalkan Beach Park provides free boat service to the beach from the Kalkan Harbor which is a 15 minutes from the hotel. This beach is also suitable for families with children. Besides umbrellas, sunbeds, changing room & toilet facilities and a cafe/restaurant has provided, the beach has waterslide, water trampoline and small sand area for swimming from the shore. The beach charges an entrance fee for sunbeds and umbrellas.

Kalkan is located in the middle of the Lycian civilization – where the ancient Xanthos valley meets the sea.

Patara is still being excavated, one of the most rewarding ancient sites to visit. There’s a huge theatre, recently restored parliament building and impressive Roman baths, not forgetting the incredible 11-mile long Patara beach. Patara is famous with its assembly building which was featured in a New York Times article and is one of the first democratic assemblies of the ancient world.

Xanthos dates back to the 4th century BC. It was the capital of ancient Lycia and the original home of the Payava tomb monument that is the name of our hotel, now in the British museum.

Letoon is 4 kilometers away from Xanthos, you’ll find the Temples of Leto and her children Artemis and Apollo. Here was the religious centre of Lycians.

Tlos is one of the most breathtaking ancient Lycian cities Located around a fortified hilltop in the foothills of the Taurus Mountains. Ancient Tlos was one of the principal cities of Lycia. Most of it has now crumbled away, but you can still see the remains of the acropolis, fortress, cave tombs and a Roman stadium.

Myra The city of Myra was once important as Ephesus the current site includes a large Roman amphitheater and Lycian rock tombs cut into the cliff face. And just a few kilometers away, you’ll find The Basilica of St Nicholas.

Arycanda The stunning location high in the cedar forests adds another dimension to the well-excavated Lycian site of Arycanda, built into the mountainside on five terraces. It’s home to the largest bath complex in Lycia, as well as two necropolises, a stadium and an amphitheater.

Kayaköy Abandoned after the Turkish-Greek population exchange of 1923, the preserved ‘ghost village’ of Kayaköy consists of hundreds of deserted, Greek-style houses and churches. It’s a 90-minute trip worth making.

Kaputas Beach is 10 minutes away from the Kalkan. The water is generally cool and turquoise in color, as the water flowing from underground is filtered through the sand on the sea shore. The beach is reached by descending 187 steps from the highway. Be sure that turquoise waters will be worth it. The restaurant/cafe, changing room and toilet is provided.

Saklikent Gorge is 45 minutes away from Kalkan by car. With a depth of 300 meters, this canyon is among the deepest canyons in the world. You can attend rafting and safari activities. Don’t forget to bring sea shoes with you before you visit Saklikent Canyon

Patara Beach is 15 minutes far away from Kalkan by car. It is the 2nd longest beach of Turkey with 12 km of beach length and width of 1500 meters. Consisting of fine sand, the beach is also the spawning ground for Caretta Caretta turtles. Therefore, the beach is closed except from 8 am to 8 pm. Don’t forget to visit the Patara Ancient city while going to the beach.

Patara Sand Dunes is 15 minutes far away from Kalkan by car. Here is the best location to watch the sunset and skyline. Hills stand out with their fine sand and magnificent view. On a clear day when the sun is setting, the silhouette of Rhodos Island becomes visible. You can bring your own drink and enjoy the glamorous sunset…

ATV & Safari & Horse Riding tours are very popular in Kalkan. You can rent an ATV for 2 as an individual or you can join group tours. Patara is the main destination of all tours.

Water Sports are available in most of the beaches, you just need to ask for it, they will come and pick you. Jet Ski, parasailing, wake- board, water ski, inflatables and more available.

Diving will be very fascinating for you! There are diving schools in Kalamar Bay or Kas. You can learn how to dive, feed the fishes or improve your diving at reefs or the famous Blue Cave. If you are an experienced diver, you can find professional routes to dive in this amazing region.

Paragliding will be the extreme sport of your holiday! Babadag/ Oludeniz (85 km) is the one of the famous paragliding centres of Turkey. You can stay in the air approximately 40 minutes here. You can choose the closer alternative in Kas (24 km). In Kas, approximately 25 minutes is your flying time.

Boat Tour A day out on a boat trip at Kalkan or at Kekova is the best way to experience the full beauty of the Turquoise Coast, with time for a swim and a delicious lunch on board.
At Kekova you can also visit the sunken remains A leisurely boat trip reveals the half-submerged ruins of houses, staircases and the original harbour.
Take a boat trip from nearby Kaş to the Greek island of Meis – look out for the resident turtles and don’t forget your passport.


Tiedosto:The tomb of Payava, a Lykian aristocrat, about 375-360 BC, from Xanthos, British Museum (9504934234).jpg

One of the most common forms of free-standing Lykian tombs is the barrel-vaulted sarcophagus, placed on a high base, with architectural features carved in stone to imitate wooden structures.

The British Museum has one complete barrel-vaulted tomb from Lykia. The occupant, Payava, is named in an inscription. The figures carved on the walls of the tomb combine Greek and Persian elements. On one of the shorter sides an athlete seems entirely Greek, and his bearded companion is dressed in Greek style, but on the adjacent side a dignified seated figure in full Persian dress is shown receiving a delegation. This may be the satrap (local ruler) Autophradates, who is named in the inscription as having made a presentation to Payava. On the other long side of the tomb is a scene of a battle. The second short side has two long-haired and bearded men, wearing cuirasses and a cloak. The inscription on this side names Payava, who may be one of the soldiers represented.

The heads and foreparts of lions, a favourite Lykian royal symbol, project from the curved roof. The roof is decorated with a chariot seemingly at full speed, a Greek motif enlivened by the fact that the horses turn their heads in different directions. The seated couple in the gable ends are again Persian, and correspond with a similar dynastic pair in one of the pediments of the Nereid Monument from Xanthos. In the pediments above these seated figures are pairs of sphinxes, traditional guardians of the dead.

On the uppermost level are two friezes showing on one side a wild animal hunt, including a fierce bear raised up on its hind legs, and on the other a battle between cavalry and foot-soldiers.

This sarcophagus was discovered at Xanthos by Sir Charles Fellows in 1838, and described as the 'Gothic-formed Horse Tomb'.


Payavan hauta

Hauta on myöhemmältä klassiselta kaudelta noin ajalta 375–362 eaa. [1] Se on saanut nimensä Payava-nimisestä henkilöstä, oletettavasti Ksanthoksen hallitsijasta, joka mainitaan sen piirtokirjoituksissa. Häntä ei kuitenkaan tunneta mistään muista lähteistä. [2] [3] Haudan muodossa on nähty intialaista vaikutusta. Persian valtakunta, jonka vallassa Lyykia oli haudan rakentamisaikaan, ulottui tuolloin idässä Intiaan saakka. [3] Haudan löysi Charles Fellows, [1] joka toi sen Lontooseen 1842–1843 monien muiden Ksanthoksen veistosten tavoin. [4]

Hautarakennelman korkeus oli alun perin noin 7,9 metriä. [2] Haudassa on harjakatto, ja sen alaosaa kiertää reliefifriisi. Siinä on myös lyykiankielisiä piirtokirjoituksia. [1] Pohjoissivun reliefi esittää miestä, joka seppelöi nuorta urheilijaa. Länsisivun reliefi esittää istuvaa persialaista, mahdollisesti satraappia. Eteläsivun reliefi esittää kahta aseistautunutta hahmoa, ja niiden yhteydessä on piirtokirjoitus, jossa esiintyy nimi Payava. Itäsivun reliefi esittää jalka- ja ratsuväen taistelua. Payava arvellaan ratsun selässä olevaksi mieheksi. Reliefin yhteydessä oleva piirtokirjoitus kertoo, että haudan rakensi Payava. [1] [2]

Harjakatto on koristeltu leijonilla sekä metsästystä ja taistelua esittävillä reliefeillä. Harjakaton päät ja päätykolmioiden reliefit esittävät istuvia pareja sekä sfinksejä. [1]


Reliquary [ edit ]

Unplaced sacred treasures are held in the nation's reliquary and confer no benefits, but cannot be taken through desecration. Treasures in the reliquary will be listed as being in the country generally rather than in any specific territory can be placed in owned holy sites of any deity in the pantheon, as long as there are altar slots remaining.

Treasures in another country's reliquary can only be taken by annexation, unless its owner decides to take it out of the reliquary and place it in a holy site. If a country is annexed by conquest, the conqueror will seize most of the treasures in the reliquary, although if the annexed country has more than 2 treasures in the reliquary some will be spirited away to another country in diplomatic range (if the reliquary has 3 treasures, 1 will escape if there are 4 or more, 2 will escape, with all the rest taken by the conqueror). Note that treasures in holy sites do not count towards the number of treasures in the reliquary, and will always be transferred along with their territories. Diplomatic annexation will instead transfer all reliquary treasures to the overlord, regardless of how many treasures there are in the reliquary, and is a more reliable (if slower) way to take another country's reliquary.

Clicking on the reliquary icon in the religion screen will show a list of all the treasures owned by the country, including both those placed in all holy sites as well as those stored in the reliquary (identifiable as currently generically in the country as opposed to a specific territory).


Slika:The tomb of Payava, a Lykian aristocrat, about 375-360 BC, from Xanthos, British Museum (9504934234).jpg

One of the most common forms of free-standing Lykian tombs is the barrel-vaulted sarcophagus, placed on a high base, with architectural features carved in stone to imitate wooden structures.

The British Museum has one complete barrel-vaulted tomb from Lykia. The occupant, Payava, is named in an inscription. The figures carved on the walls of the tomb combine Greek and Persian elements. On one of the shorter sides an athlete seems entirely Greek, and his bearded companion is dressed in Greek style, but on the adjacent side a dignified seated figure in full Persian dress is shown receiving a delegation. This may be the satrap (local ruler) Autophradates, who is named in the inscription as having made a presentation to Payava. On the other long side of the tomb is a scene of a battle. The second short side has two long-haired and bearded men, wearing cuirasses and a cloak. The inscription on this side names Payava, who may be one of the soldiers represented.

The heads and foreparts of lions, a favourite Lykian royal symbol, project from the curved roof. The roof is decorated with a chariot seemingly at full speed, a Greek motif enlivened by the fact that the horses turn their heads in different directions. The seated couple in the gable ends are again Persian, and correspond with a similar dynastic pair in one of the pediments of the Nereid Monument from Xanthos. In the pediments above these seated figures are pairs of sphinxes, traditional guardians of the dead.

On the uppermost level are two friezes showing on one side a wild animal hunt, including a fierce bear raised up on its hind legs, and on the other a battle between cavalry and foot-soldiers.

This sarcophagus was discovered at Xanthos by Sir Charles Fellows in 1838, and described as the 'Gothic-formed Horse Tomb'.


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