Information

Henry Gibbins T-AP-183 - History


Henry Gibbins

(T-AP 183: dp. 10,55fi: 1. 489'; b. 70'; dr. 2fi'; s. 16.5 k.;
T.C3~1N P&C)

Henry Gibbins (T-AP 183) was laid down as Biloxi under Maritime Commission contract by Ingalls Shipbuilding Corp., Pascagoula, Miss., 23 August 1941; launched 11 November 1942, sponsored by Mrs. H. I. Ingalls, Jr.
delivered to the Army Transportation Service 27 February 1943. She was renamed Henry Gibbins and served the Army as a troop transport during World War II.

She was acquired by the Navy from the Army 1 March 1950, and assigned to the Military Sea Transportation Service. During the Korean War she transported men and equipment from New York to Caribbean and Canal Zone ports, prior to their assignment in the Pacific. In 1953, Henry Gibbins operated on the New York to Bremerhaven, Germany, and Southampton, England, runs, making a total of 12 cruises to these European ports.

From 1954 until late 1959 the veteran transport steamed from New York to the Caribbean over 75 times, sailed to the Mediterranean on 3 occasions. and crossed the Atlantic to Northern Europe 8 times. During this time Henry Gibbins shuttled thousands of troops and tons of supplies between the United States and her foreign bases.

Henry Gibbins was transferred from MSTS to the Maritime Administration 2 December 1959, at Fort Schuyler N.Y., for service with the New York Maritime College.


Henry Gibbins T-AP-183 - History

Training Ship Gallery

Training Ships of the SUNY Maritime College

USS St. Marys (1875-1908)


A sloop of War built in 1844, USS ST. MARYS served in the Pacific Fleet during the Civil War and made some patrols against the slave trade. She was assigned to the City of New York as a training ship to the newly formed New York Nautical School by the Secretary of the Navy by Act of Congress. After thirty-three years of service, the longest of all the training ships, she was retired.

USS Newport (1908-1931)[PG-12]


At the end of the nineteenth century steam had begun to replace sails. The Newport built in 1895, with its triple expansion steam engine in addition to her sails, provided a far better training platform in the transition to the new age of steam then the St Marys. NEWPORT had seen action in Cuba during the Spanish American War.

USS Empire State (1931-1946)
[Former USS PROCYON (AG-11)]

One of the famous "Hog Islander" class vessels, PROCYON was built in 1919 as SHAUME. She served as flagship of the Navy's Pacific Fleet Supply Train from 1923-1930. More modern in design, she had a steam turbine and the latest in navigation equipment. At the beginning of World War II, the Empire State was reassigned to the US Maritime Commission, renamed the "AMERICAN PILOT" and served as a training ship for other maritime schools as well as the New York State Maritime Academy.

TS Empire State II (1945-1956)
[Former USS Hydrus (AKA 28)]


With the end of World War II, many newly built ships were available as training vessels. With twin screws, two engine rooms and turbo-electric power the HYDRUS built in 1944 was considered an ideal replacement for EMPIRE STATE I. She was christened as EMPIRE STATE II in an impressive ceremony attended by Governor Thomas E. Dewey.

TS Empire State III (1956-1959)
[Former USS MERCY (AH-8)]


A gallant ship which earned two battle stars while serving as a hospital ship with the Fifth and Seventh Fleets in the Pacific, MERCY was built in 1942. Her spaces were more suitable for the growing College student body than the former cargo transport. She was christened by Governor Harriman in a ceremony at Albany.

TSES Empire State IV(1959-1973)
[Former USNS HENRY GIBBINS (T-AP-183)]


Empire State III began to show signs of wear and tear as a result of the extensive use of the vessel in World War II and a replacement was sought. The USNS Henry Gibbins, was available and selected. The Gibbins, an Army transport, launched in 1942 as the Biloxi was delivered to the Army Transportation Service on February 27, 1943. She was renamed Henry Gibbins saw service in the European Theater during World War II. She was made famous in the book Haven which recounted the memorable voyage in 1944 when she carried 1000 Jewish Refugees from Italy to the United States under an order signed by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. After the war, the Gibbins transported war brides from Europe to the United States. In 1950, she was transferred to the Navy's Military Sea Transportation Service and was used extensively as a troop transport until 1959. In 1959, she was transferred to the Maritime Administration, renamed Empire State IV and assigned as the newest training ship for the New York Maritime College. She had excellent spaces for training ship use and also had two geared turbines. A scale model of the vessel, built by Barry Marsh '86, is on display in the Museum's Hall of Training.

TS Empire State V (1973-1990)
[Former USNS BARRETT (T-AP-196)]

Laid down in 1949 as the SS PRESIDENT JACKSON for the passenger service of American President Lines, she never entered that service. Instead she was commandeered by the government, renamed the USNS BARRETT for service as a transport in the Pacific during Korea and Vietnam. Younger than EMPIRE STATE IV, she provided better space and more modern equipment for the training of cadets.

TS Empire State VI (1990-Present)

Our current training ship was laid down as SS OREGON at Newport News Shipbuilding and Drydock Company, Newport News, Virginia. The vessel was built for States Steamship Company and was launched on September 16, 1961. She was delivered to her owners in February of 1962 for service in the Pacific trades. In the 1970s , the vessel was purchased by Moore McCormack Lines for the South American trade. She was renamed MORMACTIDE and operated by that company until 1982 when she was taken out of service. The vessel changed ownership on more time. United States Lines purchased the vessel but did not have the opportunity to operate her. She was turned over to the Federal Government and laid up in the Reserve Fleet in the James River in December 1982.

In November of 1988, the MORMACTIDE was taken under tow through the St. Lawrence Seaway to Bay Shipbuilding Corporation in Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin. There the vessel was converted to a public nautical training ship and re-named EMPIRE STATE VI. She was delivered to the State University of New York Maritime College on December 31, 1989.

Training Ship Pictures

The Maritime Industry Museum has available for purchase a limited collection of 8x10 black and white and colored pictures of the Training Ships used by the school. Black and white pictures cost $10 each plus shipping. The cost of colored pictures is $15 each plus shipping. Shipping charges are listed in Museum Gift Shop section. To order, please submit your name and address, your selection and include a check for the total made payable to the Maritime Industry Museum, 6 Pennyfield Avenue, Bronx, NY 10465.


Navy service [ edit | edit source ]

Henry Gibbins was acquired by the U.S. Navy from the U.S. Army on 1 March 1950, and assigned to the Military Sea Transportation Service. During the Korean War she transported men and equipment from New York to the Caribbean and Canal Zone ports, prior to their assignment in the Pacific. In 1953, Henry Gibbins operated on the New York to Bremerhaven, Germany, and Southampton, England, runs, making a total of 12 cruises to these European ports.

From 1954 until late 1959 the veteran transport steamed from New York to the Caribbean over 75 times, sailed to the Mediterranean on 3 occasions and crossed the Atlantic to Northern Europe 8 times. During this time Henry Gibbins shuttled thousands of troops and tons of supplies between the United States and her foreign bases.

Henry Gibbins was transferred from MSTS to the United States Maritime Administration 2 December 1959, at Fort Schuyler, New York, for service with the New York Maritime College. The college named her TS Empire State IV and she retained that name until being transferred to the Massachusetts Maritime Academy in 1973. At that time she was renamed USTS Bay State.

During the winter of 1976-77, one of the coldest in fifty years, the Bay State suffered serious ice damage to her hull at her berth in Buzzards Bay at the southern end of the Cape Cod Canal. The hull plates were repaired and the ship continued to serve as a training vessel for two more years. In the summer of 1977 she carried cadets to Europe. In the summer of 1978 she made a training cruise to the Mediterranean. The vessel was returned to the Maritime Administration after her final training cruise in 1978. Between the hull damage she had sustained in 1977, her age, and an increase in Massachusetts Maritime Academy's enrollment, she no longer suited the Academy's requirements.


Henry Gibbins T-AP-183 - History

This USNS Henry Gibbins T-AP-183 License Plate Frame is proudly made in the USA at our facilities in Scottsboro, Alabama. Each of our MilitaryBest U.S. Navy Frames feature top and bottom Poly Coated Aluminum strips that are printed using sublimation which gives these quality automobile military frames a beautiful high gloss finish.

Please check your state and local regulations for compatibility of these Navy Frames for use on your vehicle.

A percentage of the sale of each MilitaryBest item is forwarded to the licensing departments of each respective branch of service in support of the MWR (Morale, Welfare, & Recreation) program. These payments are made by either ALL4U LLC or the wholesaler from where the item originated. Our team thanks you for your service and your support of these programs.

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USNS Henry Gibbins (T-AP-183)

USNS Henry Gibbins (T-AP-183) was a troop transport that served with the United States Military Sea Transportation Service (MSTS) during the 1950s. Prior to her MSTS service, she served as US Army transport USAT Henry Gibbins during World War II. She later served with the New York Maritime Academy as TS Empire State IV and with the Massachusetts Maritime Academy as USTS Bay State.

Henry Gibbins was one of four ships planned for the United States Lines North Atlantic service and ordered under Maritime Commission contract from the Ingalls Shipbuilding Company of Pascagoula, Mississippi with the allocated name of American Banker. Laid down on 23 August 1941 she was launched on 11 November 1942 as Biloxi. She was delivered to the Army Transportation Service 27 February 1943 as Henry Gibbins and served the Army as a troop transport during World War II.


Compromise Tariff of 1833

Summary and Definition of the Compromise Tariff of 1833
Definition and Summary: The Compromise Tariff of 1833 was proposed by Henry Clay with the cooperation of John C. Calhoun to defuse the gravity of the Nullification Crisis. The Compromise Tariff was passed by Congress in March 1833 and gradually lowered the tariff rates over the next 10 years until, in 1842, they would be as low as they were by the Tariff Act of 1816. The Compromise Tariff ended the Nullification Crisis.

Compromise Tariff of 1833 for kids: What were the Protective Tariffs?
What were the Protective Tariffs and why did they cause so much conflict? The Protective Tariffs were taxes placed on goods imported from foreign countries. The Protective Tariffs enabled the nation to raise money and at the same time protect a nation's goods from cheaper priced foreign items. The Tariff of 1816 placed a 20-25% tax on all foreign goods and was deemed acceptable by the North and South. The Tariff of 1824 raised duties still higher, with a 35% duty on imported iron, wool, cotton, and hemp. In 1828 the tariffs were raised to 50% and referred to as the Tariff of Abominations by the outraged states in the South who strongly resented the protection the increase in duties gave the North at the expense of the South. The protective tariffs meant that the South paid higher prices on goods produced by the North and the increased taxes on British imports made it difficult for Britain to pay for the cotton they imported from the South.

Compromise Tariff of 1833 for kids: Nullification Crisis History
John C. Calhoun, the vice president, had written the South Carolina Exposition objecting to the 1828 Tariff of Abominations, clarifying the Nullification Doctrine and fuelling the Nullification Crisis, contending that the tariff was unconstitutional. . The vice president resigned and the South Carolina legislature passed an Ordinance of Nullification declaring the Protective Tariffs null and void within the state borders of South Carolina. This 'treasonous act' resulted in President Jackson passing the 1833 Force Bill authorizing the use of military force against any state that resisted the tariff laws.

What did the Compromise Tariff of 1833 do?
T his was the dire situation the nation was facing when the Compromise Tariff of 1833 was proposed by Henry Clay. The Compromise Tariff of 1833 gradually lowered the protective tariff rates over the next 10 years until, in 1842, they would be as low as they were by the Tariff Act of 1816. The Compromise Tariff ended the Nullification Crisis.

Who wrote the Compromise Tariff of 1833?
John C. Calhoun cooperated with Henry Clay to drive a Compromise Tariff through Congress. The introduction of protective tariffs had played a vital part in the economic plan for the nation advocated in 'Henry Clay's American System'. The Compromise Tariff proposed by Henry Clay was passed by Congress in March 1833.

Significance of the Compromise Tariff of 1833
The situation in the country was extremely serious. South Carolina had threatened to secede if the federal government attempted to collect the protective tariff duties, the President had threatened military action. The Significance of the Compromise Tariff of 1833 was:

● The South Carolina state convention reassembled and formally rescinded the Ordinance of Nullification
● The Nullification Crisis ended
● The American System, devised by Henry Clay, continued to meet the requirements of the new, expanding and independent nation
● The Compromise Tariff made it impossible to reduce duties and therefore the money surplus that occurred during during the Bank War.

Compromise Tariff of 1833 for kids
The info about the Compromise Tariff of 1833 provides interesting facts and important information about this important event that occured during the presidency of the 7th President of the United States of America.

Compromise Tariff of 1833 for kids - President Andrew Jackson Video
The article on the Compromise Tariff of 1833 provides an overview of one of the Important issues of his presidential term in office. The following Andrew Jackson video will give you additional important facts and dates about the political events experienced by the 7th American President whose presidency spanned from March 4, 1829 to March 4, 1837.

Compromise Tariff of 1833

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TSES IV - USNS Henry Gibbins

On August 23, 1941, in the shipyards of the Ingalls Shipbuilding Corporation in Pascagoula, Mississipi, the keel of a new ship, the BILOXI was laid down under a Maritime Commission contract. It was one of the four Ingalls C-3 type vessels designed and constructed as troopships. The BILOXI was launched on November 11, 1942, but never sailed under that name. Renamed HENRY GIBBINS, she was delivered to the War Department Army Transportation Service as T-AP-183 on February 27, 1943. She was the second ship to carry the name of Major General Henry Gibbins, the late Quartermaster General of the Army.

After voyages to Oran, Bora Bora and various ports in Australia, HENRY GIBBINS in September, 1943, began several months of uninterrupted service as a troop transport from New York to The European Theatre of Operations. Beginning in May, 1944, she sailed to Naples, Cherbourg, Marseilles, LeHavre, and Southampton until August, 1945. At that time she began operating between Boston and Marseilles, completing the last trip in December of 1945.

In 1944 President Roosevelt issued an order to bring 982 Holocaust refugees to the United States. The story of a secret mission by Ruth Gober who was a special assistant to Interior Secretary Harold Ickes, is told in the book Haven. It is the story of how Gober went to Naples, boarded HENRY GIBBINS, and brought back 982 refugees from the Holocaust. About 1,000 American soldiers who had been wounded in the battles of Anzio and Casino were also aboard. The trip to America was in a convoy of 29 ships including 16 warships. On each side of HENRY GIBBINS were ships carrying Nazi prisoners of war, giving added protection from German U-Boats. The refugees were taken to an internment camp in Oswego, NY, where they remained for the duration of the war.

In 1946 HENRY GIBBINS was converted by the Gibbons Engine & Machine Company to carry 452 military dependents from the United States to Europe. She also transported war brides from Europe to the United States. One such voyage was on March 7, 1946, when HENRY GIBBINS left Belfast with 314 wives and 140 children.

On March 1, 1950, she was transferred to the Navy and assigned to the Military Sea Transportation Service. During the Korean War she transported men and equipment from New York to Caribbean and Canal Zone ports prior to their assignment in the Pacific.

In 1953, HENRY GIBBINS operated on the New York to Bremerhaven, Germany, and Southampton, England, runs and made a total of 12 cruises to these European ports. From 1954 until late 1959 the HENRY GIBBINS steamed from New York to the Caribbean over 75 times, sailed to the Mediterranean on 3 occasions, and crossed the Atlantic to Northern Europe eight times. During this time HENRY GIBBINS shuttled thousands of troops and tons of supplies between the United States and her foreign bases.

HENRY GIBBONS was transferred from the Military Sea Transportation Service to the Maritime Administration on December 2, 1959, at Ft. Schuyler, NY for service with the New York Maritime College. She had excellent spaces for training ship uses and also had two geared turbines. At this time she was renamed EMPIRE STATE IV and served as a training ship for the Academy until 1973.

In 1974 the TS EMPIRE STATE IV was renamed BAY STATE III and became a cadet training ship of the Massachusetts Maritime Academy at Buzzard's Bay, Massachusetts, until March, 1980 when she was placed in the James River Reserve Fleet and finally sold for scrap in January, 1981. Her final voyage was in 1982 to Kearney, New Jersey, where under her fourth name she ended her days.


Battle of Towton

Richard’s son Edward, Earl of March, succeeded his father. He also took over where Richard left off against the Lancastrians.

In the middle of winter 1461, his York forces defeated the Lancastrians at the Battle of Mortimer’s Cross. Weeks later, they were crushed by the Lancastrians at the Second Battle of St. Albans. It was here King Henry was rescued and reunited with his queen, but Edward wouldn’t give up.

In March of 1461, Edward confronted the Lancastrian army in a snowstorm in the middle of a field near Towton, North Yorkshire. It’s believed over 50,000 men engaged in brutal fighting and around 28,000 died.

The Battle of Towton was the bloodiest one-day battle in England’s history. The Yorks emerged victorious and Henry, Margaret and their son fled to Scotland leaving Edward King of England.


59 Years Ago, They Fled To an Internment Camp

It has been nearly 60 years, but to many of the Jews kept at an upstate New York refugee camp during World War II, the trauma is still too painful to discuss. Others, however, cannot say enough.

Only 134 people survive from the group of nearly 1,000 who were shipped from Italy to an Army camp in Oswego by the United States government in the summer of 1944, and many of them were gathered here today at the home of Judy Goldsmith, daughter of a deceased camp survivor, to reconnect and reminisce.

The truth about Jewish internment in the United States is a little-known chapter in the history of World War II, and Ms. Goldsmith said she had opened her home to the former refugees as a way of honoring one of them -- her father, who never spoke about those 18 months in upstate New York, and of keeping the story alive.

For Walter Greenberg, 70, talking about a childhood running from the Nazis was easy. But it took him nearly four decades to speak about living behind a fence at Fort Ontario.

''Iɽ known what prison was. Iɽ lived behind bars in Italy. But Iɽ never known freedom,'' Mr. Greenberg said. ''In America, I looked out at the rest of the world and I saw normal people with everyday lives, and I felt deceived.''

Not that it was a terrible experience. Compared with living one step ahead of the SS it was heaven, the survivors said. Each family had its own barracks, plenty of food and eventually access to education. After a one-month quarantine, Mr. Greenberg and the other children were allowed to attend classes at Oswego's elementary and high schools. Social workers came to teach their parents English. And the people of Oswego were endlessly generous.

Nevertheless, the experience of being rounded up and enclosed behind a fence topped with barbed wire left its mark.

''They came here thinking they would be welcomed,'' Ms. Goldsmith said. 'ɺnd these were the only people that America -- this big, powerful country -- even tried to save. It's pretty shameful.''

In Washington, knowledge of concentration camp realities had been documented, but isolationist government policy had barred most European Jews from entering the country. In June 1944, however, after the Allies liberated Italy, President Franklin D. Roosevelt commissioned an Army ship, the Henry Gibbins, to transport the refugees to America. On July 21, 59 years ago, the ship left Naples, arriving in New York on Aug. 3.

Those hiding in Italy who had already escaped concentration camps were accepted first. After these came families with young children. Three thousand people applied for just under 1,000 slots.

Ruth Gruber, who, as a special assistant to Interior Secretary Harold L. Ickes, had been dispatched to Italy to escort the refugees, said an American official charged with choosing among them ''went to pieces.''

''I can't go on playing God how can I choose who's going to live and who's going to die?'' the official said, according to Ms. Gruber, 91.

The final tally from the ship's log of 983 refugees included Jews from 18 countries and 108 Roman Catholics, Protestants and Russian and Greek Orthodox. Listed upon their arrival in New York as ''U.S. Army casual baggage,'' each had to sign papers promising to return to Europe when the war was over. Fewer than 100 actually did.

Abraham Dresdner, now 74, and his eight siblings were among those selected. His brother Rudy also attended the reunion. By the time he boarded the Henry Gibbins, Abraham Dresdner, 15, had been in and out of three French concentration camps and had seen other children running from the Nazis, parts of their bodies already blown off. But boarding a boxcar for an unknown town in central New York State created its own special fear.

''Of course we were scared,'' he said. '➯ter all, trains were not a popular thing for us in Europe.''

At several points along the journey from Naples to Oswego, however, the refugees were greeted by Red Cross workers bearing milk, cookies and ice cream. ''We had all this food, so we knew it wasn't a concentration camp,'' Mr. Dresdner said.

Without official standing in America, the refugees were detained for seven months after the war was over until President Harry S. Truman allowed them to apply for citizenship.

By then, 23 babies had been born, one couple had married and at least two teenage boys had managed to sneak out and hitchhike to Manhattan for a day of adventure. All of their stories have been captured at the Safe Haven Museum and Education Center in the former Fort Ontario administration building, which opened recently.

''This was a story that for so long was untold,'' said Judy Coe-Rapaport, president of the museum's fund-raising arm. 'ɺnd it really should have been told.''


Navy service

Henry Gibbins was acquired by the U.S. Navy from the U.S. Army on 1 March 1950, and assigned to the Military Sea Transportation Service. During the Korean War she transported men and equipment from New York to the Caribbean and Canal Zone ports, prior to their assignment in the Pacific. In 1953, Henry Gibbins operated on the New York to Bremerhaven, Germany, and Southampton, England, runs, making a total of 12 cruises to these European ports.

From 1954 until late 1959 the veteran transport steamed from New York to the Caribbean over 75 times, sailed to the Mediterranean on 3 occasions and crossed the Atlantic to Northern Europe 8 times. During this time Henry Gibbins shuttled thousands of troops and tons of supplies between the United States and her foreign bases.

Henry Gibbins was transferred from MSTS to the United States Maritime Administration 2 December 1959, at Fort Schuyler, New York, for service with the New York Maritime College. The college named her TS Empire State IV and she retained that name until being transferred to the Massachusetts Maritime Academy in 1973. At that time she was renamed USTS Bay State.

During the winter of 1976-77, one of the coldest in fifty years, the Bay State suffered serious ice damage to her hull at her berth in Buzzards Bay at the southern end of the Cape Cod Canal. The hull plates were repaired and the ship continued to serve as a training vessel for two more years. In the summer of 1977 she carried cadets to Europe. In the summer of 1978 she made a training cruise to the Mediterranean.

The vessel was returned to the Maritime Administration after her final training cruise in 1978. Between the hull damage she had sustained in 1977, her age, and an increase in Massachusetts Maritime Academy's enrollment, she no longer suited the Academy's requirements.


Watch the video: Looking Back (November 2021).